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100 Marka 1922, Estonia

in Krause book Number: 58a
Years of issue: 05.02.1923 - 01.01.1930
Edition: Prefix D - 1 000 000
Signatures: E. Aule, J. Sihver, L. Sepp
Serie: 1922 Issue
Specimen of: 1922
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 145 x 90
Printer: Das Elsnerhaus, Berlin-Kreuzberg, Oranienstraße 140/141/142

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Marka 1922

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Unclear pattern.

Avers:

100 Marka 1922

Denominations, patterned frame and sockets. Stylized acanthus leaves.

Revers:

100 Marka 1922

kogge

Hanseatic Koggs were, as a rule, single-masted, but, in the second half of the XIV century, a type of three-masted kogg appeared - Kholk, or Hulk.

A cog is a type of ship that first appeared in the X century, and was widely used from around the XII century on. Cogs were clinker-built, generally of oak, which was an abundant timber in the Baltic region of Prussia. This vessel was fitted with a single mast and a square-rigged single sail. These vessels were mostly associated with seagoing trade in medieval Europe, especially the Hanseatic League, particularly in the Baltic Sea region. They ranged from about 15 to 25 meters (49 to 82 ft.) in length with a beam of 5 to 8 meters (16 to 26 ft.), and the largest cog ships could carry up to about 200 tons.

Cogs were a type of round ship, characterized by a flush-laid flat bottom at midships but gradually shifted to overlapped strakes near the posts. They had full lapstrake, or clinker, planking covering the sides, generally starting from the bilge strakes, and double-clenched iron nails for plank fastenings. The keel, or keelplank, was only slightly thicker than the adjacent garboards and had no rabbet. Both stem and stern posts were straight and rather long, and connected to the keelplank through intermediate pieces called hooks. The lower plank hoods terminated in rabbets in the hooks and posts, but upper hoods were nailed to the exterior faces of the posts. Caulking was generally tarred moss that was inserted into curved grooves, covered with wooden laths, and secured by metal staples called sintels. Finally, the cog-built structure could not be completed without a stern-mounted hanging central rudder, which was a unique northern development. Cogs used to have open hulls and could be rowed short distances. In the XIII century they received decks.

Cogs are first mentioned in 948 AD, in Muiden near Amsterdam. These early cogs were influenced by the Norse knarr, which was the main trade vessel in northern Europe at the time, and probably used a steering oar, as there is nothing to suggest a stern rudder in northern Europe until about 1240.

Current archaeological evidence points to the Frisian coast or Western Jutland as the possible birthplace of this type of vessel. The transformation of the cog into a true seagoing trader came not only during the time of the intense trade between West and East, but also as a direct answer to the closure of the western entrance to the Limfjord. For centuries, Limfjord in northern Jutland offered fairly protected passage between the North Sea and the Baltic. Due to unusual geographical conditions and strong currents, the passage was constantly filling with sand and was completely blocked by the 12th century. This change produced new challenges. Bigger ships that could not be pulled across the sand bars had to sail around the Jutland peninsula and circumnavigate the dangerous Cape Skagen to get to the Baltic. This resulted in major modifications to old ship structures, which can be observed by analyzing evolution of the earliest cog finds of Kollerup, Skagen, and Kolding.

The need for spacious and relatively inexpensive ships led to the development of the first workhorse of the Hanseatic League, the cog. The new and improved cog was no longer a simple Frisian coaster but a sturdy seagoing trader, which could cross even the most dangerous passages. Fore and stern castles would be added for defense against pirates, or to enable use of these vessels as warships, such as used at the Battle of Sluys. The stern castle also afforded more cargo space below by keeping the crew and tiller up, out of the way.

Eventually, around the 14th century, the cog reached its structural limits, resulting in the desperate need for a quick replacement. The replacement, the hulk, already existed but awaited reconditioning. Although there is no evidence that hulks descended from the cogs, it is clear that a lot of technological ideas were adapted from one to the other and vice versa. The transition from cogs to hulks was not linear. According to some interpretations, both vessels coexisted for many centuries but followed diverse lines of evolution.

Specifications:

Length: from 15 to 25 m.

Width: 5-8 m.

Depth: 3-5 m.

Mast Height: approx. 25 m.

Sail Area: approx. 200 m²

Cargo hold volume: approx. 150 m³.

Carrying capacity: up to 100 “flippers” (200 tons).

Draft (with load): approx. 2.25 m.

Crew: 10-18 people.

On left side is an inscription: "Eesti Pangal on Eesti Vabariigis Pangatähtede valjaandmiseks ainuoigus" - "Estonian Bank has the exclusive right to issue Banknotes in the Republic of Estonia".

On right side is an inscription: "Pangataht on Taielikult Kindlustatud Panga Varandustega ja Pangale Pandiksantud Väärtustega" - "The Banknotes will be fully Insured by the Bank's Assets and the Values".

Comments:

Designer: R. Nyman.

Banknote paper is made in Germany.

Das Elsnerhaus Das Elsnerhaus

Old building of the Banknote Printer in Berlin.

The Elsnerhaus, also Elsner-Haus, is an office and commercial building in Berlin-Kreuzberg, Oranienstrasse 140/141/142, on the edge of the historic newspaper district of Berlin. The building was built in 1912-1914 for Otto Elsner Buchdruckerei und Verlagsbuchhandlung AG and, despite some changes, is a listed building.

Every story has its beginning. Every story has an end. And often the final chapter is the most impressive.

1871 Wilhelminian era for Otto Elsner - The confident step from typesetter to principal. Working faithfully with small resources, he carefully laid the foundation stone. Recognition for his performance is his first reward. Iron hard work in Gutenberg's service and commercial honesty are the law of his future life. Action radius: Moritzplatz in Berlin. Two presses and a few helpers.

1879 already five presses, trade exhibition, color prints, honorary prizes, own publishing house. First small steps, then larger ones. Never daring. Careful but brave.

In 1910, the founder's efforts were a beautiful entrepreneurial vision of the future. So it says in the book for the 50th anniversary. It is a good year in Elsner. A thousand employees and a hundred printing presses.

1912 to 1914: The economic world of the imperial capital congratulates on a sensational new building: the Elsnerhaus in Oranienstrasse 140-142. Berlin became a cosmopolitan city of printing, the press, theater, literature and in the middle of it the Elsnerhaus with its diverse and formative activities.

In 1939, with the beginning of the Second World War, the printing presses did not stand still for the time being. Until the bombs turn what was created in sixty-eight years into rubble and dust.

Das Elsnerhaus

Comparable young man, healthy returned from the war, is called Gerhard Elsner and rebuilds what has been destroyed. At the new beginning "Druckerei im Elsnerhaus". From 1956 "Elsnerdruck". Just like it used to. A progressive idea is the successor to the old venerable company logo. Graphic aggressiveness and clarity characterize the new Elsner printing symbol. Fourteen thousand cubic meters of rubble are removed. A new building is planned. Lützowstrasse 107-112. Eleven thousand square meters of war-torn soil. Another Elsner house. This is how the Elsner future gets a new home. The print shop remained in Berlin until 2003. Then the new owner Bertelsmann transfers them to his plant in Pößneck. (Elsnerdruck .ger)