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Stamps - September 13, 1890 - Flag hoist at Fort Salisbury, 1940, Southern Rhodesia

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Years of issue: 03.06.1940
Edition:
Signatures: no signature
Serie: No Serie
Specimen of: 1940
Material: Paper
Size (mm): 39 х 29
Printer: Waterlow and Sons, Limited, London

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Stamps - September 13, 1890 - Flag hoist at Fort Salisbury, 1940

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Stamps - September 13, 1890 - Flag hoist at Fort Salisbury, 1940

Sheet of South Rhodesian stamps of 1940. 1 sheet - 60 stamps / 1d (penny) each.

Hoisting the flag at Fort Salisbury

On stamps - September 13, 1890 - raising the flag on the site of Fort Salisbury, the future capital of Rhodesia.

The Pioneer Column of the British South Africa Company reached the site of Fort Salisbury on 12 September 1890, which was celebrated from 1920 as Pioneers' Day. The next morning, at 10 am on 13 September 1890, a full dress parade of the column was held. The seven-pounder gun fired a royal salute and Canon Balfour said a prayer as the column's Lieutenant Edward Tyndale-Biscoe hoisted the flag atop the kopje overlooking the site of the future capital, Salisbury.

"The territory we entered was beautiful. Small streams flowed through the green valleys. The hillsides were covered with forests of Masas (Msas - Brachystegia spiciformis). The color of the leaves ranged from bright gold to various shades of rust. Between them wonderful flowers grew. Everywhere we found signs that not so long ago, aborigines lived here in great numbers. We drove through ruined settlements and abandoned sites. The villages hiding between the hills also showed no signs of life. Frederick Courtney Selous was thrilled. He knew the inhabitants of one of the kraals well. 18 months ago, two thousand souls lived in it. Now it was empty. They must have been exterminated or hijacked.

We started crossing the Chanyani River even before breakfast on Thursday, September 11th. In each of the 117 wagons, it was necessary to harness a double amount of buffalo. It was very hard work. Hanyani was the last serious river on our way to Mount Hampden, a prominent landmark 16 miles from us, between the Hanyani and Gubei rivers. Selus knew the surrounding area well. It was he who discovered this mountain and gave it a name. It has been nearly five months since we left Kimberly. The journey was a long one, every day we expected an attack by the Matabels.

However, we have made changes to our plans. After a busy day, we camped by the Macabusi River. Our bulls needed a rest. During the halt, Johnson (Major Frank Johnson, who led the Pioneer Column on the way to Mount Hampden), with a small escort, went to a small hill five miles to better view the area from there. Climbing it, he saw that at the foot of the hill, on the other hand, there was a magnificent plain, with good red earth, perfectly suitable for farming. A stream flowed along the plain, which solved the problem of water supply for the future city. This plain was a much better place to lay the capital than the swamps surrounding Mount Hampden. Jamieson (Dr. Leander Jamison, Rhodes' right hand, later managing the Mashonaland territory and prime minister of the Cape Colony) interrupted his lunch to go to see what Johnson had discovered. With the authority of Rhodes, Jamison decided that this place would be the most suitable. The locals called the hill "Harari", but we called this place "Salisbury", in honor of the Marquis of Salisbury, the Prime Minister of Great Britain.

Around 08:00 on Friday, September 12, 1890, the adjutant brought the order to speak. The vanguard of the column circled the southern tip of the hill. The road was passable - we only needed to cut down a few trees. Unfortunately, it turned out that we were heading for a swamp. For this reason, we took to the left, going around the hill, and then to the right, to the place where the cathedral currently stands. Yellow flowers bloomed around. The place was chosen because it was located at a distance from the foot of the hill and next to the Macabuzi River. We were on the alert all the time - because of a possible attack by the Matabels. By evening, we had harnessed all the bulls. So ended the historic day, September 12th. We were 360 ​​miles from the Tuli River, and 1600 from Cape Town. In the evening we unloaded and pitched tents. The transition from the Cecil camp was not marked by anything. Our expectations of a possible attack did not materialize. But we were constantly on our guard and practiced maneuvers in case of an attack. Rumors of our readiness probably reached Bulawayo.

I was surprised to learn that Major Johnson was not going to attend the parade. Obviously, he decided to give up honor to the senior in rank, Colonel Pennifer. (Edward Graham Penny phase was the commander of the British South African Police from March 1, 1890 to January 2, 1892. It was he who led the armed escort BSAP, guarding the Pioneer Column). The colonel was the most senior officer in rank. Moreover, from that moment on, BSAP was to take control and ensure order in the territories. In addition, the duties of the police now included the protection of Fort Salisbury. When the Column reached Harari Hill on September 12th, Jamison ruled that Johnson had fully complied with the terms of the contract with Cecil John Rhodes. For these reasons, Johnson decided that he was free from duties and went to the Hartley hills on the Umfali River to explore the ancient gold mines located there. Borrow and Ted Burnett also went with him. Captain Heaney, the commander of company "A", remained behind the elder. However, he was an American and for this reason he ceded seniority to Captain Henry Hostey from Company B so that he could hold a flag-raising ceremony.

Before departure, Major Johnson ordered the ceremonial construction on the following day, Saturday, September 13, 1890, at 10:00 in full dress. Our seven-pound guns were supposed to give a salute in honor of Her Majesty, at the moment when the flag was raised. Johnson honored me by directly raising the flag. Since I was a naval officer of Her Majesty, the error that the flag would be raised incorrectly was excluded! At dawn, several soldiers of my brigade went with me to search for the most straight trunk among the Masas around us. Captain Hosti, proud to be entrusted with commanding the parade, insisted on joining us. Most of the trunks and long branches were crooked, but after a while we found the perfect tree. We erected it in the middle of the site intended for laying the fort, and strengthened the flag-halyard and guy lines on it. From that moment on, the place became known as Cecil Square. Now a beautiful tall flagpole rises in this place.

Hoisting the flag at Fort Salisbury

At 10:00, soldiers lined up next to our makeshift flagpole. In the center were companies "A" and "B", to the right - company "C" with two seven-pound guns. Company "B" of the British South African Police formed on the left. Colonel Pennifer Phaser, his adjutant Sidney Shepstone, and Sir John Willoughby, Deputy Colonel, stood next to me at the flagpole. I stood at attention, holding a neatly folded flag under my armpit, while Chaplain Balfour of the BSAP made a short speech and offered a prayer to the Lord.

When he finished the prayer, the horns began to play Royal Salute. The troops took weapons on guard. I slowly raised the rolled flag to the end of the flagpole. In the wind, the flag turned and slammed. At this moment, my naval brigade fired a salute of 21 volleys. When the echo of the shots subsided, the colonel proclaimed a threefold cheer in honor of Her Majesty Queen Victoria. The soldiers unitedly answered the call. Instead of a hat, I saluted with my sword. Mashonaland has now become part of the British Empire. Now we had to defend it and develop an economy here that would allow the primitive tribes to get rid of poverty and ignorance and offer a paid job for everyone, including the Matabels. It was an exciting moment ...

From the autobiographical notes of Commander Edward Tyndale-Bisco.

Edward Carey Tyndale-Bisco joined the Royal Navy in 1878 at the age of 14 and served in the Navy for 11 years. He took part in an expedition to Mashaland with the Pioneer Column, detached by Cecil Rhodes to explore new lands and transfer them under the British crown. It was he who raised the flag on September 13, 1890 at the site of the Fort Salisbury bookmark. He took part in the Boer War, commanded a battery of naval guns at Ladysmith. He died in June 1941, state mourning was declared at his death. His nephew, David Tyndale-Bisco, based on his uncle's stories (he was with him for the last year of his life as a commander), his letters, diaries and reports, published an autobiographical book, Sailor, Soldier (SAILOR SOLDIER by David Tyndale-Biscoe). Cult Rhodesian singer John Edmond mentioned Tyndale-Biscoe in his songs: "... since Teddy Tyndale-Biscoe raised the flag upon the mast ..."

The area we walked through was once densely populated. We saw some remnants of the destroyed kraals, but the Matabels thoroughly cleaned this area, and with the exception of a couple of villages located on inaccessible hilltops, we did not see a single living soul.

Late in the evening on September 10, we approached the Chanyani River and camped on the south bank. Company "A" was engaged in guiding the crossing. The water level was low, but the approaches to the ford on both sides were vast tracts of sand; however, this problem was solved with the help of reed bundles, which we put under the wheels of the wagons so that they would not get stuck. We finished the crossing the next morning and by 10 o’clock we had a halt on the north bank - finally the last big river on our way was overcome. In the afternoon, we set off again and by five o’clock in the evening we reached the place which is now called Six Mile-Sprut, where we camped. After some time, we saw that a steppe fire was approaching us, driven by a fresh breeze. For an hour everyone worked tirelessly to stop the fire, and we managed to stop the flame - but literally at the last second.

For quite some time, the command discussed where exactly we should finally end the path and begin laying the fort. The fort needed to be built in a place where there is no malaria and other misfortunes, since subsequently it should become the basis for the future city. In principle, we headed for Mount Hampden, but only because the mountain was a famous landmark, the latitude and longitude of which was known. The area adjacent to the mountain was well known to Selus, who, in fact, discovered this mountain and gave it a name. In addition, Major Johnson and several other expedition members also knew these lands well. For several days, the scout guides scouted the area that our convoy should go through, looking for a place for the fort - and by all accounts, this was a large open area near Macabusi, about 12 miles from Mount Hampden. Colonel Pennefazer, Major Sir John Willoughby and Major Johnson inspected the discovered area. Obviously, it met the necessary conditions - the area was healthy, and Macabusi in those days carried a sufficient amount of water.

Finally, it was decided to stop between the hill, which Mashon called "Harari" and the Macabuzi River, and lay a fort there. The fort was supposed to be called Fort Salisbury, in honor of the Marquis of Salisbury, the British Prime Minister.

With the first rays of dawn on September 12th, we turned camp at Six Mile Sprut and began our final trek. Slowly moving along the veld, we finally crossed the ridge that surrounded the Chanyani Valley, and we saw a small valley from it - now this place is located between Cosway and the Salisbury copy. She was all covered in bright yellow, pleasantly smelling flowers, similar to Iberians. That morning, company “B” was guarding. By the time the code arrived, we dismounted, the camp was already set up, and the long five-month transition from Kimberly was finally completed.

Today it is difficult to imagine the feelings that prevailed that day in the camp. Most of us were young, some just real children, and naturally we were full of hope. We were delighted, we made a fortune, we felt almost like millionaires. I remember that the most popular topic of conversation was that in two years we will become so rich that we can go to the 1892 World's Fair in Philadelphia. By the way, one of the members of our expedition really went there - he married a rich woman and was thus able to leave.

That evening, we finally unloaded our tents from the wagons - the first time since we left McLutsi - and set them up. Shortly thereafter, Major Johnson, along with Borrow and Ted Burnett, to the Hartley Hill on the Umfali River, to take a look at the old gold mines, of which so much was said. The command of the Pioneer Corps was led by Captain Heaney.

Sir John Willoughby was busy designing the future fort — he constantly consulted the chapter on fortifications from the Soldier's Handbook. He said he was building a lunette.

In the evening, everyone was told that the next morning at 10 o’clock a review of the units and a ceremonial parade dedicated to raising the flag would take place. Heaney and I discussed the upcoming event and came to the following: since Heaney was an American citizen, he had less rights to raise the British flag than Her Majesty's officers. So we agreed that the next day he would be a duty officer instead of me (it was my turn), and I would command the Pioneer Corps at the parade.

When I woke up on the morning of September 13, I suddenly remembered that we did not have a flagpole on which to raise the flag - so I woke up Bisco, just like I did a former sailor, and, having got an ax, we headed for the nearest trees. There we quickly discovered a straight trunk. While I was cutting it down, “Rise” was sounded in the camp - Bisco went to the camp and brought three sailors from the machine-gun platoon of company “C”.

Then we brought the trunk to the camp, installed streamers and erected it in the center of the future fort - now Cecil Square is located on this site. At 10:00 all units were built. Company "A" and "B" of the Pioneer Corps in the center, company "C" on the right with its two seven-pound guns, on the left - company "B" of the police. At the flagpole stood Colonel Pennefazer, Sir John Willoughby, Lieutenant Sidney Shepstone (adjutant of Pennefazer), Lieutenant Tyndale Bisco with the flag under his armpit and chaplain Balfour. The chaplain read a short speech and prayer, after which the horns began to play "Royal Fireworks", and the troops took weapons on guard. Bisco slowly and solemnly raised the flag. When the flag crawled to the top of the flagpole, company "C" fired 21 volleys. With the last shot, the “Royal Firework” sounded again and we again took weapons to the guard. Then the Colonel called for a three-hooray shout in honor of Her Majesty Majesty Queen Victoria - which the soldiers carried out with enthusiasm. Mashonaland has now become part of the British Empire, another jewel in the crown of Britain ...

From notes by Henry Francis Host, Captain of the Pioneer Corps.

Henry Francis Hosty was born in 1853 in Stanhow, near Sandringham in Norfolk, into a priest's family (his father later became rector of St. Paul's Cathedral). Among the ancestors of Hosta was Admiral Sir William Hosti, who fought under the command of Horatio Nelson. He began his service in the merchant navy, later moving to the navy. In 1877, together with Herbert's brother Cecil Rhodes, he took part in an expedition to central Africa organized by the British Foreign Office - this was the first expedition to reach the northern tip of Lake Nyasa on dry land. From 1883 to 1890 he was the captain of the ship "Troyan". After that, he joined the Rhodes expedition, receiving the rank of captain of the Pioneer Corps. When the corps was disbanded, Hosti was a prospector, a miner, and later a farmer. During the 1896 Matabel uprising, Major Hosty was the deputy commander of the Salisbury Field Squad. He died in 1936." (radio-rhodesia.livejournal.com .rus).

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Stamps - September 13, 1890 - Flag hoist at Fort Salisbury, 1940

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Designer: Mrs. L. E. Curtis.