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20 Perpera 1914. 17 mm. Podgorica, Montenegro

in Krause book Number: M111
Years of issue: 1916
Signatures: Предсједник Главне државне контроле: Филип Јерговић, Министар Финасиja: Ристo Поповић
Serie: The Imperial and Royal Minister of War general government of Austro-Hungary
Specimen of: 25.07.1914
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 158 х 104
Printer: Banque de France, Chamalieres

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20 Perpera 1914. 17 mm. Podgorica




20 Perpera 1914. 17 mm. Podgorica

coat of arms

Purple hand-applied seal (width 17 mm.) with the inscription - Podgorica.

After the Battle of Mojkovac, in January 1916, Montenegro surrendered, the Montenegrin army was disarmed, and an administrative occupation power was established in Cetinje. Soon the Montenegrin money was canceled and devalued with the affixed seal, in the regional commandant's offices in Cetinje, Niksic, Podgorica, Pljevlja, Stari Bar and Pecs. The inspection was carried out with the stamp "K.u K. MILITAR GENERALGOUVERNEMENT IN MONTENEGRO KREISKOMMANDO" next to the name of the city in which the stamping took place. It is estimated that less than a third of the Perpers in circulation were stamped, as people chose to stamp them only as a last resort. Montenegrin paper money is in great demand and is highly prized in collections.

In the background is the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Montenegro.

The coat of arms depicts a two-headed eagle in flight, which repeats the emblem of the Petrovic dynasty (the first royal dynasty of Montenegro) and the dynastic coat of arms of the ruling Byzantine dynasty of the Paleologos. The coat of arms symbolizes the unity and relationship of the Church and the State. A similar motive was also used by the rulers of the Zeta principality - the Chernoevich dynasty. The appearance is also associated with the coat of arms of the Russian Empire, with which the Montenegrin royal family maintained close ties.

A leopard lion with a raised right paw symbolizes the power of the bishop, and is also one of the allegories of the Resurrection, and of Christ the Almighty himself. This symbol comes from the coat of arms of Venice, which had a significant impact on the development of the region in the Middle Ages.

When Montenegro regained independence, it became a theocratic state in 1516, where the highest ecclesiastical and secular power passed from uncle to nephew from the Petrovic-Njegos family. This was due to the consolidation of the Montenegrin Christians against the Gentile Turks. For this reason, the leadership of the Church was reflected in the heraldry of the time. The eagle and the lion, adjacent on the coat of arms, symbolized the unity and inextricable relationship of state and church power.

After Danilo I Petrovich established secular princely power in 1852, the leopard lion was moved below the eagle, although the initials of the ruler were still located on the shield with the leopard lion.

On August 28, 1910, in the jubilee year of the 50th anniversary of his reign, Prince Nikola I Petrovich proclaimed the principality of Montenegro a kingdom, and became its first king. The coat of arms of the country was changed again: the eagle turned from gold to silver; the shield on which the lion was depicted turned completely red, and the princely crown was replaced by the royal one. In addition, the coat of arms began to be depicted under the purple ermine royal mantle.

In 1917, according to the Corfu Declaration, the merger of Montenegro with Serbia was announced. On November 26, 1918, Montenegro officially became part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. This state and legal act was unilateral and meant the overthrow of the Monarchy. The efforts of the Montenegrin diplomats at the Versailles Conference remained in vain, the country's international legal sovereignty was lost for a long time. The coat of arms of Montenegro ceased to be the emblem of a sovereign state.

The coat of arms of Royal Montenegro was officially revived in 1941 - under the conditions of the Italian occupation - and banned in 1944 by the victorious Titovites.

Podgorica (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Подгорица, [pǒdɡoritsa]; lit. '"[little area] below the mountain"') is the capital and largest city of Montenegro.

The city was known as Titograd (Cyrillic: Титоград) between 1946 and 1992 - in the period that Montenegro formed, as the Socialist Republic of Montenegro, part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) - in honour of Marshal Josip Broz Tito.

Podgorica's favourable position at the confluence of the Ribnica and Morača rivers and at the meeting-point of the fertile Zeta Plain and Bjelopavlići Valley has encouraged settlement. The city is close to winter skiing centers in the north and to seaside resorts on the Adriatic Sea.

Podgorica Municipality covers 10.4% of Montenegro's territory and is home to 29.9% of the country's population. It is the nation's administrative center and its economic, cultural, and educational focus.


20 Perpera 1914. 17 mm. Podgorica

Montenegro entered World War I on August 5, 1914, declaring war on Austria-Hungary.

After Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, the government of Montenegro offered assistance to Serbia and on August 5, Montenegro, declaring war on the Austrians, entered World War I on the side of the Entente.

Montenegro mobilized six divisions. A total of 45,000-60,000 people, 100 field and 100 mining tools. The Montenegrin army was led by King Nicholas I of Montenegro, and General Janko Vukotic became the chief of the General Staff.

With the beginning of the war, the coast of Montenegro was blocked by the Austrian fleet. Fighting between Montenegrin and Austro-Hungarian troops began on 7 August. According to the plan of the Montenegrin command, the Montenegrin troops, with the assistance of the French fleet, were to capture Kotor, where the main base of the Austro-Hungarian navy was located, and develop an offensive into Herzegovina. However, this plan had to be abandoned. According to the new plan, the Montenegrin army was to act together with the Serbian army and cover its flank.

During the first battles, Montenegrin troops managed to capture a number of Austrian cities: Budva, Grbal, Petrovac. Also, Montenegrin troops operated in Herzegovina and, together with Serbian troops, carried out an offensive against Sarajevo, but did not achieve their goals. During the 1914 campaign, the Montenegrin army, together with the Serbian army, repulsed all the offensive of the Austro-Hungarian troops.

During the Austro-German offensive in 1915, the Montenegrin troops were in a difficult situation. The main part of the troops was forced to retreat inland. Only units of the Montenegrin army in Sandzak under the command of J. Vukotic staunchly resisted the Austro-German troops, covering the withdrawal of the Serbian army. However, in the Lovcen area in January 1916, the Austro-Hungarian troops managed to break through the front of the Montenegrin army. On January 14, the Austrians captured the capital of the kingdom of Cetinje. The main forces of the Montenegrin army were surrounded by enemy troops. On January 19, King Nicholas I fled the country, in these difficult conditions the Montenegrin leadership signed a capitulation. The country's territory was occupied by Austro-Hungarian troops, the army was demobilized. An Austrian military occupation regime was established in the country. Montenegro was withdrawn from the war.

However, the remnants of the Montenegrin army and part of the country's population did not come to terms with the foreign occupation and continued the partisan struggle. About 10,000 Montenegrins were imprisoned by the Austrian authorities in concentration camps.

In 1917, on the island of Corfu, representatives of Serbia and the Yugoslavian Committee signed the Corfu Declaration on the creation of a single Yugoslavian state. Members of the Montenegrin National Council (consisting of representatives of the opposition of King Nicholas I) also joined this declaration. The king, accused of concluding a separate peace, began to lose authority. This led to the fact that after the war Nicholas I was not allowed to work at peace conferences, and his own opposition banned him from entering the country.

In 1918, when the territory of Montenegro was liberated by Serbian troops. In Podgorica, on December 17, 1918, the National Council declared the Negosha dynasty deposed and prohibited the former king from entering the country. The Assembly of Montenegro also decided on the entry of Montenegro into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. However, supporters of the deposed King Nikola for several more years continued armed resistance, seeking to restore the independence of Montenegro.

During the war, Montenegro's military losses amounted to 15,000 killed, wounded and captured. The total number of casualties in Montenegro (military and civilian) was about 35,000 people.


Montenegro perper (Serb. Crnogorski perper) - the state currency of the principality, and later - the kingdom of Montenegro in the period from 1909 to 1918. The name comes from the Serbian perper - the currency of the Serbian kingdom, which Montenegro considered itself to be the successor. Perper consisted of 100 pairs.

After a meeting on January 7 and 9, 1914, between the delegate of the Government of Montenegro Jovan Popovic and the Consul of the Kingdom of Montenegro and the Secretary General of the Bank of France, this bank pledged to prepare new samples of Montenegrin banknotes as soon as possible. Since they needed to be printed and delivered immediately, it was decided to use models that were not previously used or were discarded.

The clichés of a French bank were used for the conceptual design of all banknotes, and the clichés of the Algerian 10 franc note, made in 1872, were chosen for the denominations 1, 2 and 5 Perper, design: M. Cobason, engraving: M. Magdelin.

The obverse of banknotes 1, 2 and 5 of Perper has a stylized ellipse. Numerical values ​​are on the side, left and right of the text. It bears the signatures of the Chairman of the Main State Audit Office Philip Ergovich and the Minister of Finance Rista Popovich. They are dated July 25, 1914. Serial number and serial number are located above and below the text section.

For 10 and 20 Perper, the design was done by M. Dival. Their obverse features a stylized rectangle. The numerical value is indicated only in the upper right corner, and opposite it is the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Montenegro. The serial number is printed above the text in the center, the serial number is in the lower left corner, and the last three digits of the serial number are in the lower right corner.

The denominations of 50 and 100 Perper were made according to the design of M. Duca from 1848. They have a rounded rectangle on their obverse. Numerical values ​​are indicated on the sides, to the left and to the right of the text, which is the same as for other denominations. The serial number is printed over the text in the center, and the series number is printed in the lower left corner and upper right of the rectangle. The last three digits of the serial number are in the upper left and lower right corners.

Artistic solutions and symbolism of details have nothing to do with Montenegro. The Cyrillic inscriptions and the coat of arms of Montenegro were only added to the French clichés, and at the same time the numbering was printed on them.

The conceptual design of the reverse is very similar to the first edition of 1914. On the reverse 1, 2, 5, 50 and 100 Perper, as a basis, lines of small horizontal text in Cyrillic “KINGDOM OF MONTENEGRO” are applied. In the center - the state emblem, on porphyry, with a crown. At the corners are the numerical values ​​of the banknote. The reverse of the 10 and 20 Perper bears a stylized rectangular engraving over which the text is printed, as in the previous denominations.

1 perper, blue, on paper 65 g, size 135x98 mm

2 brown perper on paper 65 g, size 135x98 mm

5 perper, red, on paper 65 g, size 135x98 mm.

10 perper, blue, on paper 65 g, size 158x104 mm

20 perper, brown, on paper 65 g, size 158x104 mm

50 perper, red, on paper 37 grams, size 187х110 mm

100 perper, blue, on 37 gram paper, size 187x110 mm.

In some series, colors range from lighter to darker shades. Cotton test paper supplied by Rives was used for all seven denominations. The paper turned out to be of better quality than in the previous edition.

Thus, another 4,000,000 Perpers were put on the market, and the due date of the previously issued banknotes in the amount of 5,000,000 million Perpers was postponed until July 25, 1916. The following year, this maneuver was carried out again, so that on December 4, 1915, the Law on the Issuance of Banknotes in the amount of 6,000,000 Perper of July 25, 1914 was published, which was extended until July 25, 1917, as well as previous , in the amount of 9,000,000 Perper.

All costs of paying for all remittances were paid in 1924 by the new state - the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.