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10 Dollars 2017, Australia

no number in katalog -
Years of issue: 20.09.2017
Signatures: Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia: Mr. Philip Lowe, Secretary to the Treasury: Mr. John Fraser (in office from 15 January 2015 till 31 July 2018)
Serie: Polymer Serie
Specimen of: 12.04.2016
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 137 x 65
Printer: Note Printing Australia, Craigieburn, Melbourne

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Dollars 2017



In a transparent strip, from top to bottom:


The tip of the ink pen (it is also in the transparent window below, on the left - in the photo of the watermark) and denominations 10.

Cacatua galerita

The sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua galerita) is a relatively large white cockatoo found in wooded habitats in Australia, and New Guinea and some of the islands of Indonesia. They can be locally very numerous, leading to them sometimes being considered pests. A highly intelligent bird, they are well known in aviculture, although they can be demanding pets.

In Australia, sulphur-crested cockatoos can be found widely in the north and east, ranging from the Kimberley to as far south as Tasmania, but avoiding arid inland areas with few trees. They are numerous in suburban habitats in cities such as Adelaide, Melbourne, Canberra, Sydney and Brisbane. Except for highland areas, they occur throughout most of New Guinea and on nearby smaller islands such as Waigeo, Misool and Aru, and various islands in the Cenderawasih Bay and Milne Bay.

Acacia victoriae

Flowers of Acacia victoriae (they are, also, in the transparent window below, on the left - in the photo of the watermark)

Acacia victoriae, commonly known as gundabluie or bardi bush, is a shrub-like tree native to Australia. Subspecies: A. victoriae subsp. arida Pedley.

Native to Australia in arid and semi-arid areas, the Acacia victoriae is generally found in alkaline soils including clayey alluvials, grey cracking clays and saline loams on floodplains, alluvial flats, rocky hillsides and ridges. Animals such as birds and small mammals are known to use the tree as protection. The seeds and foliage also offer a source of food to animals.

Mature Acacia victoriae grow into a shrub-like tree with multiple trunks. They reach a height of about 5-6 meters and is moderately fast growing. It has a life-span of about 10-15 years. The tree has a large root system, known to extend to 20 m. It is able to survive drought fairly well, however not in severe drought, though it can regenerate from suckers. Flowering begins in August and continues into late December; depending on the region the tree is found. As with the variation of flowering, the maturation of the seeds is also variant.

The branches of Acacia victoriae are covered in small spines that are about 1 cm. in length. During flowering, the branches are full clustered, yellowish, and strong scented flowers. Each flower is in a pair within the 12-12 cm. cluster. Seeds are found in 8 cm. pale coloured pods. The seeds themselves are about 0.5 cm. and brown in colour.

WindmillWindmillPhoto from Travelling Australia

Design, shown in a transparent window, is a windmill. This water pumps are installed in areas, where is no centralized power. Wind turbine converts wind energy into electricity, to lift water from deep wells of the Great Artesian Basin, and to collect it in a special elevated water tanks, located nearby. Extracted the water thus used for household purposes as well as for irrigation.

Since 1876, the brothers Griffiths from Toowoomba produced such wind turbines, under the trade name of "Windmills of the Southern Cross" (Southern Cross windmill). Received widespread use since 1903, they have become a symbol of Australia's rural areas.

This type of wind turbine has been portrayed also at Australian 50 Cents 2002.

Under the windmill - a house in the Australian bush (read the description of the reverse!).


10 Dollars 2017

Andrew Bogle Paterson

This portrait of AB "Banjo" Paterson is based on a photograph taken at the time of his return from the Boer War in 1900.

Andrew Barton "Banjo' Paterson (17 February 1864 - 5 February 1941). Poet, ballad writer, journalist and horseman.

[Banjo Paterson] "Banjo" Paterson, known as Barty to his family, was born Andrew Barton Paterson at Narrambla, near Orange on 17 February 1864. His parents, Andrew Bogle and Rose Isabella Paterson were graziers on Illalong station in the Yass district.

Paterson's early education took place at home under a governess and then at the bush school in Binalong, the nearest township. From about the age of ten years he attended the Sydney Grammar School. He lived with his grandmother in Gladesville and spent the school holidays at Illalong station with his family.

After completing school the 16-year-old Paterson was articled to a Sydney firm of solicitors, Spain and Salway. He was admitted as a solicitor in 1886 and formed the legal partnership, Street and Paterson. During these years Paterson began publishing verse in the Bulletin and Sydney Mail under the pseudonyms 'B' and 'The Banjo'.

In 1895, at the age of 31 and still in partnership with Street, Andrew Barton Paterson achieved two milestones in Australian writing. He composed his now famous ballad 'Waltzing Matilda' and his first book, The Man from Snowy River, and other verses, was published by Angus & Robertson, marking the beginning of an epoch in Australian publishing. This hallmark publication sold out its first edition within a week and went through four editions in six months, making Paterson second only to Kipling in popularity among living poets writing in English. His poetry continues to sell well today and is available in many editions, some of which are illustrated.

Paterson travelled to South Africa in 1899 as special war correspondent for The Sydney Morning Herald during the Boer War, and to China in 1901 with the intention of covering the Boxer Rebellion but he arrived after the uprising was over. By 1902 Paterson had left the legal profession. The following year he was appointed Editor of the Evening News (Sydney), a position he held until 1908 when he resigned to take over a property in Wee Jasper.

In 1903 he married Alice Walker in Tenterfield. Their first home was in Queen Street, Woollahra. The Patersons had two children, Grace born in 1904 and Hugh born in 1906.

During World War I Paterson sailed to Europe hoping for an appointment as war correspondent. Instead, during the course of the war he was attached as an ambulance driver to the Australian Voluntary Hospital in France and was commissioned to the 2nd Remount Unit of the AIF. He was eventually promoted to Major.

In Australia again he returned to journalism, retiring in 1930. He was created CBE in 1939. At the time of his death on 6 February 1941 his reputation as the principal folk poet of Australia was secure. His body of work included seven volumes of poetry and prose in many editions, a collection The Collected Verse of A.B. Paterson (1923), a book for children The Animals Noah Forgot (1933), and an anthology The Old Bush Songs (1905), in addition to his many pieces of journalism and reportage. (Boer War Memorial).


Right, as background of portrait, is as micro text, where, armed with a magnifying glass, you can read the poem "The Man from Snowy River".


On the banknote is the text of the part of the poem, an excerpt of phrases. But here you can read the whole part of microtext.

First poem was published in "The Bulletin", at April 26, 1890. It mentions, already familiar to readers of other verses, Clancy and old Harrison. Andrew Paterson as a child was involved in similar pursuits of wild horses, but served as a prototype of the hero, in his own words, not one, but a few brave riders.

It's true what they say, Banjo Pat­er­son did meet the Man from Snowy River, Jack Riley, all those years ago.

Jack Riley was the leg­end­ary horse­man who migrated from Ireland to Australia as a 13-year-old in 1851. Jack lived in isolation in a hut high up in the hills at Tom Groggin. He loved the Snowy Mountain Country, a good yarn and enjoyed a social drink or two. Jack was also a good mate of the late Walter Mitchell of Towong Station, who introduced Jack Riley to Banjo Paterson when the pair was on a camping trip. They trekked the Kosciusko Ranges and the Snowys, shared many campfires and yarns too. Jack Riley was the Man from Snowy River who provided an inspirational journey and material for banjo to write his now famous poem.

Banjo Paterson also wrote a poem about Jack Riley's cow. This is further testimony to a meeting with Jack and the friendship they shared. (Live the legend).

The inspiration for "The Man" was claimed by Banjo himself to be not one person but a number of people. One of which was Owen Cummins. Owen Cummins was born in Dargo and was well known for being a great horseman. He worked around the area before making his way up to Wave Hill, NT. where a monument has been erected to reflect his role in inspiring the poem.

There is a possibility that another exceptional and fearless rider, Charlie McKeahnie, might have been the inspiration for the poem. In 1885, when McKeahnie was only 17 years of age, he performed a dangerous riding feat in the Snowy River region. Historian Neville Locker supports this theory, adding that a prior poem had been written about McKeahnie by bush poet Barcroft Boake and that the story had been recounted by a Mrs Hassle to a crowd that included Paterson. Locker also offers as evidence a letter by McKeahnie's sister that discusses the ride and Paterson's hearing of the ride. McKeahnie was killed in a riding accident near Bredbo in 1895 and is buried in the Old Adaminaby cemetery, on the shores of Lake Eucumbene. .

An Engraving in Australian newspaper in 1870"The Australian Newspaper" 1870

Man with a whip on a horse on the right side serve to illustrate the poem. Served as a prototype for banknote, are engravings in Australian newspapers "The Astralian Newspaper" from 1870, and "The Illustrated Sydney News" from 1875.

An Engraving in Sydney newspaper in 1875"The Illustrated Sydney News" 1875

The snowy River, where there was a young hero of the poem, begins in the snowy mountains, the highest part of the Great Dividing Range, near the eastern part of the border between New South Wales and Victoria.


Man with a whip on a horse on the right side - on banknote is the Australian Stock Horse.

The Australian Stock Horse (or Stockhorse), has been especially bred for Australian conditions. It is a hardy breed of horse noted for endurance, agility and a good temperament. Its ancestry dates to the arrival of the first horses in Australia, brought from Europe, Africa and Asia. It is used today in a wide variety of disciplines, and is still valued as a working horse by stockmen throughout Australia.

The roots of the Australian Stock Horse date back to the earliest importation of nine horses to Australia, with the arrival of the First Fleet in Botany Bay in January, 1788. Some of the original horse breeds in these early imports included the Thoroughbred, Cape of Good Hope Horse (largely descended from the Barb and Spanish horse), Arabian, Timor Pony and Welsh Mountain pony.

Horses in Australia were bred for their stamina and strength, with weaker animals culled and only the strongest allowed to breed on. In the 1830s, additional Thoroughbreds were imported into Australia to improve the local strains, and the mid-XX century saw infusions from the American Quarter Horse.

The Australian Stock Horse and the Waler horse come from similar roots, though today they are separate breeds. The "station horse" that was an ancestor of both breeds was used by the Australian Army in the First World War and was renowned for its toughness and endurance.

However, the modern Australian Stock Horse differs from the Waler horse in that it is not as big. The horses shipped abroad to fight in war and kept at home to be bred on as Walers were the larger animals, as they were required to carry a rider with the considerable extra weight of weapons and a full pack. Some of the heaviest animals were also required pull water carts and carriages. However, the characteristics of toughness and endurance remain with the Australian Stock Horse of today.

Formal recognition of Australian Stock Horses as a distinct breed began in June 1971 when over 100 campdrafters and horse breeders met in Tamworth, New South Wales, to form the Australian Stock Horse Society. Many of these people bred stock horses using bloodlines tracing back to native stock, along with some Arabians, Thoroughbreds, and a few ponies of outstanding merit. Most of the early ASH registrations were of horses bred with bloodlines that excelled at both campdrafting and cattle work in the rugged Great Dividing Range.

Initially, horses were inspected for registraton by three classifiers who assessed them for conformation, breeding and athletic ability. The best were accepted for inclusion in the Stud Book, some were approved for the registry appendix, and those not meeting the criteria for registration were rejected.

Fourteen specific foundation sires are responsible for most of the bloodlines accepted into the Society Australia-wide and most well-bred Australian Stock Horses trace to one of these foundation sires. These included horses bred from colonial stock: Saladin, Cecil and his son Radium, Medlow and Bobbie Bruce. The others were Thoroughbreds: Rivoli, Commandant, Panzer, Midstream, Young Valais, Gibbergunyah, Bushfire, Silvius and Deo Juvante also exerted considerable influence. Since then Rivoli Ray, Blue Moon Mystic, Eliotts Creek Cadet, Warrenbri Romeo and some American Quarter Horses have also had a large influence on the breed.

The use of Quarter Horse bloodlines is somewhat controversial, with some breeders preferring to stay with older lines. Those who wish to bring in outside blood are required to pay very high fees to the Society, thus providing an incentive for breeders to only bring in worthwhile horses.

Below the portrait, is an inscription A.B "Banjo" Paterson - Andrew Barton Paterson, initials and last name splits nickname Paterson, under which ohe began to issue his poems. Banjo ("Banjo") is also the name of his favorite horse, belonged to his Family. In Australia this banknote received a name Banjo too.

Denomination in numeral is in top right corner.


10 Dollars 2017

Dame Mary Gilmore

This portrait of Dame Mary Gilmore is based on a photograph of the poet taken when she was in her early twenties.

Dame Mary Gilmore DBE (16 August 1865 - 3 December 1962) was a prominent Australian socialist poet and journalist.

Her father obtained a job as a station manager at a property at Cowabbie, 100 km. north of Wagga. A year later, he left that job to become a carpenter, building homesteads on properties in Wagga, Coolamon, Junee, Temora and West Wyalong for the next 10 years. This itinerant existence allowed Mary only a spasmodic formal education; however, she did receive some on their frequent returns to Wagga, either staying with the Beatties or in rented houses.

Her father purchased land and built his own house at Brucedale on the Junee Road, where they had a permanent home. She was then to attend, albeit briefly, Colin Pentland's private Academy at North Wagga Wagga and, when the school closed, transferred to Wagga Wagga Public School for two and a half years. At 14, in preparation to become a teacher, she worked as an assistant at her uncle's school at Yerong Creek.

After completing her teaching exams in 1882, she accepted a position as a teacher at Wagga Wagga Public School, where she worked until December 1885. After a short teaching spell at Illabo she took up a teaching position at Silverton near the mining town of Broken Hill. There Gilmore developed her socialist views and began writing poetry.

Her relationship with Henry Lawson probably began in 1890: in 1923 she recalled that 'It was a strange meeting that between young Lawson and me. I had come down permanently to the city from Silverton'. Her account of an unofficial engagement and Lawson's wish to marry her at the time of his brief trip to Western Australia (May-September 1890) could be accurate regarding dates, but there is no other corroborative evidence. There was clearly, however, a close relationship between them in 1890-95, but it was broken by his frequent absences from Sydney. Mary's later comments on his career were always somewhat proprietorial but the extent of her influence on his literary talents and her contribution to his literary education remain unsubstantiated.

In May 1891 Mary was transferred to Stanmore Superior Public School. She had become involved in the increasing radicalism of the day, supporting the maritime and shearers' strikes as actively as possible for a schoolteacher subject to the strict rules of the Department of Public Instruction. It was her lifelong claim that she had, under her brother John's name, been co-opted to the first executive of the Australian Workers' Union. She assisted William Lane and the New Australia movement, and was largely responsible for overcoming the financial difficulties that threatened to prevent the departure for Paraguay of the Royal Tar on 16 July 1893. On 31 October 1895 she resigned from teaching and sailed from Sydney in November in the Ruapehu, arriving at the Cosme settlement in Paraguay in January 1896. She married fellow colonist, a Victorian shearer, William Alexander Gilmore (1866-1945), at Cosme on 25 May 1897 and their only child William Dysart Cameron Gilmore (1898-1945) was born on 21 August 1898 at Villarica, near Cosme. In August 1899 the Gilmores resigned from Cosme and Will left the settlement to work at various jobs. In November 1900 the family went to Rio Gallegos in southern Patagonia where Will worked on a ranch and Mary gave English lessons. On 1 April 1902 they reached England, stayed briefly with Lawson and his family in London, and arrived in Australia in the Karlsruhe in July.

Back in her familiar Sydney environment Mary was attracted to the busy literary and political scene but, acknowledging her family responsibilities, went with her husband to Strathdownie, near Casterton in western Victoria, where Will's parents had a property. Life there was far from congenial but she had a long-sustained correspondence with Alfred George Stephens of the Bulletin and was delighted to have her life and work featured in the 'Red Page' on 3 October 1903. In 1907 they moved into Casterton where Billy attended school. Mary's long connexion with the Australian Worker began in 1908 when, in response to her request for a special page for women, the editor Hector Lamond invited her to write it herself. She was to edit the 'Women's Page' until 11 February 1931. Mary also began campaigning for the Labor Party, helping to have its candidate for the Federal seat of Wannon elected in 1906 and 1910. Her first collection of poems, Marri'd, and other Verses, simple colloquial lyrics, written mainly at Cosme and Casterton, commenting on the joys, hopes, and disappointments of life's daily round, was published in 1910 by George Robertson & Co. Pty Ltd of Melbourne, on the advice of Bernard O'Dowd who professed to be 'simply enraptured with their lyric magic'.

The Gilmores left Casterton in 1912, Mary and her son going to Sydney where she had the security of her Worker position and Billy the opportunity of a secondary education, while Will joined his brother on the land in the Cloncurry district of Queensland. They were rarely reunited in the years that followed, but, loose and impersonal as the husband-wife relationship must have appeared to outside observers, it was always characterized by affection, respect, and abiding mutual interest.

Mary was soon involved in literary activities. A staunch supporter of journals such as the Bulletin, the Lone Hand and the Book-fellow, she invested her own (borrowed) money in the latter to prevent its closure through bankruptcy. The accounts in 1913-16 of Mary Gilmore trading as the Book-fellow and her correspondence with Stephens indicate the scope of her participation. Her second volume of poetry, The Passionate Heart (1918), reflected her horrified reaction to World War I. Poems such as 'The measure' stress the futility and waste of war, while 'Gallipoli', a deeply felt, imaginative account of that famous battlefield with its scars covered by the recurring miracle of spring, offers consolation to those grieving for the loss of loved ones. She gave the royalties from The Passionate Heart to the soldiers blinded in the war. In 1922 her first book of prose, a collection of essays entitled Hound of the Road, was published. In the early 1920s her health, never robust, became a problem. High blood pressure and heart trouble led to a stay in hospital in Sydney in 1920; she was sent to Goulburn by her doctor to escape the pressure of city life at different times between 1921 and 1924. In 1925 a third volume of verse, The Tilted Cart, appeared; the poems were accompanied by copious notes indicating her keen interest in recording the minutiae of the pioneer past.

Mary Gilmore's final years with the Worker were not placid: she resigned at the end of January 1931. Her book of verse, The Wild Swan, had been published in 1930, its radical themes, together with its anguish over the ravaging of the land by white civilization and the destruction of Aboriginal lore, making it her most impressive work to that point. It was followed in 1931 by the book of largely religious verse, The Rue Tree, which she claimed was a tribute to the Sisters of the Convent of Mercy at Goulburn, and in 1932 by Under the Wilgas. Her twin books of prose reminiscences, Old Days, Old Ways: a Book of Recollections and More Recollections were published in 1934 and 1935. In them she recaptures the spirit and atmosphere of pioneering. These anecdotal accounts which present 'Australia as she was when she was most Australian' are lively and attractive examples of her skill as a prose writer and, although unreliable and romanticized, have become invaluable sources of the legend of the pioneer days. (Australian dictionary of Biography).

Dame Mary Gilmore

On right side - Dame Mary Gilmore working from home in 1952. Photo: State Library of Victoria.


On left side of the protrait of Mary Gilmore you can see microtext, where you can read one of the works of Mary Gilmore. Patriotic poem "No Foe Shall Gather Our Harvest" was written at the beginning of the Second World War, when Australia fought in the anti-Hitler coalition.

On the banknote is the text of the part of the poem, an excerpt of phrases. But, it is that part of poem:

"So hail-fellow-met we muster,

And hail-fellow-met fall in,

Wherever the guns may thunder,

Or the rocketing air-mail spin!

Born of the soil and the whirlwind,

Though death itself be the gale-

No foe shall gather our harvest

Or sit on our stockyard rail.

We are the sons of Australia,

of the men who fashioned the land;

We are the sons of the women

Who walked with them hand in hand;

And we swear by the dead who bore us,

By the heroes who blazed the trail,

No foe shall gather our harvest,

Or sit on our stockyard rail."

Dame Mary Gilmore

It was first published June 29, 1940 in "The Australian Women's Weekly".

Dame Mary Gilmore Dame Mary Gilmore

On the left side you can see a woman and a man, in rural dress. Also, their countrz house in Australian Bush, reflects the themes of the poetess' works: about rural Australia, about ordinary working people, about their sorrows and joys, and, of course, about love.

"The bush" is a term mostly used in the English vernacular of Australia and New Zealand where it is largely synonymous with backwoods, outback and hinterland and referring to a natural undeveloped area, the fauna and flora contained within this area must be indigenous to the region, although exotic species will often also be present.

The Australian and New Zealand usage of the word "bush" for “forest” or scrubland, probably comes from the Dutch word "bos/bosch" ("forest"), used by early Dutch settlers in South Africa, where it came to signify uncultivated country among Afrikaners. Many English-speaking early European settlers to South Africa later migrated to Australia or New Zealand and brought the term with them. Today, in South Africa Fynbos tends to refer to the heath vegetation of the Western Cape and Eastern Cape.

Dame Mary Gilmore Dame Mary Gilmore

The concept of "the bush" has become iconic in Australia. In reference to the landscape, "bush" refers to any sparsely-inhabited region, regardless of vegetation. "The bush" in this sense was something that was uniquely Australian[citation needed] and very different from the green European landscapes familiar to many new immigrants. The term "Outback" is also used, but usually in association with the more arid inland areas of Australia. "The bush" also refers to any populated region outside of the major metropolitan areas, including mining and agricultural areas. Consequently, it is not unusual to have a mining town in the desert such as Port Hedland (Pop. 14,000) referred to as "the bush" within the media.

Bush poets such as Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson revered the bush as a source of national ideals, as did contemporaneous painters in the Heidelberg School like Tom Roberts (1856-1931), Arthur Streeton (1867-1943) and Frederick McCubbin (1855-1917). Romanticising the bush in this way was a big step forward for Australians in their steps towards self-identity. The legacy is a folklore rich in the spirit of the bush.

Australians affix the term "bush" to any number of other entities or activities to describe their rural, country or folk nature, e.g. "Bush cricket", "Bush music", "Bush doof", etc.

Denomination in numeral is in lower right corner.