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20 Markkaa 1998, Finland

in Krause book Number: 122
Years of issue: 1998
Edition:
Signatures: Erkki Matti Vanhala, Antti Heinonen
Serie: Famous personalities
Specimen of: 1993
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 142 х 69
Printer: Bank of Finland Security Printing House, Setelipaino Sedeltryckeriet, Vantaa

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

20 Markkaa 1998

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Väinö Linna.

Avers:

20 Markkaa 1998

Vaino Linna

The engraving on banknote is made from this photo of Väinö Linna.

Väinö Linna (20 December 1920 – 21 April 1992) was a Finnish author. He gained literary fame with his third novel, Tuntematon sotilas (The Unknown Soldier, published in 1954), and consolidated his position with the trilogy Täällä Pohjantähden alla (Under the North Star, published in 1959-1963 and translated into English by Richard Impola).

Väinö Linna was born in Urjala in the Pirkanmaa region. He was the seventh child of Viktor (Vihtori) Linna (1874–1928) and Johanna Maria (Maija) Linna (1888-1972). However, Linna's father, a butcher, died when Väinö Linna was only seven years old. Thus his mother had to support the entire family by working at a nearby manor. Despite his background, Linna's interest in literature began early on. As a child, Linna loved adventure novels which he borrowed from the local library. The author's education was, however, limited to six years at a public school which he finished in the mid-1930s. After working as a lumberjack and a farm hand at the same manor where his mother had worked, Linna moved to Tampere in 1938. Typical of his generation, the adolescent author-to-be moved from the countryside to a developing city in search of industrial labour which he found at the Finlayson textile mills.

In 1940, Linna was conscripted into the army. The Second World War had broken out, and for Linna's part it meant participation in the Continuation War (1941-44). He fought on the eastern front. In addition to being a squad-leader, he wrote notes and observations about his and his unit's experiences. Already at this point Linna knew that writing would be his preferred occupation. However, failure to get the notes published led him to burn them. In spite of rejection, the idea of a novel, which would depict ordinary soldiers' views on war, would later lead him to write The Unknown Soldier.

After the war, Linna got married and started writing whilst working at the mills during the day. Throughout his time at Finlayson, Väinö Linna read avidly. Such authors as Schopenhauer, Dostoyevsky, and Nietzsche gained Linna's respect. Linna later said that Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front had also had a great influence on him. However, Linna's first two novels Päämäärä and Musta rakkaus sold poorly; he also wrote poetry but did not enjoy success with that either. Not until the release of The Unknown Soldier (1954) did he rise to fame. It is evident that at the time there was a distinct social need for a novel that would deal with the war and ordinary people's role in it. A decade after the peace treaty with the Soviet Union many Finns were ready to reminisce, some even in a critical manner. The Unknown Soldier satisfied that need completely, as its characters were unarguably more diverse, realistic yet heroic, than those of earlier Finnish war novels. The book soon became something of a best-seller, as it sold 175,000 copies in only six months – quite a lot for a Finnish novel in the 1950s. Yet, the reception of the book was harsh. In Finland's biggest newspaper, Helsingin Sanomat, the critic Toini Havu argued in her infamous review that Linna did not present his characters in a grand historical and ethical context, which she thought was crucial. Also modernists treated The Unknown Soldier with contempt. At the time Tuomas Anhava referred to The Unknown Soldier as a "boy's book" because of its action-packed storyline. The acceptance of the general public and Linna's determination were, however, enough to outdo the criticism in the end.

In the mid-50s, Linna moved to Hämeenkyrö and began to cultivate crops. In 1959, the first part of Under the North Star was released. The book was a success and other parts were to follow. The second part was published in 1960 and the final part in 1963. The third part of the novel was honoured with the Nordic Council's Literature Prize. In 1964, Linna sold the farm and moved back to Tampere. This time he did not return to Finlayson, as he now could dedicate his life entirely to literature due to the financial success his works had earned him. He was given the honorary title of Academician in 1980, despite the fact that he had no higher education.

In 1984, Väinö Linna had a stroke, which caused him to lose the ability to speak. After some time he contracted cancer, which tired him out, leading to his death on 21 April 1992.

Under denomination in words are 4 circles for visually impaired.

Denomination is centered, in numeral in lower left corner.

Revers:

20 Markkaa 1998

Tammerkoski rapids

Tammerkoski rapids in Tampere. The north part of Tammerkoski. On the left, the former Finlayson textile mill. On the right, the former metal and textile factory Tampella. The Tampella powerstation is behind the large arched window. The powerstation inlet channel is visible left of the window, rising some five meters above the downstream level.

Tammerkoski is a channel of rapids in Tampere, Finland. The city of Tampere is located between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. The difference in altitude between these two is 18 meters (59 ft.) and the water flows from Näsijärvi to Pyhäjärvi through the Tammerkoski rapids. The banks of the Tammerkoski are among the oldest industrial areas in Finland. There was a busy marketplace in the XVII century. Tampere was founded on the banks of the rapids, as the rushing water provided a great deal of power for the needs of industry.

There are four power stations and three dams located on the Tammerkoski. The highest in altitude is the dam between Finlayson and Tampella. From this dam, the stream is led to the power stations of Finlayson and Tampella on either side of the rapids. In the middle, there is the city's power plant and the lowest one in terms of altitude is the dam at the Tako paperboard mill, which belongs to M-real. The three uppermost power stations are owned by the city, while the powerstation by Tako is owned mostly by the municipal power company of Southern Savonia.

The Tammerkoski has been mentioned in official documents since 1405. In the XV century, the first dams were built on the channel. The first argument over milling plant rights happened in 1466, when Takahuhti, Messukylä and Tammerkoski argued over their shares. About a hundred years later the government noticed the possibilities in the area and tried to replace the peasant-controlled dams with their own. The attempt was unsuccessful due to opposition from the inhabitants.

In the 17th century, a popular and well-known marketplace was established in the Tammerkoski area. The permanent marketplace remained near the Tammerkosken kartano (Tammerkoski manor), west of the bridge over the channel. At the beginning of the XVIII century, the main marketplace was moved to Harju.

In 1775, King Gustav III of Sweden travelled to Finland and signed the charter of foundation for Tammerkoski, a city later renamed to Tampere. A wooden bridge over the Tammerkoski was constructed in 1807. This was later replaced by an iron bridge in 1884 and an iron-concrete bridge named Hämeensilta in 1929. For motor vehicle use, many other bridges have since been built. These include Ratinan silta, Satakunnansilta and Paasikivensilta. For light traffic use, there are Ratinan suvannon silta and Patosilta. There is also a two-track railroad bridge.

By the beginning of the 1990s, most industry had disappeared from the banks of the Tammerkoski. The Tako paperboard mill is the only major industrial installation still operational in the area, producing mainly high-quality packaging products for luxury items such as French perfume. The buildings of the old factories have been turned into restaurants and museums among other uses. The waters of the Tammerkoski are rather unpolluted, belonging to the quality class II in the classification of the Finnish environmental authority and the channel is popular with fishermen. .

Tampella

The birds, to the left of the center, are made on the basis of the pattern on the textile of the 1977 made by Tampella metal-textile factory. (douglascain.blogspot.com)

On top is incomplete finish coat of arms.

The Lion is an ancient Scandinavian symbol of authority and power, the symbol of chivalry (hand) and saber - involvement in the general culture of Christian Europe in the fight against the Muslims.

Denomination in numeral is in top right corner, in numeral and words lower, centered.

Comments:

Obverse designer: Torsten Ekstrom.

Reverse designer: Erik Bruun (born in 1926 in Viipuri (Vyborg)) - Finnish graphic designer.