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10 Dirhams 1985, Morocco

in Krause book Number: 57b
Years of issue: 1985
Signatures: Hassan Lukash, Ahmed Ben Nani
Serie: 1970-1985 Issue
Specimen of: 1970
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 144 x 72
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

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10 Dirhams 1985




King Hassan II of Morocco.


10 Dirhams 1985

Hassan II of Morocco Hassan II of Morocco

King Hassan II (Arabic: الْحسْنُ الثاني بْن مُحَمَّدُ بْن يوسف بْن الْحسْنِ بْن الشَّرِيفِ بْن عَلِيُّ الْعَلَوِيِّ, MSA: (a)l-ḥasan aṯ-ṯānī, Maghrebi Arabic: el-ḥasan ett(s)âni; 9 July 1929 – 23 July 1999) was King of Morocco from 1961 until his death in 1999. He is descended from the Alaouite dynasty. He was the eldest son of Mohammed V, Sultan, then King of Morocco (1909-1961), and his second wife, Lalla Abla bint Tahar (1909-1992). Hassan was known to be one of the most severe rulers of Morocco, widely accused of authoritarian practices and of being an autocrat and a dictator, particularly during the Years of Lead.

Hassan was educated at the Royal Academy in Rabat, where a class created for him was instructed by a faculty including Mehdi Ben Barka. Hassan then earned a law degree from the University of Bordeaux.

He was exiled to Corsica by French authorities on 20 August 1953, together with his father Sultan Mohammed V. They were transferred to Madagascar in January 1954. Prince Moulay Hassan acted as his father's political advisor during the exile. Mohammed V and his family returned from exile on 16 November 1955.

Prince Moulay Hassan participated in the February 1956 negotiations for Morocco's independence with his father, who later appointed him Chief of Staff of the newly founded Royal Armed Forces in April 1956. In the unrest of the same year, he led army contingents battling rebels in the mountains of the Rif. Mohammed V changed the title of the Moroccan sovereign from Sultan to King in 1957. Hassan was proclaimed Crown Prince on 19 July 1957, and became King on 26 February 1961, after his father's death.

Hassan's rule, one characterized by a poor human rights record that was labelled as "appalling" and perhaps one of the worst in Africa and the world, strengthened the Alaouite dynasty. In Morocco's first constitution of 1963, Hassan II reaffirmed Morocco's choice of a multi-party political system, the only one in the Maghreb at that time. The constitution gave the King large powers he eventually used to strengthen his rule, which provoked strong political protest from the UNFP and the Istiqlal parties that formed the backbone of the opposition.

In June 1965, Hassan suspended the constitution of 1962, dissolved the Parliament, declared a state of emergency, and ruled directly, although he did not completely abolish the mechanisms of parliamentary democracy. When elections were eventually held, they were mostly rigged in favour of loyal parties. This caused severe discontent among the opposition, and protest demonstrations and riots challenged the King's rule. A US report observed that "Hassan appears obsessed with the preservation of his power rather than with its application toward the resolution of Morocco's multiplying domestic problems."

Many militants of the National Union of Popular Forces were imprisoned and some party leaders sentenced to death. Student protests that took place March 21, 1965 in Casablanca, and devolved into general riots the following day; their violent repression caused many casualties. In the aftermath, on March 26, Hassan II gave a speech that he concluded with: "There is no greater danger to a country than a so-called intellectual; it would have been better if you had all been illiterate."

In October 1965, Mehdi Ben Barka was kidnapped in Paris and secretly murdered.

In the early 1970s, King Hassan survived two assassination attempts. The first, on July 10, 1971, was a coup d'état attempt allegedly supported by Libya, organized by General Mohamed Medbouh and Colonel M'hamed Ababou and carried out by cadets during a diplomatic function at the King's summer palace in Rabat during his forty-second birthday party. Important guests, including the Belgian Ambassador Marcel Dupert, were placed under house arrest, and the King himself was taken to a small pavilion.

Rabat's main radio station was taken over by the rebels and broadcast propaganda stating that the King had been murdered and a republic founded. The coup ended the same day when royalist troops took over the palace in combat against the rebels. It was subsequently claimed by the Moroccan authorities that the young cadets had been misled by senior officers into thinking that they were acting to protect the king.

On 16 August 1972, during a second attempt, four F-5 military jets from the Royal Moroccan Air Force fired upon the King's Boeing 727 while he was travelling back to Rabat from France, many bullets hit the fuselage but they failed to bring the plane down. Allegedly, the King himself hurried to the cockpit, took control of the radio and shouted: "Stop firing you fools, the Tyrant is dead!" Eight people were killed when the jets strafed the awaiting reception dignitaries. General Mohamed Oufkir, Morocco's defense minister, was the man behind the coup and was officially declared to have committed suicide after the attack. His body, however, was found with several bullet wounds.

In the Cold War era, Hassan II allied Morocco with the West generally, and with the United States in particular. There were close and continuing ties between Hassan II's government and the CIA, who helped to reorganize Morocco's security forces in 1960. Hassan served as a back channel between the Arab world and Israel, facilitating early negotiations between them such as Operation Yachin to secretly migrate Moroccan Jews to Israel.

According to Shlomo Gazit of Israeli intelligence, Hassan II invited Mossad and Shin Bet agents to bug the Casablanca hotel where the Arab League Summit of September 1965 would be held to record the conversations of the Arab leaders. This information was instrumental in Israel's victory in the Six-Day War. According to Ronen Bergman, Mossad then supplied information leading to Mehdi Ben Barka's capture and assassination in October.

During Hassan II's reign, Morocco recovered the Spanish-controlled area of Ifni in 1969, and militarily seized two thirds of Spanish Sahara through the "Green March" in 1975. The latter issue continues to dominate Moroccan foreign policy to this day. Relations with Algeria have deteriorated sharply due to the Western Sahara affair, as well as due to Moroccan claims on Algerian territory (Tindouf and Bechar), which unleashed the brief 1963 Sand War. Relations with Mauritania were tense too, as Morocco only recognized it as a sovereign country in 1969, nearly a decade after Mauritania's independence, because of Moroccan claims on the country (see Great Morocco). In 1985, Hassan II suspends Morocco's membership of the Organization of African Unity and enters into conflict with Burkinabe President Thomas Sankara because of his decision to recognize the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic.

Economically, Hassan II adopted a market-based economy, where agriculture, tourism, and phosphates mining industries played a major role. On March 3, 1973, Hassan II announced the policy of Moroccanization, in which state-held assets, agricultural lands, and businesses that were more than 50 percent foreign-owned and especially French-owned were transferred to political loyalists and high-ranking military officers. The Moroccanization of the economy affected thousands of businesses and the proportion of industrial businesses in Morocco that were Moroccan-owned immediately increased from 18% to 55%. 2/3 of the wealth of the Moroccanized economy was concentrated in 36 Moroccan families.

Morocco's human rights record was extremely poor during the period from the 1960s to the late 1980s, which was labelled as the "years of lead" and saw thousands of dissidents jailed, killed, exiled or forcibly disappeared. During this time, Morocco was one of the most repressive and undemocratic nations in the world. However, Morocco has been labelled as "partly free" by Freedom House, except in 1992 and 2014 when the country was labelled "Not free" in those years respectively. The country would only become more democratic by the early 1990s amid strong international pressure and condemnation over the nation's human rights record. Due to the strong rebuke from other nations and human rights groups, and also because of the realistic threat of international isolation, Hassan II would then gradually democratize the nation over time. Since then, Morocco's human rights record has improved modestly, and improved significantly following the death of Hassan II.

King Hassan II had extended many parliamentary functions[citation needed] by the early 1990s and released hundreds of political prisoners in 1991, and allowed the Alternance, where the opposition assumed power, for the first time in the Arab World. He set up a Royal Council for Human Rights to look into allegations of abuse by the State.

Hassan died of pneumonia and other health consequences in his birth town at the age of 70 on 23 July 1999. A national funeral service was held for him in Rabat, with over 40 heads of state in attendance. He was buried in the Mausoleum of Mohammed V. The coffin of Hassan II, carried by King Mohammed VI, his brother Prince Moulay Rachid and his cousin Moulay Hicham, was covered with a green fabric, in which the first prayer of Islam, "There is no god but God", is inscribed in golden writing.

Andalusian gardens Andalusian gardens Andalusian gardens

In the center are the Andalusian Gardens in Rabat, located at Avenue Al Marsa, Rabat 10030, Morocco.

More exactly: The Kasbah of the Udayas (on the left), The Tower of the pavilion of Moulay Ismail and a Museum of Oudayas, now Museum of Moroccan Arts in Rabat.

The Kasbah of the Udayas (Arabic: قصبة الوداية‎ Qasbat al-Udaya) (also spelled "Oudaias" or "Oudayas") is a kasbah (citadel) in Rabat, Morocco. It is located at the mouth of the Bou Regreg river, opposite Salé, and adjacent to the old medina of Rabat. It is listed, along with other sites in Rabat, as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

In the X century the Ummayyads of Cordoba, or their Zenata Berber allies in the region, founded a ribat or fortified monastery/outpost in the area, to defend against the Barghawata Berbers who had established a Kharijite state to the south. This ribat was most likely on the same site as the current Kasbah of the Udayas, but its location has not been confirmed by historians. In any case, one of the last Almoravid emirs, Tashfin ibn Ali (ruled 1143-1145) built a new ribat on the site of the current kasbah during his efforts to repel the Almohads. The Almohads defeated the Almoravids and destroyed the ribat. In 1150 or 1151 the Almohad caliph Abd al-Mu'min built a new kasbah (citadel) over the site of the former ribat, within which was a palace and a mosque. He also had an underground canal dug to divert a water source to the area, allowing for future settlement and urbanization. His successor, Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur (ruled 1184-1199), embarked on a huge project to construct a new fortified imperial capital, called al-Mahdiyya or Ribat al-Fath, on the site of what is now the medina (old city) of Rabat, with new walls extending over a vast area beyond the old kasbah. This project also included the construction of an enormous mosque (the remains of which include the Hassan Tower) and of new grand gateways including Bab er-Rouah, a major gate in the city's western wall, and what is now called Bab Udaya or Bab al-Kbir, the gate of the Kasbah. After Abu Yusuf Ya'qub's death in 1184 the mosque and the capital remained unfinished and his successors lacked the resources or the will to finish it. The kasbah itself became essentially abandoned. Meanwhile, the town of Salé across the river, grew in importance and was developed during the Marinid era.

In 1609, Philip III decreed the expulsion of all Moriscos (people of Muslim or Moorish descent) from Spain. About 2000 of these refugees, originally from the town of Hornachos near Badajoz, Spain, settled around Salé and occupied the kasbah, attracting between 5000 and 14,000 other Moriscos to join them. They established their own autonomous republic, referred as the Republic of Salé (or Republic of Bou Regreg), which served as a base for corsairs: pirates who preyed on merchant ships around Western Europe and sold the crews into slavery, also known as the "Salé Rovers". During this time (early XVII century) they built a broad platform on the kasbah's northeastern edge, overlooking the river, which was used for semaphore signalling. A warehouse structure was later added on it during the XVIII century, used today as a school and a carpet workshop. Below the platform, to the north, was a sqala, a seaside fortification and artillery platform, while just 25 meters upriver from this, to the east, was the "Tower of the Corsairs", also added in the XVIII century. This was a round tower with openings for 4 canons aimed at the river. The tower rose only 3 meters above the water and was hidden from view behind the sqala, thus allowing its canons to catch pursuing enemy ships by surprise. The Republic of Salé remained outside the control of central government until 1666, when the Alaouite sultan Moulay Rashid took over the area and placed the corsairs under his authority.

The southern part of the Kasbah today was added during the Alaouite period, especially in the 18th century. It includes a palace or royal pavilion built by Sultan Moulay Ismail (ruled 1672-1727) at the end of the 17th century and serving today as a museum. Moulay Ismail was also responsible for settling the Udaya (or Oudaia) Arab tribe in the kasbah and in Rabat to serve as a counterbalancing force against other unruly tribes in the region, thus giving the kasbah its current name, Kasbah of the Udayas.

Rabat (with the Kasbah included within it) was added to the UNESCO World Heritage Tentative List on July 20, 2006 in the Cultural category. It was granted World Heritage Status in 2012.

Andalusian gardens Andalusian gardens

The southern part of the kasbah includes a former pavilion or palace residence built by Sultan Moulay Ismail (ruled 1672-1727) at the end of the XVII century. The building is centered around a main courtyard and is distinguished on the outside by a tower. For a while, the palace also served as a madrasa. In 1915, during the French Protectorate over Morocco, the building was converted into a museum on the initiative of Prosper Ricard, director of the Service des Arts Indigènes under Lyautey. It became an ethnographic museum with a collection initially made up of donations from Prosper Ricard himself, Alfred Bel, and Jean Besancenot. The museum's collection expanded to include jewellery, musical instruments, ceramics, Qur'ans and manuscripts (some as old as the XII century), costumes, silks, and carpets, all from different parts of the country. In 2006, following a restoration, it became the National Jewellery Museum, devoted to the history of Moroccan jewellery.

Andalusian gardens were built for King of Morocco Mohammed VI. They collected all kinds of plant species that are only found in the east.

On the opening day, an entire ceremony was held and an exhibition entitled "Al-Andalus. Water Culture."

The garden was built at the beginning of the XX century by the French architect Jean Claude Nicolas Forestier. And initially it was created for the National University of Agronomic Research of Morocco, as an experimental one. All this was done to develop gardening and economic interests.

The first laying of the garden took place under the French authorities. But looking at it now, in the architecture and culture of the garden you will not see anything that could remind of France.

Andalusian gardens

In 2012, the Andalusian Garden was recognized as the center of a collection of all kinds of plants and included in the UNESCO list.

The garden has more than 650 species of plants, which contributes to its economic and agricultural growth. The Andalusian garden was created in the center of a green oasis surrounded by stone walls, which in their architecture resemble ancient Al-Andalus. The irrigation and gardening system has been used since those times, because in it you can find plants that were found in ancient Spain.

The reconstruction of the garden and the pavilion took place with the participation of the National University of Agronomic Research of Morocco. Its reconstruction was carried out by the Spanish architect Antonio Almagro Gorbea and the Arab agronomist Esteban Hernandez-Bermejo. After completing all the work, a famous exhibition was held on its territory. It spoke about the role of water in the agricultural and horticultural industries, as well as its influence and landscape changes, which are observed in some regions of the Iberian Peninsula.

On the territory of the Andalusian garden is another famous attraction - the Museum of Moroccan art, which presents various exhibits and oriental treasures. All kinds of exhibitions and fairs are held on the territory of the Botanical Garden. ( .rus)

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and top left corners. In words - on top.


10 Dirhams 1985

Citrus Sorting and Grading Machine

Industrial sorting of oranges (citrus) in Morocco.

The climate of Morocco is ideal for the mass cultivation of oranges, lemons, tangerines, grapefruits and clementines. Citrus fruits were first cultivated in the country since 1921. Today, the state produces about 2 million tons of citrus fruits per year. The government plans to significantly increase the production of these fruits and by 2020 reach a record high of 3.19 million tons of citrus fruits per year.

The largest share in the export of fruits is oranges. The production of this type of citrus lasts almost year-round. These fruits can be delivered to various parts of the world for more than 8 months a year, due to the variety of varieties:

- Navel;

- Salustiana;

- Sanguines;

- Maroc late.

According to statistics, the vast majority of the export of oranges falls in the period from November to June. ( .rus)

Denominations in numerals are in top corners, in words - in lower left corner.