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1/4 Dinar 1961, Kuwait

in Krause book Number: 1
Years of issue: 01.04.1961
Signatures: Chairman: H. E. Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah
Serie: 1961 First Issue
Specimen of: 1960
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 128 x 77
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

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1/4 Dinar 1961




H. E. Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah (عبد الله الثالث السالم الصباح‎).


1/4 Dinar 1961

H. E. Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah

Sheikh Abdullah III Al-Salim Al-Sabah (1895 – 24 November 1965, Arabic: الشيخ عبد الله الثالث السالم الصباح) was the eleventh ruler of Kuwait, the first Emir of the State of Kuwait, and Commander-in-chief of Kuwait Military Forces from 29 January 1950 until his death. He was the eldest son of Salim Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah. He was the Minister of Finance from 1939 to 1940. As the eleventh ruler of the Al Sabah dynasty in Kuwait, he took power after the death of his cousin Sheikh Ahmad Al-Jaber Al-Sabah. He also ruled as regent upon the death of his father until the election of Sheikh Ahmad. The anniversary of his coronation, 25 February, serves as Kuwait's national day.

Unlike his predecessors, Abdullah III was more pro-Arab than pro-British. He effectively ended the British "protectorate" status of Kuwait by signing a treaty with the British on 19 June 1961. He is regarded as the founder of modern Kuwait. He introduced the Constitution of Kuwait in 1962, followed by the Parliament in 1963.

In January 1950, after the death of his cousin Ahmed al-Jaber Al-Sabah, Abdullah was declared the 11th Sheikh of Kuwait from the Al-Sabah dynasty.

Abdullah headed Kuwait in the post-war years, when the national liberation movement intensified in the third world countries, England's authority in the international arena began to decline. Other capitalist powers began to penetrate the Kuwait market: the USA, the FRG, Japan. In 1951, amid the struggle of the oil-producing countries for a more equitable distribution of revenues from the sale of natural resources, Kuwait succeeded in obtaining from Kuwait Oil Company an increase in commission payments to 50% of the company's net income. Sheikh's income began to grow rapidly. A construction boom began in the country, as a result of which the capital was reconstructed and improved, new factories and plants were built, roads and a large seaport in Shuweikh were built. The intensive development of oil fields has significantly increased the need for labor, which cannot be met by the Kuwaitis: an influx of immigrants from India, Pakistan, Iran and other countries poured into the country.

Abdullah belonged to the part of the ruling elite that sought to get rid of British colonial rule. It is in this interest of the al-Sabahadali family with the interests of ordinary Kuwaitis, who were organized by the democratic movements of India and Egypt of the 1952 revolution. In 1954, the Democratic League of Kuwait was created, uniting all the patriotic forces in favor of the abolition of the British protectorate and the removal of foreign oil companies. Many of the League's leaders have quit the Young Kuwaiti ranks. The Suez Crisis of 1956 and the Iraqi Revolution of 1958 gave a new impetus to the patriotic movement in Kuwait. A wave of rallies and strikes swept across the country, which led to a state of emergency in Kuwait in 1959.

Under the British National National Authority forced to make concessions. The Kuwaiti authorities gained the right of jurisdiction over all immigrants living in the country, and by 1960 they even opened several missions abroad. In the same year, Kuwait became one of the initiators of the creation of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).

Conclusion of an agreement on the cancellation of the agreement of 1899. Abdullah al-Sabah was proclaimed the first emir.

From the very first days of its existence, the emirate of Kuwait faced serious problems. Iraq immediately made claims to its territory, basing its claims on the Kuwaiti-Ottoman treaty of 1871, according to which Kuwait formally came under the control of the governor of Basra. Abdullah had to turn to the British for help. 38% of oil was imported to England from Kuwait, and the "petrodollars" of al-Sabah willingly invested in the economy of the former metropolis. But the intervention caused a negative reaction from the public, and the young state had to look for allies. After Kuwait became a member of the League of Arab States on July 20, troops from Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Syria and Tunisia were deployed on its territory to protect sovereignty, so in October of the same year, Abdullah asked the British to withdraw their troops.

In an effort to strengthen relations with Arab countries, and above all, with their informal leader Egypt, Abdullah was forced to undertake some democratic reforms. At the end of 1961, the creation of a Supreme Council of ten people was announced (all of them represented the al-Sabah family), in December elections were held to the Constituent Assembly, which developed a draft of a new Basic Law. The constitution, approved at the end of 1962, consolidated the dominance of the tribal aristocracy. Kuwait was declared the hereditary emirate of the descendants of Mubarak al-Sabah. The emir was declared an inviolable person, not responsible to anyone. He had broad powers up to the declaration of a defensive war, appointed the prime minister, had the right to dissolve parliament, was the supreme commander of the armed forces of Kuwait, signed bills or sent them to parliament for revision. The constitution declared the creation of a national assembly - the choice of parliament from 50 deputies. However, only literate Kuwaitis men over 30 years old received the right to choose. So in the first elections, held on January 23, 1963, out of 330 thousand Kuwaitis, only 40 thousand were allowed to vote, but only 11 thousand actually voted.

In November 1965, the Kuwaiti Emir Abdullah al-Sabah died of a heart attack, and his death led to an aggravation of the political struggle.


1/4 Dinar 1961

Shuwaikh Port

Shuwaikh Port (Arabic: ميناء الشويخ‎, transliteration : Minaa' Shuweekh) is an urban industrial area within the Al Asimah Governorate (Capital Governorate) in Kuwait.

A number of Kuwait's ports, educational institutions, hospitals and several offices are hosted in the area. The major cargo ports are in Shuwaikh Port. In the 2011 census, 185 people were recorded as living in the district. The port is bordered by the industrial area, Shuwaikh proper, the educational district and the commercial district.

The core industrial area of Al-Shuwaikh contains the Friday market (Souq al-Juma) at Al-Rai place (Fourth Ring Road). It starts every Thursday in the afternoon and goes until Friday evening and sells clothes, accessories, furniture, carpets, animals, plants, antiques and souvenirs and new and used goods.

The area is known as the industrial section of Kuwait as most manufacturers can be found in that area. Car repairs are mostly located in this part of Kuwait. Also many car dealerships are located in this area. Houses in this area are usually from old times. The electric power station and water desalinization plant in the Port of Shuwaikh supply Kuwait city.

The Kuwait Free Trade Zone is located on Jamal Abdul Nasser road which connects Shuwaikh Port to Kuwait City.

Several hospitals can be found in Shuwaikh region – such as Al-Sabah Hospital and The Chest Hospital.

Other important places are the Gulf Bank of Kuwait, City Center shopping, KGL Transports, etc. Several major car dealer showrooms can be found in Shuwaikh Industrial Area.

Damaged battleships, Fishing trawlers and dhows from pre-Gulf War eras can be found along the shorelines near Shuwaikh Port.

The Port of Shuwaikh (also Ash-Ashuwaykh) is Kuwait's most important port. Located immediately west of Kuwait City, it lies on the southern shores of Kuwait Bay off the Persian Gulf.

The Kuwait Ports Authority manages and operates the Port of Shuwaikh. The Port of Shuwaikh serves ocean-going vessels at its deep-water berths, and it has ample modern container facilities. It is the country's most important commercial port and covers 320 hectares of land and 120 hectares of water surface. The Navigation Channel inside Kuwait Bay is dredged to a depth of 8.5 meters (minimum tide level), and it is about eight kilometers long. At any tide, the Port of Shuwaikh can receive vessels to 7.5 meters draft. At high tide, vessels to 9.5 meters draft can enter and leave the Port of Shuwaikh. The Port of Shuwaikh contains 21 berths with a total length of 4055 meters. Fourteen of the berths have a depth of 10 meters, four are 8.5 meters deep, and three have alongside depth of 6.7 meters. Cargo vessels travelling through the Port of Shuwaikh include merchant ships and other vessels that include liners, tramps, fishing trawlers, and small passenger ships as well as cargo-laden container and roll-on/roll-off vessels and barges.


Kuwait became an independent emirate on 19 June 1961, but its first issue of banknotes preceded that event by just two months, on 1 April 1961. However, the decision to issue its own currency was made the year before in 1960, when the Kuwaiti Currency Law was put into effect under Amiri Decree No. 41 of 1960. This law set the framework for the issue of the dinar as the national currency of Kuwait and established the Kuwaiti Currency Board under the chairmanship of Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah. The members of the Currency Board were appointed under Amiri Decree No.45 of 1960. The full Board was:

• H. E. Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah (Chairman)

• H. E. Mr. Khalifa Khalid al Ghunaim

• Mr. Yacoub Yousuf al-Hamad

• Mr. Fakri Shehab

• Mr. Haider Shihabi

• Mr. C. E. Loombe

• Mr. Ivar Rooth

Under Decree No.41 the Kuwaiti dinar was declared to be fixed at 2.48828 grammes of gold and equal to the pound sterling. Submissions for printing the banknotes and minting the coins were considered from several sources. Following the approval of submissions from Bradbury Wilkinson and Company, for the banknotes, and the Royal Mint, for the coins, the specification of the coins and banknotes were published in Amiri Decree No.54 of 1960.

The notes issued by the Kuwait Currency Board consisted of five denominations: ¼, ½, 1, 5 and 10 dinars. All notes have a similar front, consisting of a portrait of H. H. Sheikh Abdullah III (the first Amir of independent Kuwait) to the right, the text of the note in the centre, and pale area for viewing the watermark to the left. The watermark is a portrait of Sheikh Abdullah, being a mirror image of the portrait that appears to the right of the note. At the top of the note is the title of the issuing authority, below which is the denomination in words, followed by the authority under which the notes are issued and the signature. The notes are signed by Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad as chairman of the Currency Board. Each note has an intaglio border around the front of the note, and while that border is square for the lower denomination notes, for the 10-dinar note it is an ornate geometric pattern.

The back of each note carries an illustration and a pale area for viewing the watermark. While all text on the front of the notes is in Arabic, the back of each note carries the name of the issuing authority and the denomination in English. The notes carry a Morse-code security thread, where the thread is broken into clear and solid portions. The solid portions from the ‘dots and dashes’ of the Morse code. The Morse code of the thread on the Kuwaiti notes spells ‘Kuwait’, i.e. ‘– • – • • – • – – • – • • –’.

The serial numbers on the notes of this issue all contain a prefix of ‘ا’ over a number, followed by a six digit number. The Arabic letter ‘ا’ (alif) is the first letter of the Arabic alphabet and also the first letter in the ‘numeric’ sequence of the alphabet, which is the sequence adopted for all letters used in the serial number prefixes on each Kuwaiti issue.

The illustrations on the back of the notes show symbols of modernization and development, except for the 10-dinar note, where a traditional boum (or dhow) is depicted in full sail. The scenes on the other notes consist of an aerial view of the developing port of Kuwait, a modern secondary school building, a cements product factory, and a view of houses built for people of limited income. These scenes show not only the developing nature of Kuwait, but also depict achievements by the government in education and housing.

The notes of this series were placed into circulation on 1 April 1961 at the beginning of a six-week period of exchange, where the Gulf Rupees were exchanged at the rate of 75 fils to one rupee. (There are 1000 fils to the dinar.) Gulf Rupees ceased to be legal tender at the end of the period of exchange on 12 May 1961 but, due to public pressure, the period of exchange was lengthened to 17 May. Notes of this issue were withdrawn from circulation effective 1 February, 1982 and ceased to be a legal tender on 31 May, 1982. (Mr. P.J. Symes)