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1000 Marka 1922, Estonia

in Krause book Number: 59a
Years of issue: 15.08.1922 - 01.01.1932
Edition: 1 020 000
Signatures: E. Aule, J. Sihver, L. Sepp
Serie: 1922 Issue
Specimen of: 1922
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 159 x 95
Printer: Das Elsnerhaus, Berlin-Kreuzberg, Oranienstraße 140/141/142

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1000 Marka 1922

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Unclear pattern.

Avers:

1000 Marka 1922

Denominations, patterned frame and rosettes.

Revers:

1000 Marka 1922

Tallinn Tallinn Tallinn

The catalog of Estonian banknotes says that the vignette shows a view of the port of Tallinn. Maybe this is so, in fact - there is a tugboat, a steamer, and sailing ships.

But, to be more precise, I would say that this is a view of the city's port and the Old Town. The spiers of the Old City, visible on the banknote, are designated by me with numbers - read about them below!

By the way, on old postcards of Revel (Tallinn), the city, from the side of the harbor, was protected by a kind of breakwater, or is it a lighthouse pier. So far, I have not found more detailed information on this breakwater.

Tallinn Tallinn Tallinn Tallinn

Now about the spiers, by numbers:

Tallinn

1) St. Olaf’s Church or St. Olav's Church (Estonian: Oleviste kirik) in Tallinn, Estonia, is believed to have been built in the 12th century and to have been the center for old Tallinn's Scandinavian community before Denmark conquered Tallinn in 1219. Its dedication relates to King Olaf II of Norway (also known as Saint Olaf, 995–1030). The first known written records referring to the church date back to 1267. It was extensively rebuilt during the XIV century.

St. Olaf's Church was originally part of the united western tradition of Christianity, whose polity continues in the Roman Catholic Church today. However, during the Reformation the church became part of the Lutheran tradition. Eventually proving surplus to the requirements of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tallinn, St. Olaf's Church became a Baptist church in 1950. The Baptist congregation continues to meet at St. Olaf's today.

From 1944 until 1991, the Soviet KGB used St. Olaf's Church's spire as a radio tower and surveillance point.

In 1590, the total height of the church tower was 115.35 - 125 m. The tower has been hit by lightning around 10 times, and the whole church has burned down three times throughout its known existence. According to a source it may have been the tallest building in the world from 1549 to 1625, but this claim is disputed. After several rebuildings, its spire is now 123.8 meters tall.

Tallinn

2) St. Mary's Cathedral, Tallinn (Estonian: Toomkirik, full name: Tallinna Neitsi Maarja Piiskoplik Toomkirik, German: Ritter- und Domkirche, English: The Cathedral of Saint Mary the Virgin in Tallinn, also known as Dome Church) is a cathedral church located on Toompea Hill in Tallinn, Estonia. Originally established by Danes in the XIII century, it is the oldest church in Tallinn and mainland Estonia. It is also the only building in Toompea which survived a XVII-century fire.

Originally a Roman Catholic cathedral, it became Lutheran in 1561 and now belongs to the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Tallinn, the spiritual leader of the Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church, and chairman of that church's governing synod.

Tallinn

3) The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (Estonian: Aleksander Nevski katedraal, Russian: Александро-Невский собор (Таллинн)) is an orthodox cathedral in the Tallinn Old Town, Estonia. It was built to a design by Mikhail Preobrazhensky in a typical Russian Revival style between 1894 and 1900, during the period when the country was part of the Russian Empire. The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral is Tallinn's largest and grandest orthodox cupola cathedral. It is dedicated to Saint Alexander Nevsky who in 1242 won the Battle of the Ice on Lake Peipus, in the territorial waters of present-day Estonia. The late Russian patriarch, Alexis II, started his priestly ministry in the church.

The Alexander Nevsky Cathedral crowns the hill of Toompea which is one of several places where according to legend the Estonian folk hero Kalevipoeg's father Kalev is said to have been buried. As the USSR was officially non-religious, many churches including this cathedral were left to decline. The church has been meticulously restored since Estonia regained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991.

Tallinn

4) The Tallinn Town Hall (Estonian: Tallinna raekoda) is a building in the Tallinn Old Town, Estonia, next to the Town Hall Square. It is the oldest town hall in the whole of the Baltic region and Scandinavia.[citation needed]

The building is located in the south side of the ancient market square and is 36.8 meters long. The west wall is 14.5 meters in length, and the east is 15.2 meters. It is a two-storey building with a spacious basement.

The vane Old Thomas (Estonian: Vana Toomas) on the top of the Town Hall's tower, that has been there since 1530, has become one of the symbols of Tallinn. The height of the tower is 64 metres. Tallinn Town Hall is located on the Town Hall Square, where the streets Kullassepa street, Dunkri street and Vanaturu kael lead. One of the shortest streets of Tallinn is Raekoja tänav, which is located behind the Town Hall.

The town hall was built by what was then the market square. The town hall square got its current length in the 1370s. Covered with a board roof in 1374, the town hall was probably a single-decked stone building with a basement. The attic was used as a storeroom. The facade of this long and narrow building is now a rear wall of the arcade, where you can still see some of the simple statuary framed windows from this time.

A Town Hall with a huge meeting room was firstly mentioned in a Real Estate book in 1322 as a "consistorium", which had a giant warehouse (cellarium civitatis) for that time. Some walls in the eastern part of the modern town hall and seven windows in the basement and on the ground floor have remained from that time. In 1364, it was called a playhouse (teatrum) and in 1372 a town hall (rathus).

The Town council controlled the town's political, economic and partly even parlour action. The Town Hall was often a courthouse and a place to introduce goods; sometimes it was even used as a room for theatre, as you can conclude from the word "teatrum". Therefore, it was very important to be placed in the heart of the town and to look representative.

Although the city power worked in the Town Hall until 1970, it still holds the role of a representational building of a city administration and welcomes visitors as a concert venue and a museum, where you can get to know the centuries-long historical and architectural value of the Tallinn Town Hall. In conjunction with the Tallinn Old Town, the Town Hall has been on the UNESCO world Heritage Sites list since 1997. In 2004, Tallinn Town Hall celebrated its 600th birthday.

In 2005, the Tallinn town hall received a high recognition – 2nd prize, in the category of conservation of Architectural Heritage for the revival of the last surviving Gothic Town Hall in Northern Europe and the exemplary revealing of all the historical layers of this icon of the great European tradition of municipal power. The prize was presented to Elvira Liiver Holmström, the director of Tallinn Town Hall by Queen Sofía of Spain at the European Heritage Awards Ceremony which was held on 27 June 2006 at the Palacio Real de El Pardo, Madrid. Europa Nostra medal was presented to Tallinn Town Hall at the ceremony on 15 September 2006 by Siim Kallas, Vice President of the European Commission, and Thomas Willoch, Europa Nostra board member.

Tallinn

5) St. Nicholas Church (Estonian: Niguliste kirik, German: Nikolaikirche) is a medieval former church in Tallinn, Estonia. It was dedicated to Saint Nicholas, the patron of the fishermen and sailors. Originally built in the XIII century, it was partially destroyed in the Soviet bombing of Tallinn in World War II. It has since been restored and today houses the Niguliste Museum, a branch of the Art Museum of Estonia, focusing mainly on ecclesiastical art from the Middle Ages onward. The former church is also used as a concert hall.

Tallinn

6) Kiek in de Kök (Low German: Peep into the Kitchen) is an artillery tower in Tallinn, Estonia, built in 1475. It gained the name Kiek in de Kök from the ability of tower occupants to see into kitchens of nearby houses. The tower is 38 m. (125 ft.) high and has walls 4 m. (13 ft.) thick. Cannon balls dating back to 1577 are still embedded in its outer walls.

Throughout its working life, the tower was extensively remodeled. Work in the 16th and 17th centuries saw the two lowest floors become hidden by earth works and the upper floors receive new gun openings and the uppermost floor a new outer wall and ceiling. By 1760, the tower had become obsolete. At this time it became a repository for archives and some floors were converted to apartments.

XX century restoration work saw the tower and surrounding area returned to a more historical look. The tower now serves as a museum and photographic gallery.

Lower is an inscription: "Eesti Pangal on Eesti Vabariigis Pangatähtede valjaandmiseks ainuoigus" - "Estonian Bank has the exclusive right to issue Banknotes in the Republic of Estonia".

A little lower of first inscription is another inscription: "Pangataht on Taielikult Kindlustatud Panga Varandustega ja Pangale Pandiksantud Väärtustega" - "The Banknotes will be fully Insured by the Bank's Assets and the Values".

Comments:

Designer: R. Nyman.

Banknote paper is made in Germany.

Das Elsnerhaus Das Elsnerhaus

Old building of the Banknote Printer in Berlin.

The Elsnerhaus, also Elsner-Haus, is an office and commercial building in Berlin-Kreuzberg, Oranienstrasse 140/141/142, on the edge of the historic newspaper district of Berlin. The building was built in 1912-1914 for Otto Elsner Buchdruckerei und Verlagsbuchhandlung AG and, despite some changes, is a listed building.

Every story has its beginning. Every story has an end. And often the final chapter is the most impressive.

1871 Wilhelminian era for Otto Elsner - The confident step from typesetter to principal. Working faithfully with small resources, he carefully laid the foundation stone. Recognition for his performance is his first reward. Iron hard work in Gutenberg's service and commercial honesty are the law of his future life. Action radius: Moritzplatz in Berlin. Two presses and a few helpers.

1879 already five presses, trade exhibition, color prints, honorary prizes, own publishing house. First small steps, then larger ones. Never daring. Careful but brave.

In 1910, the founder's efforts were a beautiful entrepreneurial vision of the future. So it says in the book for the 50th anniversary. It is a good year in Elsner. A thousand employees and a hundred printing presses.

1912 to 1914: The economic world of the imperial capital congratulates on a sensational new building: the Elsnerhaus in Oranienstrasse 140-142. Berlin became a cosmopolitan city of printing, the press, theater, literature and in the middle of it the Elsnerhaus with its diverse and formative activities.

In 1939, with the beginning of the Second World War, the printing presses did not stand still for the time being. Until the bombs turn what was created in sixty-eight years into rubble and dust.

Das Elsnerhaus

Comparable young man, healthy returned from the war, is called Gerhard Elsner and rebuilds what has been destroyed. At the new beginning "Druckerei im Elsnerhaus". From 1956 "Elsnerdruck". Just like it used to. A progressive idea is the successor to the old venerable company logo. Graphic aggressiveness and clarity characterize the new Elsner printing symbol. Fourteen thousand cubic meters of rubble are removed. A new building is planned. Lützowstrasse 107-112. Eleven thousand square meters of war-torn soil. Another Elsner house. This is how the Elsner future gets a new home. The print shop remained in Berlin until 2003. Then the new owner Bertelsmann transfers them to his plant in Pößneck. (Elsnerdruck .ger)