Top
header Notes Collection

10 Shillings 1934, New Zealand

in Krause book Number: 154
Years of issue: 1934
Edition:
Signatures: Governor: Mr. Leslie Lefeaux (in office 1 January 1934 - 31 December 1940)
Serie: Till 1967 English currency system. First Issue
Specimen of: 1934
Material: 100% raw cotton
Size (mm): 178 х 98
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Shillings 1934

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Inscription: "Reserve Bank of New Zealand".

Avers:

10 Shillings 1934

King Tawhiao

The engraving on the banknote was made from the portrait of the Bohemian artist Gottfried Lindauer (January 5, 1839, Plzen. Austrian Empire - June 13, 1926, Woodville, New Zealand), which adopted, in 1881, New Zealand citizenship. Oil, canvas, 1882 The painting was donated by Mr. Partridge, in 1915, to the Auckland Art Gallery.

In notes on how the portraits of Māori came to be painted by his father, Victor Wilhelm Lindauer wrote that the artist photographed Tawhiao when he visited him at Whatwhatihoe Pā, accompanied by Walter Buller. 5 Several portraits were painted from this photograph including the one in the Partridge Collection. Partridge arranged for his commissioned work to be shown as one of the ten paintings exhibited at the St Louis World Fair in 1904.

King Tāwhiao (Tūkāroto Matutaera Pōtatau Te Wherowhero Tāwhiao, born circa 1825 - died 26 August 1894).

King Pōtatau was succeeded by his son, Tāwhiao, who was proclaimed king on 5 July 1860 at Ngāruawāhia. Wiremu Tāmihana Tarapīpīpī Te Waharoa anointed him in the whakawahinga ceremony, using the same bible that he had used for Pōtatau’s investiture.

The Waikato war.

The first years of Tāwhiao’s reign were dominated by war. Governor Thomas Gore Browne demanded Tāwhiao submit 'without reserve' to Queen Victoria.

Gore Browne’s successor, Sir George Grey, was also not prepared to accept dual sovereigns in New Zealand. On a visit to Ngāruawāhia Grey famously declared that ‘I shall not fight against him with the sword, but I shall dig round him till he falls of his own accord.’ Grey spent little time testing this isolating policy. He quickly authorised his military to cross the Mangatāwhiri Stream (which Tāwhiao had established as an aukati or boundary) and invade the Waikato in July 1863.

The Waikato war ensued, with major battles leading to an ultimate defeat for Waikato. Tāwhiao and his fellow ‘Kingites’ were forced to retreat across the Pūniu River into Te Nehenehenui (the great forest), to their neighbouring Ngāti Maniapoto relatives.

Land confiscation.

Tāwhiao and his followers were declared rebels and some 1.2 million acres (almost 500,000 hectares) of their fertile lands were confiscated. The return of these confiscated lands became a central concern for Tāwhiao and subsequent Waikato leaders. Their catchcry was ‘I riro whenua atu, me hoki whenua mai’ (as land was taken then land should be given back).

King Tawhiao

Tāwhiao and Ngāti Maniapoto leaders established an aukati (boundary) along the confiscation line at the Pūniu River, forbidding European intrusion. The territory beyond the aukati subsequently became known as the King Country.

Formal peace.

From his exile, a more pacifist Tāwhiao declared that killing must cease. However, he also argued against land surveys, land sales, courts, gold mining, telegraphs, schools, and the Pākehā justice system. Suspicious of the Pākehā, Tāwhiao stated in 1869 that Māori and Pākehā should remain separate. However, in 1881, after a number of years of negotiations with the government, Tāwhiao and his followers symbolically laid down their weapons before the resident magistrate at Alexandra (Pirongia) and returned to the Waikato.

Trip to England.

Tāwhiao did not renounce his efforts to have Waikato’s confiscated lands returned. In 1884 he travelled to England with several companions to seek redress from Queen Victoria. Tāwhiao’s tattooed face caused heads to turn in London, but he and his Māori embassy were declined an audience with the queen. He was informed by the colonial secretary that confiscations were a domestic matter under the jurisdiction of the New Zealand government.

On his return, Tāwhiao instituted the poukai - annual visits to marae, principally in the Waikato, to comfort the widowed, bereaved and impoverished. The first poukai was at Whatiwhatihoe in 1885, and this tradition has continued into the 2000s, where almost 30 marae hold poukai and are visited by the sovereign.

Political independence.

Tāwhiao continued his quest for mana motuhake (Māori political independence), setting up the Kauhanganui, a parliament, in 1892. It had a council of 12 tribal representatives (the Tekau-mā-rua), as well as ministers. Tupu Taingākawa, the second son of Wiremu Tāmihana (and kingmaker at the time), was the tumuaki (premier). Tāwhiao was offered, and accepted, a government pension. There was much iwi concern about the implication that he had given up his independence, and the pension was paid back, with interest.

King Tāwhiao died on 26 August 1894 at Pārāwera. He was buried on Taupiri mountain, the sacred burial ground of the Waikato, where King Pōtatau was to be reinterred in 1903. Some 3,000 Māori from all parts of the country attended Tāwhiao’s tangihanga. (the Māori King movement)

Kotiate

The same Kotiate is carved in Poupou's hands, which is shown on the right and left on the banknote!

The kotiate was a prized weapon and also favoured by chiefs when speech-making. It is a curiously shaped weapon, and noted for the carved notches on either side of the blade. The notches were used in a ripping action. The word kotiate literally means 'to divide, split in two'. Kotiate were usually about thirty-two centimetres in length and made from whale bone, although some were fashioned from hardwood such as akeake and rautangi. The carving on whale bone examples was usually confined to the butt of the handle. Like other mere and patu (hand clubs), kotiate had wrist thongs to wrap around the warrior's hand to ensure the weapon was not lost during battle.

The name of this kotiate is Apanui. It belonged to the second Māori King, Tāwhiao (1825-1894). From the onset of the New Zealand Wars in 1863, Tāwhiao had a strained relationship with the government. From the late 1860s and into the 1870s, a number of meetings were held between Tāwhiao and his advisors and various government officials. However, little progress was made towards reconciliation. In 1878 the Premier George Grey approached Tāwhiao with a proposal, but this too was refused on the advice of his council. In July 1881, however, Tāwhiao suggested a meeting with the Government's representative at Pirongia (now Alexandria) near Hamilton, where he laid down his weapons saying, 'This is the end of warfare on this land.'

Tāwhiao stuck by his pledge and presented Apanui, a symbol of warfare, to Sir Walter Lawry Buller in 1883. Apanui also appears in a Gottfried Lindauer portrait of King Tāwhiao painted in the late 1880s. (Museum of New Zealand)

coat

Centered is the Arms of New Zealand.

The initial coat of arms was granted by King George V on the 26 August 1911.

Since 1911, the central shield has remained unaltered: a quartered shield containing in the first quarter four stars representing the Southern Cross constellation, as depicted on the national flag, but with the stars in different proportions; in the second quarter, a golden fleece representing the farming industry; in the third, a wheat sheaf representing agriculture; and in the fourth, two hammers representing mining and industry. Over all this is a pale, a broad vertical strip, with three ships representing the importance of sea trade, and the immigrant nature of all New Zealanders.

Before 1956, the shield was identical, but the surrounding features were different. The crest was a demi-lion (the upper half of a rampant lion) holding the British Union Flag, and the scroll at the shield's base featured the then motto of the country, "Onward". Early renditions of the Coat of Arms are often featured with more stylised scrolling rather than fern leaves.

The original supporters were also slightly different. The woman had reddish-brown hair, and both figures faced forward rather than towards the shield. Though there is no direct documentary evidence, it is likely that the original model for the woman was Wellington socialite Alice Spragg. The model for the Māori warrior is unknown. The woman is identified as Zealandia, the national personification of New Zealand.

pā pā pā

Right and left, on the banknote - Poupou - wood carving taken from an old house in the village (pā) of Maketū, Bay of Plenty. Poupow holds the whalebone Kotiate, which is shown in the portrait of Gottfried Lindauer, in the hands of Tawhiao!

With seven centuries of history behind us, virtually every square metre in Maketu village has a story to tell.

Many of these stories are in the land itself. Over the centuries many Maoria pa (fortified villages) were located on the Maketu peninsula which held a commanding presence over the surrounding sea and land.

Some sites are known only as a result of archeological surveys, while the earthworks of others, such as the pa sites on Okurie and Pukemarie, are clearly visible.

The pa sites in Maketu figured prominently during the early period of European settlement. In 1864 the British established a redoubt, Fort Colville, adjacent to Pukemarie Pa where they were aided by loyal Te Arawa warriors.

Maketu's history lies in ground of its many urupa (burial grounds). The open fields of Okurie (the point of the Maketu peninsula) is the site of several urupa and therefore is wahi tapu (sacred ground). Recent history is visible in the grounds of the Wharekahu Urupa in the graves on many Pakeha and Maori leaders including Philip Tapsell (aka Hans Felk) and Anne Chapman who was responsible for establishing Maketu's first school.

pā

Other stories are told by structures which have stood the test of time. These include two of New Zealand's oldest churches, each with their unique narrative.

Construction of the St Thomas Anglican Church was delayed 10 years due to an argument between local chiefs, sometimes violent, over the ownership of the foundations stones.

St Peter's Church is one of New Zealand's earliest Catholic missions and was constructed only with screws so that it could be dismantled and move... which fortunately never happened.

Many marae (meeting places) have been constructed in Maketu over the decades. Today two marae serve the community. The larger Whaukaue Marae, is the scene of many tangi (funerals), hui (meetings), and other social and community events. It is also the scene of the annual ANZAC commemoration.

The Te Awhe Marae is on the site of the historic Maketu Pa which featured prominently in many 19th century photos and paintings. This mare has recently been totally rebuilt. The traditional carvings of the previous structure have been restored to their original condition.

There are many other stories associated with of a more recent era. Many are still fresh in the memory of our elders. The seafront once had a very busy wharf where sailing ships called to serve the expanding Bay of Plenty population. The quiet commercial district of today is only a reflection of a vibrant past. Even the lowly fish and chips shop has found its way into New Zealand's history having been imortalised as one of the county's most recognised paintings (by noted Kiwi artist, Robin White). (maketu.nz)

Kōwhaiwhai Kōwhaiwhai

On top and bottom lines of banknote are pattern Kōwhaiwhai, Ngutukura, based on the hammerhead shark.

On the left side is Kiwi - flightless birds native to New Zealand, in the genus Apteryx and family Apterygidae. At around the size of a domestic chicken, kiwi are by far the smallest living ratites (which also consist of ostriches, emus, rheas, and cassowaries), and lay the largest egg in relation to their body size of any species of bird in the world. DNA sequence comparisons have yielded the surprising conclusion that kiwi are much more closely related to the extinct Malagasy elephant birds than to the moa they shared New Zealand with. There are five recognized species, two of which are currently vulnerable, one of which is endangered, and one of which is critically endangered. All species have been negatively affected by historic deforestation but currently the remaining large areas of their forest habitat are well protected in reserves and national parks. At present, the greatest threat to their survival is predation by invasive mammalian predators.

There are five known species of kiwi, as well as a number of subspecies.

1)Great spotted kiwi or Roroa, Apteryx haastii

2)Small little spotted kiwi, Apteryx owenii

3)Okarito kiwi

4)Southern brown kiwi, Tokoeka, or Common kiwi, Apteryx australis

5)The North Island brown kiwi, Apteryx mantelli or Apteryx australis

North island Kiwi

On the note depicted the North Island brown kiwi (old name Apteryx Bulleri).

Keulemans Kiwi, 1873An engraving was based on J. G. Keulemans’s illustration, which had appeared in Walter Buller’s "A history of the birds of New Zealand" (1873).

Kiwi Issues

Keulemans work became the standard portrayals of New Zealand Kiwis. They were incorporated into logos of conservation groups (in its early days Forest&Bird used Keulemans image), appeared on commercial packaging and were freely borrowed, often unacknowledged, by the authors of other bird books.

It is only in the last twenty or thirty years, as colour photography and printing techniques have improved, that Keulemans illustrations have ceased to be so ubiquitous. High-quality New Zealand ornithological images can now be produced by photographers. inrecent decades, too, a number of artists have depicted our native birds, their images, like those of Keulemans, reaching an audience beyond the scientific and ornithological communities. Artists such as Raymond Ching have retained Keulemans literal style, while others, such as Don Binney, Shane Cotton and Bill Hammond, have achieved major artistic and commercial success with their more figurative depictions. Binney and Hammond have communicated powerful environmental messages through their art, sometimes making it directly available for use by conservation groups. Hammond in particular has expressed his concern about contemporary attitudes to conservation by referring to Buller’s activities in some of his best-known work. One measure of the stature of an artist is how their work shapes the way a country sees itself. The illustrations of John Gerrard Keulemans have played an important part in New Zealand's history of Kiwi.

The kiwi is a national symbol of New Zealand, and the association is so strong that the term Kiwi is used internationally as the colloquial demonym for New Zealanders. (Buller's birds of New Zealand. New Edition.)

Pirongia

In the background, behind the kiwi, presumably, Mount Pirongia.

There is no confirmed evidence against what kind of mountains made ​​his sketches of kiwi Mr.Keuleman or, may be, this mountain was just a fiction.

My assumption is made on the following facts:

1) in the description text of the North Island kiwi, in Walter Buller's book, pays lots of attention to "a grand kiwi hunting near Mount Pirongia," when they caught about 300 kiwis.

2) Mount Pirongia lies in the region of Waikato, on the northern island. This region is famous for the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi. Who knows, maybe Keuleman portrayed this particular mountain.

3) The moko (facial tattoo) on the skyward face is based on that of King Tāwhiao, the second Māori king, emphasizing his links with the mountain. Living in exile to the south in the XIX century, he expressed his longing to return to Waikato in this waiata.

Of course, paragraphs 2 and 3 have no logical connection with places of kiwi mass residence and Keuleman's illustration. All assumptions made ​​by me in an attempt to establish the truth.

About Kiwi, as symbol of New Zealand, please, read here.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners. In words centered.

Revers:

10 Shillings 1934

Mitre Peak

Mitre Peak (Māori Rahotu) is a mountain in the South Island of New Zealand, located on the shore of Milford Sound. It is one of the most photographed peaks in the country.

The distinctive shape of the peak in southern New Zealand gives the mountain its name, after the mitre headwear of Christian bishops. It was named by Captain John Lort Stokes of HMS Acheron. The Māori name for the peak is Rahotu.

Part of the reason for its iconic status is its location. Close to the shore of Milford Sound, in the Fiordland National Park in the southwestern South Island, it is a stunning sight. The mountain rises near vertically to 5,560 feet (1,690 m.), i.e. just over a mile, from the water of Milford Sound, which technically is a fjord.

The peak is actually a closely grouped set of five peaks, with Mitre Peak not even the tallest one, however from most easily accessible viewpoints, Mitre Peak appears as a single point. Milford Sound is part of Te Wahipounamu, a World Heritage Site as declared by UNESCO.

The only road access to Milford Sound is via State Highway 94, in itself one of the most scenic roads in New Zealand.

Mitre Peak is difficult to reach and as a result ascent attempts are relatively infrequent.

The first known attempt of the peak was in 1883 by Invercargill artist Samuel Mereton, and Donald Sutherland. The pair took a boat to Sinbad Bay on 6 February and camped at the head of the valley. The next day with little equipment, no coats and one biscuit each they climbed to the crest of the Mitre Range, from where they could see Mitre Peak over 3 km. away to the east. With it being too late in the day to descend, they were forced to sleep where they were overnight, before the next day abandoning the attempt to avoid an approaching storm. After a difficult descent they were forced to sit out two more days in bad weather at the head of Sinbad Gully before rowing back across Milford Sound to the hotel operated by Sunderland's wife.

In 1911, Jim Dennistoun walked in to Milford Sound from Lake Te Anau over Mackinnon Pass, and inquired among the track porters in the hope of finding someone to climb the peak with him. None of the porters had any climbing experience, but one of them, Joe Beaglehole (1875-1962), had read Scrambles among the Alps by noted climber Edward Whymper and was thus chosen by Dennistoun to accompany him.

During a sea voyage in the area with brother George in HMS Pioneer in 1909 Dennistoun had identified what he thought was a possible route but as he wasn't able to reconnoitre it he instead decided to take a route recommended by Donald Sutherland.

After rowing across in a boat to the mouth of Sinbad Gully at the base of the peak they starting climbing at 7.30 am on 13 March 1911. Dennistoun and Beaglehole climbed via the south east-ridge through the bush until 300 meters short of the summit Beaglehole decided it was too difficult to continue and stopped. Dennistoun continued on alone up steep, smooth slabs of granite, to reach the summit at 1.15 pm.

Descending back down Dennistoun rejoined Beaglehole and they continued with the descent. Unfortunately to avoid climbing back over the Footstool, they decided to descend straight into Sinbad Gully, which meant they had to resort to using a rope to lower themselves down bluffs. They eventually reached the valley floor in darkness, and it soon commenced to rain. With no camping equipment, they had no choice but to continue on until they reached the boat at 9.45 pm, cold, wet and exhausted. They then rowed back across to spend the night at the hotel operated by Elizabeth Sunderland.

Dennistoun's claim to have reached the top was disputed by Donald Sutherland who had bluntly claimed that Mitre Peak could not be climbed. In 1914 Dennistoun's handkerchief was found in a small cairn on the top of the peak by Jack Murrell (1886-1918) and Edger Williams (1891-1983) when they completed the second ascent of the peak. When J.H. Christie and G. Raymond completed the third ascent in 1941 they found remains of the handkerchief, as well as two halfpennies left by Murrell and Williams.

There are six routes up to Mitre Peak, and most climbers start by getting a boat to Sinbad Bay.

Mitre Peak

Milford Sound / Piopiotahi is a fiord in the south west of New Zealand's South Island within Fiordland National Park, Piopiotahi (Milford Sound) Marine Reserve, and the Te Wahipounamu World Heritage site. It has been judged the world's top travel destination in an international survey (the 2008 Travelers' Choice Destinations Awards by TripAdvisor) and is acclaimed as New Zealand's most famous tourist destination. Rudyard Kipling had previously called it the eighth Wonder of the World.

Milford Sound is named after Milford Haven in Wales, while the Cleddau River which flows into the sound is also named for its Welsh namesake. The Māori named the sound Piopiotahi after the thrush-like piopio bird, now extinct. Piopiotahi means "a single piopio", harking back to the legend of Māui trying to win immortality for mankind - when Maui died in the attempt, a piopio was said to have flown here in mourning.

As a fiord, Milford Sound was formed by a process of glaciation over millions of years.

Milford Sound runs 15 kilometers inland from the Tasman Sea at Dale Point (also named after a location close to Milford Haven in Wales) - the mouth of the fiord - and is surrounded by sheer rock faces that rise 1,200 meters (3,900 ft.) or more on either side. Among the peaks are The Elephant at 1,517 meters (4,977 ft.), said to resemble an elephant's head, and The Lion, 1,302 meters (4,272 ft.), in the shape of a crouching lion.

Milford Sound sports two permanent waterfalls, Lady Bowen Falls and Stirling Falls. After heavy rain temporary waterfalls can be seen running down the steep sided rock faces that line the fiord. They are fed by rain water drenched moss and will last a few days at most once the rain stops.

Milford Sound was initially overlooked by European explorers, because its narrow entry did not appear to lead into such large interior bays. Sailing ship captains such as James Cook, who bypassed Milford Sound on his journeys for just this reason, also feared venturing too close to the steep mountainsides, afraid that wind conditions would prevent escape.

The fiord was a playground for local Māori who had acquired a large amount of local marine knowledge including tidal patterns and fish feeding patterns over generations prior to European arrival. The fiord remained undiscovered by Europeans until Captain John Grono discovered it c. 1812 and named it Milford Haven after his homeland in Wales. Captain John Lort Stokes later renamed Milford Haven as Milford Sound. Following the passage of the Ngai Tahu Claims Settlement Act 1998, the name of the fiord was officially altered to Milford Sound / Piopiotahi.

While Fiordland as such remained one of the least-explored areas of New Zealand up to the XX century, Milford Sound's natural beauty soon attracted national and international renown, and led to the discovery of the Mackinnon Pass in 1888, soon to become a part of the new Milford Track, an early walking tourism trail. In the same year, the low watershed saddle between the Hollyford River and the Cleddau River was discovered, where the Homer Tunnel was to be developed about sixty years later to provide road access.

As of the 2006 census, just 120 people lived in Milford Sound, most of them working in tourism or conservation. (Kerryn Pollock, 'Coins and banknotes - A national currency, 1930s to 1960s', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand)

Comments: