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1 Dinar 1993. 2nd anniversary of the liberation of Kuwait from Iraq, Kuwait

in Krause book Number: KW-CS1
Years of issue: 26.02.1993
Signatures: Governor of the Bank: Salem Abdul Aziz Saud al-Sabah, Finance Minister: Nasir Abdullah al-Rodhan
Serie: Commemorative issue
Specimen of: 26.02.1993
Material: Hybrid material
Size (mm): 160 x 68
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Dinar 1993. 2nd anniversary of the liberation of Kuwait from Iraq





falcon falcon

The saker falcon (Falco cherrug). This bird has a great emotional significance for the indigenous population.

There is an opinion, that the national bird of the United Arab Emirates and Qatar is not the Saker, but its hunting hybrid with Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus). However - The first successful results of obtaining a hybrid of gyrfalcon and saker were obtained in the early 1970s in Ireland, that is, when the national bird of the UAE was already identified and there were already circulating banknotes with the image of Saker Falcon. Today - indeed, this hybrid is popular in falconry in many countries, including the OAE and Qatar.

The saker falcon (Falco cherrug) is a large species of falcon. This species breeds from eastern Europe eastwards across Asia to Manchuria. It is mainly migratory except in the southernmost parts of its range, wintering in Ethiopia, the Arabian peninsula, northern Pakistan and western China.

The specific part of the scientific name, cherrug, comes from the Hindi name charg for a female saker. The common name saker comes from the (Arabic: صقر‎, translit. Ṣaqr‎) meaning "falcon".


1 Dinar 1993. 2nd anniversary of the liberation of Kuwait from Iraq


The emblem of Kuwait is in top right corner.

The emblem of Kuwait (Arabic: شعار الكويت‎) was created by Mohamed Hosni Zaki in 1962 and it consists of the shield of the flag design in color superimposed on a golden falcon (Hawk of Quraish) with wings displayed. The falcon supports a disk containing a boom sailing ship, a type of dhow, with the full name of the state written (in Arabic) at the top of the disk.

The dhow is a symbol of the maritime tradition of the country and is also found in the national coat of arms of Qatar (until 2008, also in the UAE coat of arms). The falcon is a symbol of the Banu Quraish line, to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad belonged and is likewise found in many coats of arms of the Arabian Peninsula. The coat of arms replaced an older emblem with a falcon and two crossed flags.

Across the field of banknotes, in the background, a falcon is shown, from the coat of arms of Kuwait. Also, the falcon is visible in the hologram insert, top left, when turning the banknote.


The map of Kuwait is centered.

Below, on the left, the countries that supported Kuwait in the war against Iraq are listed (the same countries are listed below, on the right, in Arabic):

"United States, Saudi Arabia, United Kingdom, Egypt, Canada, Syria, France, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Pakistan, Italy, Senegal, Bangladesh, Niger, Belgium, Australia, Netherlands, Argentina, Greece, Spain, Czechoslovakia, Norway, New Zealand, Morocco, Hungary, Honduras, Turkey, Poland, Denmark, Philippines, Japan, Germany."


1 Dinar 1993. 2nd anniversary of the liberation of Kuwait from Iraq

Kuwait's Liberation Day is the main official national holiday in Kuwait, which is celebrated in the country annually on February 26th.

The holiday has been celebrated since 1991 and is timed to coincide with the complete liberation of Kuwait by the multinational forces of the Coalition (during Operation Desert Saber) from Iraqi occupation, which lasted about seven months (from August 2, 1990). Two days after the liberation of Kuwait, the Gulf War ended.

When retreating, the Iraqi army, on the orders of Saddam Hussein, used "scorched earth tactics." In Kuwait, rallies are held that day, and flowers are brought to the memorials and graves of the dead.

Scorched earth Scorched earth

On banknote is "scorched-earth tactics" in Kuwait (burning oil wells and The dromedaries).

A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy when retreating from a position. Any assets that could be used by the enemy may be targeted. This usually includes obvious weapons, transport vehicles, communication sites, and industrial resources. However, anything useful to the advancing enemy can be targeted including food stores and agricultural areas, water sources, and even the local people themselves, although this has been banned under the 1977 Geneva Conventions. The practice can be carried out by the military in enemy territory, or in its own home territory while being invaded. It may overlap with, but it is not the same as, punitive destruction of the enemy's resources, which is usually done as part of political strategy, rather than operational strategy.

The concept of scorched earth is sometimes applied figuratively to the business world, where a firm facing a takeover attempt will make itself less valuable by selling off its assets.

Notable historic examples of scorched-earth tactics include William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea in the American Civil War, Colonel Kit Carson's subjugation of the American Navajo Indians, Lord Kitchener's advance against the Boers, the setting of fire to 605-732 oil wells by retreating Iraqi military forces in the Gulf War. Also notable were the Russian army's strategies during the failed Swedish invasion of Russia, the failed Napoleonic invasion of Russia, as well as the initial Soviet retreat commanded by Joseph Stalin during the German Army's invasion of the Soviet Union in the Second World War, and the subsequent Nazi German retreat on the Eastern Front.

The strategy of destroying the food and water supply of the civilian population in an area of conflict has been banned under Article 54 of Protocol I of the 1977 Geneva Conventions. The relevant passage says:

It is prohibited to attack, destroy, remove, or render useless objects indispensable to the survival of the civilian population, such as foodstuffs, agricultural areas for the production of foodstuffs, crops, livestock, drinking water installations and supplies, and irrigation works, for the specific purpose of denying them for their sustenance value to the civilian population or to the adverse Party, whatever the motive, whether in order to starve out civilians, to cause them to move away, or for any other motive.

During the Gulf War in 1990 when Iraqi forces were driven out of Kuwait, they set more than 600 Kuwaiti oil wells on fire. This was done as part of a scorched-earth policy while retreating from Kuwait in 1991 after invading the country but being driven out by Coalition military forces (see Gulf War). The fires were started between January to February 1991 and the last one was extinguished by November 1991.


On banknote - Soldier and civilians congratulate each other.

More precisely, the text on the banknote gift booklet refers to this scene:

"The Central Bank of Kuwait, in commemoration of the Second Anniversary of Liberation Day is issuing this special and Commemorative Note at the nominal value of One Kuwaiti Dinar.

On the 26th of February 1991, the sovereignty of the State of Kuwait was restored and the people of Kuwait were freed of the tyrannical occupation. Thereby, the legitimate government has resumed its duties towards the reconstruction, progress and prosperity of the country. The liberation of Kuwait was achieved by the grace of God and through the tireless efforts and the sacrifice made by courageous men and women coupled with the unprecedented alliance of 34 countries who supported the just Kuwaiti cause.

This special Note has been issued to express gratitude and appreciation for the sacrifices and support which culminated in the liberation of Kuwait. This Note also serves as a reminder of the devastation inflicted on Kuwait under occupation, in particular the human suffering and the environmental tragedy. Sadly, innocent men, women, and children remain captive in the aggressor's prisons. We will continue to work, along with the international community towards freeing these hostages. We will not rest or cease our efforts until every single person has returned safely to their homeland, family and friends."

قصر السيف قصر السيف

Above, in the center is Al Seif Palace on Al Sief Street in Kuwait City (Kuwait's capital).

Seif Palace (Arabic, قصر السيف) is a palace in Kuwait City, Kuwait. Located opposite the Grand Mosque, one of Seif Palace's best-known features is the watch tower, covered in blue tiles and with a roof plated in pure gold. Local materials such as clay, rocks, limestone, wood and metals were used in its construction.

The tower of the Seif Palace received a direct hit from an incoming missile during the first Gulf War (1990-1991), which destroyed the dial room. Smith of Derby Group replaced the iconic clock, and were the only non-US company to be awarded a contract in this reconstructive period.

Al-Seif Street was considered the most important and longest street in old Kuwait. It ran from Sharq to Qibla and included many famous landmarks and commercial and occupational centers that were the main backbone of the country’s economy and a source of livelihood in the past. The street, which was six kilometers long and extended from the east of the old city to its west, had many important landmarks such as the Furdha vegetable market, and Naqaa on the beach, surrounded by rocks and used for docking ships and sometimes to repair them, apart from Al-Amayer – commercial shops.

Researcher in Kuwait history Mohammad Jamal in his book “Kuwait’s Old Markets” says that among the most important landmarks of the street is Al-Seif Palace, which includes the governor’s diwan which was built by Kuwait’s late Amir Sheikh Mubarak Al-Sabah in 1906, and is located on the beach. He built another palace on the southern end as his residence, and they were linked with a wooden bridge.

Jamal added that in 1917, Kuwait’s late ruler Sheikh Salem Al-Mubarak Al-Sabah refurbished the palace, which was built with “aajar” brought from Basra, and was built by craftsmen from Baghdad. A large yard was attached to the palace from the north end overlooking the sea, and had a pole with the Kuwait flag in the middle of it. He said on the east end of Al-Seif Palace overlooking the sea was “Niqaat Al-Shaheen” due to the presence of the building of late Shaheen Al-Ghanem, who built dhows, adding that the entire area used to be called Al-Shuyoukh Niqaa.

قصر السيف قصر السيف

Jamal said Al-Seif Street used to include “Seif Al-Toub”, an area that includes several Amayer, followed by Al-Kandaisa, which is a contraption to desalinate seawater to help compensate for a shortage in drinking water – the late Sheikh Mubarak Al-Sabah brought it in 1914. The iftar cannon was also in this area.

Jamal said to the east of Kandaisa there used to be the “Seif Maarafi” that included several Amayer that belonged to sheikhs, ship owners and merchants, the National Jaafari School and the Syrian clinic. Seif Maarafi in the east was followed by several Niqaat connected with each other and surrounded by a fence. On the extreme east there was Dasman Niqaa, considered the last Niqaa in Sharq that ended with the end of the wall.

On the southern end of old Seif street, Jamal said there was the “Rice of Ibn Umair”, across from the entrance of the late Sheikh Mubarak’s place from the south end, and was the place where rice was distributed free to the poor. He added when moving eastward from the Rice of Ibn Umar on Seif Street, there were the offices of the oil company, followed by Sayyed Hussein Baqer Al-Tabtabaei. To the east was the kiosk of Salman Al-Humoud Al-Sabah, then the eastern mustawsaf (polyclinic).

He said on the street itself was the Al-Saada School for orphans, Beit Dickson, which was the house of Colonel Dixon, the British commissioner accredited to Kuwait from 1929 until 1936, the Amiri hospital, the British consulate and Dasman Palace. Jamal said Qibla area starts from the west side of Dasman Palace with the customs building followed by the police station, then the vegetable market, a group of Amayer, Niqabas and cafes, and the diwan of late Ahmad Al-Ghanim. There was also the Al-Ahmadiya school, Al-Yusra, which is a long rocky coast and the American Hospital overlooking the sea in Al-Watiya area, which was an empty coastal area.

Jamal said Bahita hill was across Seif Street, and heading west was the office of Jamal Bashi that specialized in hauling goods from ships to the vegetable market. There were a number of shops and Amayer till the building of Al-Kharafi and Matrouk, which is considered as the first building built with bricks and concrete in Kuwait. It was followed by the road leading to the market and was named New Street, which is Abdullah Al-Salem Street now. (


The banknote is not legal tender in Kuwait !! That is, it is purely souvenir banknote.

banknote banknote banknote

Banknote 1 Dinar 1993 in my collection.