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50 Kroner 1956, Denmark

in Krause book Number: 45a
Years of issue: 1956 (on banknote 1950)
Signatures: Siegfried Hartogsohn, Olivengrøn Riim
Serie: Famous personalities and landscapes
Specimen of: 1956
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 153 х 78
Printer: Banknote Printing Works and The Royal Danish Mint, Copenhagen

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

50 Kroner 1956




The royal crown and repeated denominations "50".


50 Kroner 1956

Ole Christensen Rømer

The engraving on banknote is made after the portrait of Ole Christensen Rømer, by Dutch-Danish painter Jacob Coning from circa 1700.

Ole Christensen Rømer (25 September 1644 - 19 September 1710) was a Danish astronomer who in 1676 made the first quantitative measurements of the speed of light. In scientific literature alternative spellings such as "Roemer", "Römer", or "Romer" are common.

Rømer was born on 25 September 1644 in Århus to a merchant and skipper, Christen Pedersen, and Anna Olufsdatter Storm, daughter of an alderman. Christen Pedersen had taken to using the name Rømer, which means that he was from the Danish island of Rømø, to distinguish himself from a couple of other people named Christen Pedersen. There are few records of Ole Rømer before 1662, when he graduated from the old "Aarhus Katedralskole" (The Cathedral school of Aarhus), moved to Copenhagen and matriculated at the University of Copenhagen. His mentor at the University was Rasmus Bartholin, who published his discovery of the double refraction of a light ray by Iceland spar (calcite) in 1668, while Rømer was living in his home. Rømer was given every opportunity to learn mathematics and astronomy using Tycho Brahe's astronomical observations, as Bartholin had been given the task of preparing them for publication.

Rømer was employed by the French government: Louis XIV made him tutor for the Dauphin, and he also took part in the construction of the magnificent fountains at Versailles.

In 1681, Rømer returned to Denmark and was appointed professor of astronomy at the University of Copenhagen, and the same year he married Anne Marie Bartholin, the daughter of Rasmus Bartholin. He was active also as an observer, both at the University Observatory at Rundetårn and in his home, using improved instruments of his own construction. Unfortunately, his observations have not survived: they were lost in the great Copenhagen Fire of 1728. However, a former assistant (and later an astronomer in his own right), Peder Horrebow, loyally described and wrote about Rømer's observations.

In Rømer's position as royal mathematician, he introduced the first national system for weights and measures in Denmark on 1 May 1683. Initially based on the Rhine foot, a more accurate national standard was adopted in 1698. Later measurements of the standards fabricated for length and volume show an excellent degree of accuracy. His goal was to achieve a definition based on astronomical constants, using a pendulum. This would happen after his death, practicalities making it too inaccurate at the time. Notable is also his definition of the new Danish mile of 24,000 Danish feet (circa 7,532 m).

In 1700, Rømer managed to get the king to introduce the Gregorian calendar in Denmark-Norway - something Tycho Brahe had argued for in vain a hundred years earlier.

He developed one of the first temperature scales while convalescing from a broken leg. Fahrenheit visited him in 1708 and improved on the Rømer scale, the result being the familiar Fahrenheit temperature scale still in use today in a few countries.

He also established several navigation schools in many Danish cities.

In 1705, Rømer was made the second Chief of the Copenhagen Police, a position he kept until his death in 1710. As one of his first acts, he fired the entire force, being convinced that the morale was alarmingly low. He was the inventor of the first street lights (oil lamps) in Copenhagen, and worked hard to try to control the beggars, poor people, unemployed, and prostitutes of Copenhagen.

In Copenhagen, Rømer made rules for building new houses, got the city's water supply and sewers back in order, ensured that the city's fire department got new and better equipment, and was the moving force behind the planning and making of new pavement in the streets and on the city squares.

He died at the age of 65 in 1710.

Rundetaern Rundetaern Rundetaern

On the right side is the Rundetårn.

The Rundetårn (English: Round Tower) is a XVII century tower located in central Copenhagen, Denmark. One of the many architectural projects of Christian IV, it was built as an astronomical observatory. It is most noted for its equestrian staircase, a 7.5-turn helical corridor leading to the top, and for the expansive views it affords over Copenhagen.

The tower is part of the Trinitatis Complex which also provided the scholars of the time with a university chapel, the Trinitatis Church, and an academic library which was the first purpose-built facilities of the Copenhagen University Library which had been founded in 1482.

Ole Christensen Rømer is also used to work in the Tower.

Rundetaern Rundetaern Rundetaern

Today the Round Tower serves as an observation tower for expansive views of Copenhagen, a public astronomical observatory and a historical monument. In the same time the Library Hall, located above the church and only accessible along the tower's ramp, is an active cultural venue with both exhibitions and a busy concert schedule.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners and in the middle. In words lower, centered.


50 Kroner 1956

Stenvad Stenvad Stenvad Stenvad

Stenvad Stenvad Stenvad

Ancient tomb near Stenvad (Stenvad langdysse).

(Long) Barrow (Danish: langdysse) measuring appr. 19 x 11 meters, containing two megalithic dolmen chambers, near Stenvad. One of Denmarks most famous megalithic tombs.

The barrow was surrounded by kerbstones. 20 are preserved but often fallen. The earthwork of the barrow is largely eroded. The northeastern chamber is a hexagonal dolmen with short passage. The five orthostats and the entrance-stone are preserved. The chamber measures appr. 2,1 x 2 meters (clear size) and is covered by a magnificent capstone. Two passage-uprights are also preserved, but slightly out of place. The southwestern chamber is destroyed except for two orthostats. (The megalithic portal)

Denominations in numerals are in all corners.


Handmade paper used fro banknote!!

There are great demands on the banknote paper. It must contain clear watermarks and be of such quality that the pressure is clear and sharp. It must be able to withstand the high pressures to which it is subjected by the gravure method. Finally, it must be able to withstand the great wear and tear and harsh treatment that a banknote now and then comes across. For a long time, only the handmade paper could fully satisfy all the requirements for the banknote paper. It was not until the time between the First and Second World Wars that people abroad began to take the machine paper seriously for banknotes. In Sweden, on the basis of the good experiences abroad, a paper machine for making banknote paper was installed at Sveriges Riksbank's Paper Mill in Tumba in 1939; after running in, the machine was used the same year to manufacture the paper for the Swedish five-krone banknotes.

There is a significant difference between handmade paper and machine-made paper. While the taverns in the handmade paper lie down randomly and in all directions, the taverns in the machine paper will lie in the longitudinal direction of the paper web, and the paper will therefore become more resistant in this direction than in the other direction. If the machine paper becomes damp, you will - when it has become dry again - see that it stays straight in the direction corresponding to the longitudinal direction of the paper web, but curls in the direction transverse thereto; for example. are the Danish 1972-series 10, 20, 50 and 100 kroner. banknotes all printed with the long side across the paper web, so that the upper and lower edge are more likely to curl than the short sides.

Obverse designer: Gunnar Andersen.

Reverse designer: Ib Andersen.

All Danish banknotes issued since 1945, remain in force and will be exchanged at face value by the Danish National Bank.

On reverse of many danish banknotes presents this inscription: "UDSTEDT I HENHOLD TILL LOV AF 7 APRIL 1936".

It is translated as: "Issued under the law of April 7, 1936".

Danmarks Nationalbank was established in 1818 to restore the monetary system after the state bankruptcy in 1813. Danmarks Nationalbank became an independent institution in 1936, and the current legal basis for its activities is from the same year.

Among other things, the Danmarks Nationalbank Act states that the objective of Danmarks Nationalbank is to maintain a safe and secure currency system, and to facilitate and regulate the traffic in money and the extension of credit. Danmarks Nationalbank's monetary policy is determined independently of the Parliament (Folketinget) and government. (Danmarks Nationalbank dan.)

The view at Rundetaern, exactly as it is on banknote 50 Kroner 1966 round tower was made either from the tower of the Vor Frue Kirke (Our Lady church) or tower of St.-Petri-Kirche (Kopenhagen).

The tower at Our Lady chruch was closed to public. I asked the staff, and they said to me, that it is open rarely for visitors, mostly at summer time.

The St.-Petri-Kirche is generally closed for the winter season for visitors.

Therefore, will wait till the summer :)