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10000 Tolarjev 2000, Slovenia

in Krause book Number: 24а
Years of issue: 15.01.2000
Signatures: Guverner: France Arhar, Član Sveta Banke: Darko Bohnec
Serie: 2000 Issue
Specimen of: 28.06.1994
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 157 x 78
Printer: De la Rue currency,Gateshead

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10000 Tolarjev 2000



Ivan Cankar watermark

Ivan Cankar as a penitent and prisoner; caricature, by Sloivenian painter Hinko Smrekar. August 1913.

Hinko Smrekar (1883-1942) - Slovenian artist, illustrator and cartoonist. Member of the art club "Spring" (Vienna).

Born July 13, 1883 in Ljubljana.

After the Ljubljana earthquake of 1895, his family changed his place of residence several times. For some time they lived in Crane, where in 1906 his father died.

Hinko was a gifted child and already at school began to engage in drawing. In 1901, he entered the law faculty in Innsbruck. But after studying for four semesters, he left the university. In 1903, the Vesna art club was founded in Vienna, to which Smrekar also joined. There he met Slovenian Ivan Tsankar and created some illustrations for his books. In 1905, he began working in the Ljubljana humorous magazine Osa. Hinko Smrekar is the author of the first Slovenian language publication of tarot cards printed between 1910-1912. During the First World War, he illustrated the book by Martin Krpan z Vrha of Fran Levstik. After the war, Hinko Smrekar was seriously ill with a narvic illness. He was treated in 1920-1921 in Graz. Then he started working again and tried to publish his own comedy magazine Pikapok. But in 1927 his mother died and the artist was left alone. Due to low incomes, he had to move out of his former place of residence and it took two years to build a small house where he taught his students how to draw, thereby earning a living.

In World War II, Slovenia was captured by the Nazis at the end of September 1942. Smrekar was arrested and shot in the town of Gramozna jama (Ljubljana) on October 1, 1942. He was buried in the city cemetery of Jale.


10000 Tolarjev 2000

Ivan Cankar

The engraving on banknote is made after this photo of Ivan Cankar of 1914.

Ivan Cankar (10 May 1876 – 11 December 1918) was a Slovene writer, playwright, essayist, poet and political activist. Together with Oton Župančič, Dragotin Kette, and Josip Murn, he is considered as the beginner of modernism in Slovene literature. He is regarded as the greatest writer in the Slovene language, and has sometimes been compared to Franz Kafka and James Joyce.

Ivan Cankar was born in the Carniolan town of Vrhnika near Ljubljana. He was one of the many children of a poor artisan who emigrated to Bosnia shortly after Ivan's birth. He was raised by his mother, Neža Cankar née Pivk, with whom he established a close, but ambivalent relationship. The figure of a self-sacrificing and submissively repressive mother would later become one of the most recognizable features of Cankar's prose. After finishing grammar school in his hometown, he studied at the Technical High School (Realka) in Ljubljana.

During this period, he started writing literature, mostly poetry, under the influence of Romantic and post-Romantic poets such as France Prešeren, Heinrich Heine, Simon Jenko and Simon Gregorčič. In 1893, he discovered the epic poetry of Anton Aškerc, which had a huge influence on the development of his style and ideals. Under Aškerc's influence, Cankar rejected the sentimental post-Romantic poetry and embraced literary realism and national liberalism.

In 1896, he enrolled at the University of Vienna, where he studied engineering, but later switched to Slavic philology. In Vienna, he soon started to lead a bohemian lifestyle. He came under the influence of contemporary European literature, especially decadentism, symbolism and naturalism. He became friends with Fran Govekar, a young Slovene writer and intellectual living in Vienna, who introduced him to positivism and naturalism. Between 1897 and 1899, Cankar's core ideas were essentially positivistic. In the spring of 1897 he moved back to Vrhnika. After his mother's death in autumn of the same year, he moved to Pula and in 1898 back to Vienna, where he lived until 1909.

During his second stay in Vienna, Cankar's worldview underwent a deep change. In a famous letter to the Slovene feminist author Zofka Kveder in 1900 he rejected positivism and naturalism. He embraced spiritualism, symbolism and idealism, and later publicly broke with Fran Govekar. At the same time, he became highly critical of Slovene liberalism, published a devastating criticism of Anton Aškerc's poetry and gradually moved towards socialism. He was strongly influenced by the Slovene Roman Catholic priest and thinker Janez Evangelist Krek, who advocated radical social activism on a Christian basis. He nevertheless continued to oppose the clericalism and conservativism of Austrian Christian socialists in general and Krek's Slovene People's Party in particular. He joined the Yugoslav Social Democratic Party, an Austro-Marxist party active in the Slovene Lands and in Istria. In the first general elections to the Austrian Parliament in 1907, he ran as a candidate for the party in the largely working-class electoral district of Zagorje-Litija in Carniola, but lost to a candidate of the Slovene People's Party.

In 1909, he left Vienna and moved to Sarajevo in Bosnia and Hercegovina, where his brother Karlo worked as a priest. During his stay in Sarajevo, he gradually turned away from his previous militant anti-clericalism, becoming more receptive to Christian spirituality. The same year, he settled in the Rožnik district of Ljubljana. Although he remained an active member of the Yugoslav Social Democratic Party, he rejected the party's view on Yugoslav nation-building: in a resolution in 1909, the party favoured a gradual unification of Slovene culture and language with the Serbo-Croatian ones in order to create a common Yugoslav cultural nation. Cankar, on the other hand, strongly defended the national and linguistic individuality of Slovenes. Together with Mihajlo Rostohar, he became the most vocal defender of Slovene individuality within a South Slavic political framework. Already after his electoral defeat in 1907, Cankar had started to publish numerous essays explaining his political and aesthetic views and opinions. After his return to Carniola in 1909, he began travelling throughout the Slovene Lands, delivering lectures and conferences. The most famous of these lectures were "The Slovene people and the Slovene culture" (Slovensko ljudstvo in slovenska kultura), delivered in Trieste in 1907, and "Slovenes and Yugoslavs" (Slovenci in Jugoslovani), delivered in Ljubljana in 1913. In the latter, Cankar expressed a favourable opinion on the political unification of all South Slavs, but rejected a cultural merger of South Slavic peoples. Because of the lecture, he was sentenced to one week in prison for defamation of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. After the outbreak of World War I in 1914, he was again imprisoned in Ljubljana Castle for supposed pro-Serbian attitudes, but was soon released. In 1917, he was drafted in the Austro-Hungarian Army, but was demobilized due to poor health. In his last lecture, delivered in the National Club of Trieste just after the end of the War, he called for a moral purification and rejuvenation of Slovene politics and culture. He moved from Rožnik to the center of Ljubljana, where he died in December 1918, from pneumonia, a complication of the Spanish flu pandemic which was raging at the time. His funeral was attended by a huge crowd and highest representatives from the cultural and political life in Slovenia. In 1936, his grave was moved to the Žale cemetery in Ljubljana, where he was buried next to his youth friends and fellow authors Dragotin Kette and Josip Murn.

The painter's likeness is supplemented on its left by a shadow of his effigy, filled with microwriting of his , extending to the greyish-green coloured area. On the right of the Cankar's portrait is his signature and the inscription "1876-1918", printed by the intaglio method. Above it, there is a rectangle of violet, in which there is a negative of the number "10000".

Along the left edge of the bank-note the words "BANKA SLOVENIJE" appear printed by the intaglio method. In the middle of the white area, there is a watermark bearing the image of Ivan Cankar. Under it, the value of the banknote is printed in violet.

To the right of the watermark there are stylized images of the feather and the facade of the theater in Ljubljana, as well as the profile of Zankar, made in the form of a microtext of the short story about Vienna life (Zankar lived in Viennas district Ottakring) - "Ottakring". An image of a chrysanthemum is printed over the facade of the theater, using the intaglio method (please read the description of the reverse about the chrysanthemum!).

Stanovsko gledališče Stanovsko gledališče

One of the first independent theatre buildings in Slovenia appeared in the second half of the 18th century on the eastern edge of the present day square named Kongresni trg in Ljubljana. In the 17th century a provincial riding centre was built on this spot, which also appears on Valvasor’s depictions of Ljubljana and Florjančič’s map from 1744. The riding centre was built in the vicinity of the palace belonging to the deputy provincial duke in front of a gate on the other side of the northern part of the moat and defence wall protecting Ljubljana. It was a low, square, 3 x 5 axial building, with a ridged roof. A similarly designed centre has been preserved within the extensive castle complex in Slovenska Bistrica.

Prior to the second half of the 18th century, Ljubljana had no independent theatre building. The performances of travelling theatre groups were staged primarily in the halls of larger palaces and mansions belonging to the aristocracy, and in monasteries. During the 18th century the number of guest appearances by theatres in Ljubljana increased year by year. Public performances were at that time staged mainly in the town hall and the provincial hall. The provincial Estates occasionally also offered the riding centre to be used as a venue for theatre performances. Thus for approximately ten years it served as the third public theatre venue in Ljubljana. In 1756 the Ljubljana architect Candido Zulliani, on the basis of a commission by the Carniolan Estates, created a plan and a wooden model of an adaptation of the riding centre into a provincial theatre. The aim was to relieve the old smaller auditoriums in the town hall and the Jesuit college, in which theatre performances had hitherto been held. The construction did not commence until 1765, at a time when Ljubljana was expecting a visit by the Empress and her husband. This never took place as on 18 August 1765 the Empress Maria Theresa’s husband, Francis I, suddenly died. The construction of the theatre thus began in June 1765 and was finished within six months. Because of the shortage of time and money, the construction was carried out rather shoddily, using cheap materials. The extensive adaptation of the riding centre into a theatre was carried out on the basis of new plans by the new provincial architect Lovrenc Prager (born in Vienna in 1720, died in 1791 in Ljubljana), who designed numerous important buildings at that time, in particular around Ljubljana. Among the most important are churches in Tunjice near Kamnik, Gabrje near Ljubljana and in Petrovče near Žalec, and the mansion houses Novo Celje, Selo and Dol near Ljubljana, and Boštanj and Praproče near Grosuplje. Joseph Leopold Wiser von Berg, a painter of Ljubljana, also took part in the building of the new theatre. The more demanding decorative work in the building was carried out by two painters of stage sets from Vienna, Johann Gfall and Mittermayer.

The Baroque appearance of the former Estates Theatre is shown on a depiction by G. Pajk and in the plans of the existing building, created in December 1834 by the provincial building office, which are still kept at the Historical Archives in Ljubljana. Old archive sources also show the appearance of this former theatre and were partly published by Dušan Ludvik. The Baroque theatre preserved the ground plan of the former riding centre, but added two floors and a steep hipped roof. The impressively designed main façade was emphasised with a triangular gable and a terrace above the entrance portal and designed in the spirit of subdued Baroque classicism. Above the rusticated ground floor level the colossal pilasters with simple capitals connected the two floors, whilst the corners were structured with two rusticated bands. The tall windows on the first floor were equipped with a profiled lintel, whilst the windows on the second floor were smaller and square. The whole ensemble finished in a low triangular gable, decorated with stuccoed tendrils. A large lyre in the middle emphasised the purpose of the building. The other façades were designed in a utilitarian manner and had no detailed structure. In the interior, the entrance was followed by the central lobby and two social rooms, a space for the audience and the stage. The interior construction of the theatre with boxes, corridors, staircases and the stage was made of wood; only the external walls were made of brick. The auditorium consisted of the stalls with benches, seventy boxes on four levels and a gallery. Some sources state that the theatre could hold an enviable 850 people, which would mean approximately a tenth of the whole of the population of Ljubljana at that time. However, a more detailed analysis of the preserved plans from 1834 shows that initially the theatre had no more than 400 seats and 200 standing places. The stage section of the theatre included the stage and the space below it, and a smallish orchestra pit, extending into the stalls. The vertical communication in the stage section included ladders that provided access to the fly system. The ground plan of the building also included two extensions which were used as backstage space, dressing rooms and modest public conveniences. The rear extension was, due to the soft terrain on the bank of the River Ljubljanica, built on strong wooden supports. The theatre design was related to the still preserved, slightly smaller and lower former miners’ theatre in Idrija, built after 1769, maybe also according to plans designed by Lovrenc Prager.

Inside the theatre the large or imperial box was most luxuriously finished – it had curtains, was upholstered in plush and had eight chandeliers, 35 candles and could seat eight people. Sixteen candelabra positioned next to the walls and 14 two-branched candelabra were used to illuminate the auditorium. Tallow candles were used most of the time, but for special occasions the auditorium was illuminated with wax candles. The stage was equipped with eight candelabra holding six candles each and thirty other lamps. In the wings of the theatre, behind the main façade, on the ground floor and the first floor there was a casino with a café and a billiards room. Preserved sources show that in 1775 the theatre had approximately 100 units of theatre decorations and props. The sources mention sets for a yellow and Chinese room, a jail, a garden, a hall, a temple, a forest, a town, a farmhouse, a landscape, sea with ships and a rocky shore, whilst among the props a well, a painted life-size horse and tents are mentioned. The theatre building also had firefighting equipment, which in 1788 included 22 parts, four of which were fire engines.

The building of the theatre was commissioned by the Carniolan Estates of the realm and was thus given the name The Estates Theatre. The benches in the stalls were hired out each year, whilst most of the boxes were sold to Ljubljana citizens. The organisation of the theatre was led by a theatre committee. The theatre also had a director, inspector and two bookkeepers. In addition to theatre and opera performances, dances, concerts and other events also took place there. The cost of the maintenance of the building was financed mainly from contributions by the box holders. There was no heating. In the first few years, performances were almost exclusively Italian operas, whilst from the late 18th century onward German theatre performances became more frequent. In 1789 the first performance in the Slovene language took place; on 28 December that year Anton Tomaž Linhart organised the staging of his play Županova Micka. Sadly, this was the only Slovene performance for a long time.

Soon after its construction, various improvements to the building began. In 1788, the uncomfortable benches in the stalls were replaced with padded, leather-clad seats. These had to be locked and were hired out every year at an auction. In 1829 both the exterior and interior were thoroughly renovated for the first time. The boxes were redesigned and the stage reconstructed and newly equipped. Between 1845 and 1846 the second renovation and modernisation took place. On Wagner’s depiction of Ljubljana from 1844 the theatre still has its original appearance, whilst on the picture by Anton Jurman from 1848 it shows its new classicist exterior. The Ljubljana Historical Archives have kept the plans from 1843 and 1845, drawn up by the provincial building office and signed by the building master Johann Picco. The renovation and alteration gave the theatre a more monumental character. The old Baroque façade was given a new classicist look. The old basic design with the arrangement of window and door openings and the terrace resting on two pillars was preserved, but all the small detail structuring was new. The façade was emphasised with the motif of large blind arcades with rectangular and semi-circular window openings. The wide triangular gable was filled with a new, high quality stuccoed figural relief. The ambitiously renovated façade was one of the best architectural classicist creations in Ljubljana, alongside Hohn’s (later Souvan’s) building on Mestni trg 24, reconstructed in 1827, and the Casino building on Kongresni trg, completed in 1837. Inside, the auditorium was enlarged at the expense of the space next to the entrance façade, which was reduced by half. A brand new wooden construction with boxes on four levels was built. The former top gallery was removed, whilst the stalls and the orchestra pit were enlarged. In the auditorium corners, two wide, curved staircases were erected, whilst two smaller staircases were built also in the two new extensions, added to the side façades on the exterior. The new extensions housed toilets. In addition, a heating system was installed. The size of the stage remained the same. The auditorium was illuminated with simple gas lights and wax candles. The theatre thus came to resemble two still preserved smaller theatres in Maribor and Ptuj.

After the fire in the Vienna Ringtheater in 1881, in which many people died, an iron curtain was installed in the Ljubljana theatre between the stage and the auditorium. In addition, access along a narrow staircase leading from the men’s dressing room to the River Ljubljanica was built. But in spite of all these efforts the fire safety of the building was not greatly improved. In the night between 16 and 17 February 1887 a huge fire completely destroyed the theatre building, including all the furnishings and equipment in it. Soon after, the remaining external walls were demolished. The site was in 1888 sold at a public auction to the Philharmonic Society and in 1889 work began on the building of the present day Slovenian Philharmonic. The new monumental building was mostly finished by 1891 and completely in 1898 in line with the plans created in 1888 by the architect Adolf Wagner from Graz, who between 1873 and 1883 was working in Ljubljana as the head of the building office. Wagner’s plans were during the actual construction slightly adapted by the Ljubljana builder Vilijem Treo.

The new Philharmonic building, in terms of the basic ratio of the building volumes on the exterior, took on the shape of the former theatre. The building has a façade that is structured in the Neo-Renaissance style with rounded corners, typical of theatre buildings at that time. Later, the year 1701 was put on the façade under the medallion containing a lyre, commemorating the foundation of the Academia Philharmonicorum Labacensis. Inside, one large and one small auditorium were designed, the smaller one was intended for chamber concerts. The large auditorium occupies the central part of the building and extends over two levels. The stage section in the east is semi-circular, whilst the walls are richly structured with pilasters and garland cornices. Initially, the building on the side facing the river finished in segments, whilst the side wings had cellars and the ground floor. In 1937, following plans by the architect Jože Platner, the large auditorium was renovated and a new balcony added. At the same time, following the design by the architect Jože Plečnik, an extension was built on the river side, which created a new appearance for the building on the eastern side: an undulating façade with vases and a colonnade on the ground floor connected the building to the river bank. Because of the extension, a few windows in the large hall were filled in. In 2001 the building was renovated following the plans drawn up by Biro 71; the Plečnik colonnade along the riverside path was glazed in and the side wings were extended upwards. (

There is another white area which runs into the protective dark blue pattern. This pattern is darker at the top and lighter towards the bottom edge of the banknote. Along this green rectangle, the words "DESET TISOČ TOLARJEV" are printed using the intaglio method.

Over the whole of the note's surface, running from left to right, there is computer generated protection, which ends in the shadow of the poet's portrait. The starting line of the pattern is in the microwriting of the text, consisting of the name of the Bank of Slovenia, the numerical value of the banknote and the shortened name of the currency.

On the left part of the banknote there is a white area at the top of which there is a recognition feature for the blind, consisting of a relief of denomination 10000.

On the front of the banknote, the greyish-green, dark red and violet colours are predominant.

Denominations in numerals are at the bottom and in top right corner. In words - centered.


10000 Tolarjev 2000

The banknote, in large, shows a chrysanthemum. Next to it is miktotext, the manuscript of the book "White Chrysanthemum" ("Bela krizantema") of 1910.

In a book written in 1910, White Chrysanthemum in a semi-lyric, semi-journalistic form, Cankar talked about his understanding of the role of art in society, about his firm faith in the imminent coming of a new life that would revive the humiliated or corrupt art of modern society.

“Take a deeper look, friend!” Do you see where these new forces come from? Life awakens in the lowlands that slept ... What if spring comes in storms and spills? Lush growth will rise from black sediments! ”

Cankar puts forward before writers the demand to keep up to date, to develop with him, to pick up his most progressive tendencies. The true artist, according to Cankar, must set himself the same goals that the people face, that is, the goals of the social revolution.

Thus, Cankar continued to be at the forefront of revolutionary literature.

Cankar lived in a turbulent era of extreme aggravation of class contradictions, an era of enormous historical changes. He was the herald of an impending storm and one of the destroyers of an unfair society. He saw his task in “poisoning people with the poison of his thoughts,” some of them infect with hatred of oppression and the will to fight, others - expose, ridicule and destroy. Therefore, the Cankar method is not an epic story about life, but husking, exposure of the essence of life phenomena; very rarely - an objective image, often a passionate confession.

Life in the writer's works appears in the perception of his thinking, suffering heroes, her image is permeated with intense lyricism. To agitate, shock the reader, arouse anger, horror, indignation at injustice, cruelty, inertness, love and compassion for people, pride in a person - that is what Cankar wants.

The beauty and richness of the writer’s language, either musical lyric or aphoristically accurate, are amazing. Rodin said that sculpting a statue means cutting off all unnecessary. So, Cankar, working on his phrase, cut off all unnecessary, searched for the most accurate, most capacious and most simple words. He was able to express the highest rise of feelings, the greatest truth unusually naturally, without rhetoric and arrogance. That is why his works so sincerely and unique sincerely sound. (Е. Рябова .rus)

On the bottom part of the note, there is the number denoting the value of the note.

At the top of the white area, along the inside edge, the words "GUVERNER" and "ČLAN SVETA BANKE" are printed, and under them the facsimile of the signatures of the Governor of the Bank of Slovenia, France Arhar, and a member of the Council of the Bank of Slovenia, Darko Bohnec. In the top right corner, there is a violet rectangle in which the negative of the number denoting the value of the note is printed. Underneath, first the place and then the date of the issue of the banknote are printed: "LJUBLJANA 15. JANUAR 2000".

Along the outer edge, the words "BANKA SLOVENIJE" are printed using the intaglio method. Parallel to this, along the inner edge of the white surface, there is the reference number of the note, printed upright in black, consisting of two letters and six numbers. The same reference number is printed in red horizontally on the left side of the note.

The predominant colours on the back of the banknote are grey, violet and dark red.

Denominations in numerals are at the bottom and in top right corner. In words - centered.


Designer: Miljenko Licul and coauthors.

Painter of the portrait: Rudi Španzel.

The banknote printed on paper, made in Slovenian city Radeče.