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10 Shillings 1934, Australia

in Krause book Number: 20
Years of issue: 1934
Edition: C/21 000001 to С/69 183000
Signatures: Governor of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia: Sir Ernest Riddle (in office from October 1926 till February 1938), Secretary to the treasury: Sir Henry (Harry) Sheenan (29.04.1932 - 28.02.1938)
Serie: 1933 Issue
Specimen of: 1933
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 156.94 x 81.28
Printer: John Ash, Australian Note Printer, Melbourne, Australia

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Shillings 1934



Edward VIII watermark

Effigy of Edward VIII, prepared for the coins and banknotes.

Behind the signatures is an inscription - Half.

Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year.

Edward was the eldest son of King George V and Queen Mary. He was named Prince of Wales on his sixteenth birthday, nine weeks after his father succeeded as king. As a young man, he served in the British Army during the First World War and undertook several overseas tours on behalf of his father.

Edward became king on his father's death in early 1936. However, he showed impatience with court protocol, and caused concern among politicians by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing marriage to Wallis Simpson, an American who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second. The prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing that a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands was politically and socially unacceptable as a prospective queen consort. Additionally, such a marriage would have conflicted with Edward's status as the titular head of the Church of England, which at the time disapproved of remarriage after divorce if a former spouse was still alive. Edward knew that the British government, led by Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, would resign if the marriage went ahead, which could have forced a general election and would ruin his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch. When it became apparent that he could not marry Wallis and remain on the throne, Edward abdicated. He was succeeded by his younger brother, George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward is one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British history.

After his abdication, he was created Duke of Windsor. He married Wallis in France on 3 June 1937, after her second divorce became final. Later that year, the couple toured Germany. During the Second World War, he was at first stationed with the British Military Mission to France but, after private accusations that he held Nazi sympathies, he was appointed Governor of the Bahamas. After the war, Edward spent the rest of his life in retirement in France.


10 Shillings 1934

Photo by photographer Mr.George Grantham Bain (Bain News Service from 1898), HM The King George V

This engraving is done from the portrait by photographer Mr.George Grantham Bain (Bain News Service from 1898).

HM The King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert, 3 June 1865, Marlborough House, London - 20 January 1936, Sandringham House, Norfolk, United Kingdom) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death.

George was a grandson of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and the first cousin of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. From 1877 to 1891, he served in the Royal Navy. On the death of Victoria in 1901, George's father became King Edward VII, and George was made Prince of Wales. On his father's death in 1910, he succeeded as King-Emperor of the British Empire. He was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar.

As a result of the First World War (1914-1918), most other European empires fell while the British Empire expanded to its greatest effective extent. In 1917, George became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, which he renamed from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as a result of anti-German public sentiment. His reign saw the rise of socialism, communism, fascism, Irish republicanism, and the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape. The Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. In 1924 he appointed the first Labour ministry and in 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognised the dominions of the Empire as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations. He was plagued by illness throughout much of his later reign and at his death was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII.

coat of arms Australia

In the middle, at the bottom, is Australian coat of arms.

The coat of arms of Australia (formally known as Commonwealth Coat of Arms) is the official symbol of Australia. The initial coat of arms was granted by King Edward VII on 7 May 1908, and the current version was granted by King George V on 19 September 1912, although the 1908 version continued to be used in some contexts.

In the top half of the shield, from left to right, the states represented are: New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. In the bottom half, from left to right: South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania. Above the shield is the seven-pointed Commonwealth Star or Star of Federation above a blue and gold wreath, forming the crest. Six of the points on the star represent the original six states, while the seventh point represents the combined territories and any future states of Australia. In its entirety the shield represents the federation of Australia.

The Red Kangaroo and Emu that support the shield are the unofficial animal emblems of the nation. They owe this recognition to the fact that they are native Australian fauna (found only on that continent), and likely chosen because they are the most well-known native Australian animals large enough to be positioned together in scale holding up the shield. It is often claimed these animals were chosen because neither animal can move backward, only forward - i.e. progress. In reality both animals can move backwards, but infrequently do. In the background is wreath of Golden Wattle, the official national floral emblem, though the representation of the species is not botanically accurate.At the bottom of the coat of arms is a scroll that contains the name of the nation. Neither the wreath of wattle nor the scroll are technically part of the official design described on the Royal Warrant that grants the armorial design.

Denominations in numerals are centered, in lower left and top right corners. In words is also centered and in lower right and top left corner.


10 Shillings 1934

A distinctive feature of currency notes designed in the 1930's was the use of artwork by Frank Manley based on bas-relief panels originally designed by artist Paul Raphael Montford. These panels represented various sectors of the Australian economic life:

Manufacturing – Ten shilling note

Pastoral – One pound note

Commerce – Five pound note

Agriculture – Ten pound note

Mining – Fifty pound note

Dairying – One hundred pound note

This note shows Manufacturing.

By the early 1930s, manufacturing and distribution services had each grown to be about 20 per cent of the economy, broadly on a par with the rural sector.

After Federation, Australia increasingly encouraged manufacturing through import-substitution, under the protection of high and rising tariffs.

While manufacturing grew, this did little to reduce the country's heavy reliance on a few rural exports.

The Depression of the 1930s had its origins overseas although the structural weaknesses of the Australian economy made some contribution. Manufacturing growth in Australia was severely checked in the early years of the decade despite large and widespread increases in ordinary tariff rates in 1930 (the Scullin Tariff).

Though the sector's share of total employment had fallen from 22 per cent in 1920-21 to 18 per cent in 1930-31, manufacturing led the recovery in total employment, accounting for 25 per cent by the start of World War II. Domestic demand continued to grow. Skill levels of the labour force were increasing and overseas enterprises were bringing in new capital. Just as important were the new and sophisticated techniques being introduced, which included the processing of cement and rubber. In 1939 major industries included iron and steel, non-ferrous metals, machinery and engineering, electronic and electrical equipment, motor vehicle assembly and parts, food processing, textiles and clothing, wood products, and printing and publishing.

Some of the pre-1930 trends were continued in the following decade. Industrial metals, machines and conveyances continued to increase their share of manufacturing employment (32%) and value added (32.5%), whilst clothing, food, drink and tobacco continued to decline. By 1938-39 the manufacturing sector's contribution to GDP had reached 19 per cent, a level almost equal to the rural sector's 20 per cent.

At the banknote are shown:

1) Blacksmith. Blacksmithing (working with metal) from the outset took a leading role in the economy. Apparently, a blacksmith on the note is shown, as an allegory of industry, which began to gain momentum before the Great Depression of the early 30s.

2) To the left of the blacksmith, presumably, an engineer in the mantle. In those years, the automotive industry started booming. There is an assumption that this figure is related to the engineering in the beginning of XX century, as a basis for the subsequent productions.

3) To the left is a potter.

Another is no small sector of the Australian economy in those years.

As an example, the company "Bendigo Pottery".

Bendigo Pottery is Australia's oldest working pottery. Started by a Scottish settler in the 1850s, the pottery has experienced changing fortunes over 150 years.

George Duncan Guthrie (1828-1910) abandoned his potter's wheel in Scotland to join the Australian gold rush of the 1850s. 'Here is the stuff to make pots with!' he cried as he stumbled upon a clay deposit perfectly suited to the production of ceramics. Guthrie transformed this lucky find into a business that grew to rival the great Staffordshire potteries of 19th century England.

Before plastics came to dominate the market, ceramics were used for a much wider range of products. The population explosion created by the Australian gold rush resulted in an increased demand for all kinds of locally manufactured goods. As the market diversified so too did the pottery - from commercial packaging to utility kitchenwares. Domestic items were, however, always a sideline to the main business of serving the building trade.


By 1903 Bendigo Pottery had expanded well beyond its humble beginnings and was filling a large number of orders across Australia. The success of the enterprise had much to do with Guthrie's fastidious management style and his enthusiasm for all aspects of the business.

Langley ware was the most popular range produced by the pottery. Launched in 1915, and continued well into the 1930s, these brown-coloured items were widely used in homes and cafes throughout Australia. Examples of Langley ware were exhibited at the 1925 British Empire Exhibition in Wembley, London. They received a bronze medal and certificate of merit. (National museum Australia)

4) To the right of blacksmith, presumably, is the worker at the loom. Manufacture of clothing and textiles were among the top five leading industries.

5) Right of him is a book printer. Printing and publishing industry was the fifth largest grown business in Australia in the mid-1920s. In this economic sector was occupied around 34008 people, who worked at more, than 1,500 factories across the country.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners and on the left side.


Following complaints that the smaller [10/-] Ten Shilling Note introduced in 1933 could be mistaken for a ten pound note, the words "TEN SHILLINGS", by red paint, were added on three of the borders.

Approximately 48,183,000 notes were printed. Variations in the colour of notes of this type occur, from a light brown to a darker chocolate. There are also variations in the background red and green colours.