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1000 Markkaa 1992. Litt. A, Finland

in Krause book Number: 121.7
Years of issue: 1992
Signatures: Ele Alenius, Sirkka Aune-Marjatta Hämäläinen
Serie: Famous personalities
Specimen of: 1986
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 142 х 69
Printer: Bank of Finland Security Printing House, Setelipaino Sedeltryckeriet, Vantaa

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1000 Markkaa 1992. Litt. A




Anders Chydenius.


1000 Markkaa 1992. Litt. A

Anders Chydenius

The engraving on banknote is made after this portrait of Anders Chydenius by Swedish painter Per Fjällström from the year 1770, today is in Nedervetil church (Fin: Alaveteli), in Ostrobothnia, Finland.

Anders Chydenius (26 February 1729, Sotkamo, Sweden (now Finland) – 1 February 1803, Gamla Karleby, Sweden (now Finland)) was a Finnish priest and a member of the Swedish Riksdag, and is known as the leading classical liberal of Nordic history.

Born in Sotkamo, Finland (then part of Sweden) and having studied under Pehr Kalm at the Royal Academy of Åbo, Chydenius became a priest and Enlightenment philosopher. He was elected as an ecclesiastic member of the Swedish Riksdag of the Estates in 1765-1766, in which his Cap party seized the majority and government and championed Sweden's first Freedom of the Press Act, the most liberal in the world along with those of Great Britain and the Seven United Provinces. Vehemently opposed to the extreme interventionist policies of mercantilism preached by the previously predominant Hat party since decades, he was ultimately coerced into retirement for his criticism of the Cap administration's radical deregulation policies and their social and political consequences.

Following Gustav III's coup d'état in 1772, which meant the end of parliamentary rule for another century, Chydenius briefly returned to prominence and worked to increase civil liberties and economic freedom as part of Gustav's doctrine of enlightened despotism, and contributed the abolishment of torture as means of interrogation, the limitation of capital punishment, and the legalisation of Jewish and Catholic immigration into Sweden. Ultimately, the king's increasingly autocratic position brought Chydenius out of favour again, and he retired to private life in Ostrobothnia, where he died at age 73.

An early pioneer, also by international standards, and proponent of economic liberalism, freedom of religion, freedom of speech and migration (writing a pamphlet on the invisible hand a decade before the publication of The Wealth of Nations) he was one of the first comprehensive philosophers of liberalism.


On background is the Frigate Finlandia, (in my opinion), which symbolizes Finland itself and its connection with the sea, as well as all sailing ships of the cities of Norland.

How the sailing ships of the cities of Norland and Chydenius are related, please read below.

In 1762-1763 Chydenius participated in a competition of works on meadow management and on the modernization of a working car. For both works, he received silver medals. During this period, Chydenius became interested in political economy and became the author of several works. For this reason, in 1763, for the Lena meeting held in Kokkola, he was instructed to write a memo on the shipping rights of the cities of Pohjanmaa. This was the beginning of the political career of Chydenius, already in 1765-1766. who brought him to the Riksdag as a deputy from the priests of Pohjanmaa. The 35-year-old chaplain, who arrived in Stockholm on his first Riksdag, was completely inexperienced in politics. He was elected to the spiritual curia with a very specific goal - to defend the expansion of the trade rights of the cities of Pohjanmaa. On this occasion, Chydenius published a pamphlet in which he skillfully and firmly denied all the formal and trade-political counterarguments that Stockholm had resorted to in an attempt to resist reform. Even in the Riksdags of 1760-1762. the representatives of Pohyanmaa managed to prepare good ground, so that the opponents had nothing to oppose Chydenius's arguments. Oulu, Kokkola, Vaasa and Pori, as well as a number of cities in Norland in 1765 received a slipway right, that is, the right to conduct overseas trade in their ships. In order to expand his knowledge of trade policy, Chydenius in Stockholm began to study relevant literature and explore the history of foreign trade legislation. He quickly went deep into these subjects and published two interesting pamphlets. In April 1765, a work entitled “The Source of State Weakness” was published, directed against the so-called product poster of 1724, according to which foreign ships were allowed to import only goods from their country to Sweden. Joining his predecessors, Chydenius believed that the true purpose of this document was to enrich shipowners from slipways at the expense of the rest of the population. Since the importation of colonial goods was turned into a monopoly by large domestic merchants, they were said to be able to increase prices at their discretion. True, after the cities of Pohjanmaa gained the right to overseas trade, Chydenius no longer opposed the product poster. Apparently, after the residents of Pohjanmaa got the opportunity to have their share of foreign trade, his attitude towards shipowners became more tolerant. It must be said that Chydenius cannot be considered a principled champion of free international trade. At the same time, in 1777, he wrote a vivid pamphlet in defense of the liberation of trade in the countryside, defending the rights of rural residents in relation to citizens. ( .rus)

And now a little more about frigate Finlandia itself:

The frigate Finland, equipped by Anders Donner, was one of the finest sailing ships in Finland. Built in 1827, the ship had a tonnage of about 510 net tons, 40 meters long, ten feet wide and five and a half meters deep. The peak of the Big Mast also swung around 40 meters. In the early summer of 1829, Finland sailed from Kokkola with tar cargo to Cadiz, where the cargo was sold and 600 seamen were taken to Havana for a new cargo. The ship then stayed for some time in the Caribbean Sea to charter products between Havana and the smaller ports nearby. The cost of building the ship in 1827 was a staggering 50,000 ricksdalers, but the 1829-1830 cargo sailing alone generated a gross income of 51,000 ricksdalers: the ship returned its price to its shipowner on one voyage. The ship was sold in 1834 in Cadiz, Spain. At the price of Finland, one could hire 300 sailors a year or buy about 20 town houses in Kokkola. K.H. Renenund Museum. (

In top right corner is a hologram insert with flowers, on which, by turning banknote, the face value of 1000 or the coat of arms of Finland are visible.

Denomination is centered, in numeral in lower left corner.


1000 Markkaa 1992. Litt. A


The King’s Gate (Kuninkaanportti) of Soumenlinna fortress (Sveaborg) and seasgals above the sea waves.

The King’s Gate is the iconic symbol of Suomenlinna. It was built in 1753–54 as the entrance gateway to the fortress. The gate was built on the site where the ship carrying King Adolf Frederick of Sweden, was anchored while he inspected the construction of the fortress in 1752.

Bombardments during the Crimean War destroyed the quay and some of the steps at the King’s Gate. The King’s Gate was refurbished for the first time during Finland’s independence in 1925, for a visit by the King and Queen of Sweden. Since then, the gate has been refurbished three times. The most recent restoration work was completed in time for Suomenlinna’s 250th anniversary in 1998.

From the King’s Gate you can watch large cruise ferries navigating the Kustaanmiekka strait on their voyage between Helsinki and Stockholm. Some of the international cruise ships also sail through the strait and past the King’s Gate.

The King’s Gate is about 1.5 km. (1 mile) from the main quay. During the summer season, a waterbus stops at the King’s Gate quay. (

Sveaborg Fortress ("Swedish Fortress") or Suomenlinna ("Finnish Fortress") is a bastion fortification system on islands near the capital of Finland, Helsinki. Administratively - a district of the city of Helsinki. From the 18th to the middle of the 20th century, fortifications defended Helsingfors from the sea, from the 1960s. - museum and residential area.

Fortifications of the fortress were built on 7 rocky islands called “Wolf Skerries” (Fin. Susisaaret, Swede. Vargskär).

The Suomenlinna area includes eight islands. Five of them: Kustaanmiekka, Iso-Mustasaari, Pikku-Mustasaari, Lansi-Mustasaari and Susisaari are connected by bridges or braids. Three islands are isolated: Särkä, Lonna and Pormestarinluluotot.

Kustaanmiekka is the southernmost of the five connected islands. It is connected to Susisaari by a narrow isthmus along which a defensive rampart passes and, strictly speaking, is a peninsula. At the southern end are the bastions with guns and the Royal Gate. In the center of the island in rocky rock there are several small ponds. Susisaari Island is located in the center of the fortress between Kustaanmiekka and Iso Mustasaari. The island has many bastions, customs museums, a submarine and Erensverd. The island is separated from Iso Mustasaari by a narrow strait through which a wooden bridge is thrown. Iso Mustasaari is the most built-up center of the garrison, located in the northeast. It houses the church, the fortress museum, the puppet museum and the main marina. Lansi-Mustasaari and Pikku-Mustasaari are located in the northwest, they are connected by a bridge, and Pikku-Mustasaari is connected by a bridge with Iso-Mustasaari.

The total area of ​​the islands is 80 hectares. About 900 people live on them.

After construction, the fortress received the Swedish name Sveaborg ("Swedish Fortress"). In Finnish, the name Viapori was attached to it, which came from the Swedish name. In Russian, through transliteration from Swedish, the name Sveaborg was obtained.

In 1918, a year after the independence of Finland, the Finnish name Viapori was changed to Suomenlinna (“Finnish Fortress”). This happened on December 6, 1918, when it was exactly 170 years since the start of the construction of the fortress. At the same time, in Swedish, which retained the status of a second state language in independent Finland, the name Sveaborg remained. Over time (no later than the 1940s), the name Suomenlinna, through transliteration from Finnish as Suomenlinna, also came into Russian.

Currently, the fortress of Sveaborg (Fin. Krepost Sveaborg) is one of the main attractions of Helsinki, it has been included in the UNESCO World Heritage List since 1991. On the islands of the former fortress there are several museums, the Finnish Navy Naval Academy and a lightweight prison, whose prisoners work to maintain the fortress in order. The fortifications include numerous artillery from the development of the fortress. ( .rus)

The facade of the two-storey King’s Gate is concave, and the gate, framed with marble stones, is made with rustic masonry. In the 1770s the gate was transformed into a double drawbridge. A quay and wide stairs, constructed from limestone excavated from a site near Stockholm, were built in front of the drawbridge.

The ornamental motifs of the gateway consist of limestone cornices, oval and round embrasures and inscribed marble slabs.

The builder of the fortress, Augustin Ehrensvärd, had one of the ornamental marble slabs inscribed with a famous exhortation to the people of Finland, in Swedish, on banknote - on left side, on top:

"Här har konung Fredrik låtit läggs den första sten år 1748

Och konung Gustaf har lagt den sista sten år.."

Sveaborg som rörer hafvet på den ena sidan och stranden på den andra, giver den kloke herravälde på både haf och land

Ifrån ödemarker äro desse Vargskiärsholmar ombytte till ett Sveaborg. Eftervard, stå här på egen botn, och lita icke på främmande hielp."

In English:

"Here laid King Frederick the first stone in the year 1748

And here laid King Gustav the last stone in the year..." (the year is left unwritten, because Gustav III never arrived to lay the last stone)."

stone tablet

Also, on banknote - on left side:

"Sveaborg som rörer hafvet på den ena sidan och stranden på den andra, giver den kloke herravälde på både haf och land"

In English:

"Sveaborg (Suomenlinna), which touches the sea on one side and the shore on the other, gives the wise control both on sea and on land."

stone tablet

Also, on banknote - on right side:

"Ifrån ödemarker äro desse Vargskiärsholmar ombytte till ett Sveaborg. Eftervard, stå här på egen botn, och lita icke på främmande hielp."

In English:

"From desolate lands, these Wolf Islands have been transformed into a Sveaborg (Suomenlinna). Progeny, stand here on your own foundation, and do not rely on foreign help."

On top is incomplete finish coat of arms.

The Lion is an ancient Scandinavian symbol of authority and power, the symbol of chivalry (hand) and saber - involvement in the general culture of Christian Europe in the fight against the Muslims.

Denomination in numeral is in top right corner, in numeral and words lower, centered.


Obverse designer: Torsten Ekstrom.

Reverse designer: Erik Bruun (born in 1926 in Viipuri (Vyborg)) - Finnish graphic designer.