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200 Pesos 2019, Mexico

no number in katalog -
Years of issue: 02.09.2019
Signatures: Junta de Gobierno: Irene Espinosa Cantellano, Cajero Principal: Alejandro Alegre Rabiela
Serie: 2017-2019 Historical Identity and Natural Heritage Issue
Specimen of: 30.01.2019
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 139 x 65
Printer: Banco de México, Mexico

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

200 Pesos 2019




Bell of freedom or liberty bell (please, read obverse description). Denomination 500.


200 Pesos 2019

Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo

The engraving on banknote is made after the portrait of Miguel Hidalgo.

Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor (8 May 1753 - 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo, was a Mexican Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.

As a priest, Hidalgo served in a church in Dolores, Mexico. After his arrival, he was shocked by the poverty he found. He tried to help the poor by showing them how to grow olives and grapes, but in Mexico, growing these crops was discouraged or prohibited by the authorities due to Spanish imports of the items. In 1810 he gave the famous speech, "The Cry of Dolores", calling upon the people to protect the interest of their King Fernando VII (held captive by Napoleon) by revolting against the European-born Spaniards who had overthrown the Spanish Viceroy.

He marched across Mexico and gathered an army of nearly 90,000 poor farmers and Mexican civilians who attacked and killed both Spanish Peninsulares and Criollo elites, even though Hidalgo's troops lacked training and were poorly armed. These troops ran into a clan of 6,000 well trained and armed Spanish troops, and most fled or were killed at the Battle of Calderón Bridge on 17 January 1811, Hidalgo was executed by a firing squad on 30 July 1811 at Chihuahua, Chihuahua.

Dolores Hidalgo cathedral

A cathedral in Dolores, Mexico is a famous landmark of Mexico’s Independence movement. On September 16, 1810, the parish priest Miguel Hidalgo called his Indian parishioners to revolt by ringing the bell in this church’s bell tower. Hidalgo was unsuccessful, but by 1824 the movement he started would eventually result in an independent Mexico.

The original liberty bell that now hangs above the main entrance to the National palace is rung on every eve (11 O'clock evening time) of September 16 by the president of the republic, who then shouts a revised version of the patriot's cry: "¡Viva México!" as a commemoration of the Mexican's independence from Spain. (

Campana de la LibertadLiberty bell of Mexico.

José María Morelos y Pavón (September 30, 1765, City of Valladolid, now Morelia, Michoacán - December 22, 1815, San Cristóbal Ecatepec, State of México), who in 1810 joined Miguel Hidalgo's independence movement and in 1813 convened and installed the Chilpancingo Congress. Before this assembly the “Sentiments of the Nation” were presented, a document in which Morelos set aside his authority and declared himself “servant of the nation.” In addition, the document established, among other propositions, independence, a republican regime, the prohibition of slavery, and equality for all citizens. In 1814, the Congress finished its work and promulgated the Constitution of Apatzingán, Mexico's first constitution.

Under the portraits is an inscription: "Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla y José María Morelos y Pavón, héroes de la Independencia de México."

In English: "Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla y José María Morelos y Pavón, Heroes of the Independence of Mexico."

Denominations in numerals are in three corners. In lower right corner in words.


200 Pesos 2019

The image of a royal eagle on this side of the banknote represents Mexico’s scrubland and desert ecosystem found at the Pinacate and Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve in Sonora, designated by UNESCO as World Heritage Site.

Aquila chrysaetos

The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere. It is the most widely distributed species of eagle. Like all eagles, it belongs to the family Accipitridae. These birds are dark brown, with lighter golden-brown plumage on their napes. Immature eagles of this species typically have white on the tail and often have white markings on the wings. Golden eagles use their agility and speed combined with powerful feet and massive, sharp talons to snatch up a variety of prey, mainly hares, rabbits, and marmots and other ground squirrels. Golden eagles maintain home ranges or territories that may be as large as 200 km2 (77 sq. mi.). They build large nests in cliffs and other high places to which they may return for several breeding years. Most breeding activities take place in the spring; they are monogamous and may remain together for several years or possibly for life. Females lay up to four eggs, and then incubate them for six weeks. Typically, one or two young survive to fledge in about three months. These juvenile golden eagles usually attain full independence in the fall, after which they wander widely until establishing a territory for themselves in four to five years.

Once widespread across the Holarctic, it has disappeared from many areas which are now more heavily populated by humans. Despite being extirpated from or uncommon in some of its former range, the species is still widespread, being present in sizeable stretches of Eurasia, North America, and parts of North Africa. It is the largest and least populous of the five species of true accipitrid to occur as a breeding species in both the Palearctic and the Nearctic.

For centuries, this species has been one of the most highly regarded birds used in falconry. Due to its hunting prowess, the golden eagle is regarded with great mystic reverence in some ancient, tribal cultures. It is one of the most extensively studied species of raptor in the world in some parts of its range, such as the Western United States and the Western Palearctic.

Gran Desierto de Altar

At the bottom, on foreground, is Gran Desierto de Altar.

The Gran Desierto de Altar is one of the major sub-ecoregions of the Sonoran Desert, located in the State of Sonora, in northwest Mexico. It includes the only active erg dune region in North America. The desert extends across much of the northern border of the Gulf of California, spanning more than 100 kilometers (62 mi.) east to west and over 50 kilometers (31 mi.) north to south. It constitutes the largest continuous wilderness area within the Sonoran Desert.

The eastern portion of the area contains the volcanic Pinacate Peaks region; together with the western portion, the area forms the El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.


In desert are Saguaros visible.

The saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) is a tree-like cactus species in the monotypic genus Carnegiea that can grow to be over 12 meters (40 feet) tall. It is native to the Sonoran Desert in Arizona, the Mexican state of Sonora, and the Whipple Mountains and Imperial County areas of California. The saguaro blossom is the state wildflower of Arizona. Its scientific name is given in honor of Andrew Carnegie. In 1994, Saguaro National Park, near Tucson, Arizona, was designated to help protect this species and its habitat.

Some saguaros are cristate or "crested" due to fasciation.

Saguaros have a relatively long lifespan, often exceeding 150 years. They may grow their first side arm around 75–100 years of age, but some never grow any arms. Arms are developed to increase the plant's reproductive capacity, as more apices lead to more flowers and fruit.

A saguaro can absorb and store considerable amounts of rainwater, visibly expanding in the process, while slowly using the stored water as needed. This characteristic enables the saguaro to survive during periods of drought. The saguaro cactus is a common image in Mexican culture and American Southwest films.

Sierra Pinacate

Above the desert are Pinacate Peaks.

The Pinacate Peaks (Sierra Pinacate, O'odham: Cuk Doʼag) are a group of volcanic peaks and cinder cones located mostly in the Mexican state of Sonora along the international border adjacent to the U.S. state of Arizona, surrounded by the vast sand dune field of the Gran Desierto de Altar, at the desert's southeast.

The Spanish name for the Pinacate Peaks geographic feature is the Sierra Pinacate, which is used in their homeland of Mexico.

The Pinacate Peaks lie just north of the fishing resort of Puerto Peñasco. The tallest of the peaks is Cerro del Pinacate (also called Volcan Santa Clara), elevation 3,904 feet (1,190 m.). The Mexican Spanish word pinacate is derived from the Nahuatl word for the endemic desert stink beetle, pinacatl.

The volcanoes here have erupted here sporadically since about 4 million years ago, probably in association with the opening of the Gulf of California. The most recent volcanic activity was about 11,000 years ago. The Pinacate Desert is home to the largest sand dunes of the Americas.

A variety of flora and fauna occur in the Pinacate Mountains, including the sculptural Elephant Tree, Bursera microphylla.

Padre Eusebio Kino, founder of many Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert, explored here in 1698 and several times later.

NASA sent astronauts here starting in 1965 for geologic training, given the similarity of the terrain to the lunar surface, and included training models of lunar surface equipment. Apollo 14's Alan Shepard and Ed Mitchell, and Apollo 17's Jack Schmitt trained here in Feb. 1970.

The El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve is a biosphere reserve, in the spanish language Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar, managed by the Mexican Federal Government's SEMARNAT - the Ministry of the Environment and Natural Resources, in collaboration with the government of the State of Sonora's IMADES agency.

On right side is an inscription: "Ecosistema de desiertos y matorrales, con él águila real en la Reserva de la Biosfera El Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar en Sonora, patrimonio natural de la humanidad."

In English: "Desert and scrub ecosystem, with it the golden eagle in the El Pinacate and Gran Desierto de Altar Biosphere Reserve in Sonora, natural heritage of humanity."

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and top left corners. In lower left corner in words.


Banknote Serie G.