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500 Hryven 2015, Ukraine

in Krause book Number: 124
Years of issue: 01.11.2015
Edition:
Signatures: Голова правлiння банку: Валерiя Гонтарева (с 19.06.2014 - 15.03.2018)
Serie: 2006 Issue
Specimen of: 15.09.2006
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 154 х 75
Printer: Банкнотно-монетный двор Нацбанка Украины, Киев

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

500 Hryven 2015

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The banknote is made on special tinted paper in a beige hue, which corresponds to the prevailing color of the banknote, with a multi-color watermark in the form of a portrait of Grigory Skovoroda and the hryvnia symbol as a currency. In addition, the banknote contains other security elements: anti-scanner mesh, protective tape, microtext, invisible protective fibers, composite image, relief elements, rainbow and Oryol prints, fluorescent and magnetic numbers, light element.

The banknote contains: anti-scan mesh; microtext, security thread, embossed elements, latent image, composite image, rainbow print, element for visually impaired people in the form of two vertical dashes of violet color, optically variable ink (OVI), Oryol printing.

Separate fragments of the number "500" are placed in an unsealed "window" in the form of a parallelogram. In addition to the visual security features, the banknote has security features that are detected in ultraviolet and infrared rays and have magnetic properties.

Avers:

500 Hryven 2015

Hryhorii Skovoroda

Gregory Skovoroda, also Hryhorii Skovoroda, or Grigory Skovoroda (Latin: Gregorius Scovoroda, Ukrainian: Григорій Савич Сковорода, Hryhorii Savych Skovoroda; Russian: Григо́рий Са́ввич Сковорода́, Grigory Savvich Skovoroda; 3 December 1722 – 9 November 1794) was a philosopher of Cossack origin, who wrote primarily in the Sloboda Ukraine dialect. He was also a poet, teacher and composer of liturgical music. His significant influence on his contemporaries and succeeding generations and his way of life were universally regarded as Socratic, and he was often called a "Socrates."Skovoroda's work contributed to the cultural heritage of both modern-day Ukraine and Russia, both countries claiming him as a native son.

Skovoroda received his education at the Kiеv Mogila Academy in Kiev. Haunted by worldly and spiritual powers, the philosopher led a life of an itinerant thinker-beggar. In his tracts and dialogs, biblical problems overlap with those examined earlier by Plato and the Stoics. Skovoroda's first book was issued after his death in 1798 in Saint Petersburg. Skovoroda's complete works were published for the first time in Saint Petersburg in 1861. Before this edition many of his works existed only in manuscript form.

Skovoroda fountain

In the background there is a graphic depiction of the fountain with the inscriptions “Not Equal All Equality” (above the fountain) and “Flowing from different pipes, different currents: different” (under the fountain); the image is taken from the section “Signs of certain affinities” included in the dialog of the Pan “Conversation, called the alphabet, or ABC book”.

The text of G. Skovoroda surrounding and explaining this figure in the manuscript: “The God is like a rich fountain, filling various vessels, according to their capacity. Above the fountain the inscription says: “Unequal all equality”. Different currents flow from different tubes into different vessels, standing around the fountain. A smaller vessel has less, but in that it is equal to eat more, which is equal to complete. And what is stupid, like the equal equality, that fools encroach upon in vain trying?”

In the upper central part of the banknote there is a small coat of arms of the country and the inscription: UKRAINE, in the right corner of the banknote - the inscription: National Bank of Ukraine.

In the middle of the right edge of the banknote there is an element for people with visual impairment in the form of three brown vertical points.

In the lower right corner of the banknote, a digital designation of the face value "500" is printed with paint, the color of which changes when viewing the banknote from different angles of view,

The design of the front side of the banknote is supplemented by protective guilloche and anti-scan nets.

In the lower left corner there is a vertical inscription in two lines: P’ATSOT / GRIVEN. Par value of 500 is placed in the upper left and lower right corner of the banknote.

Revers:

500 Hryven 2015

Kyievo-Mohylianska akademiia

The building of the Old Academy building of the Kiev-Mohyla Academy. View (from the south side) of the Old (Mazepa) building in the middle of the XVIII century, designed by architect Johan Schädel, 1736. Engraving from the book: Ifika Hieropolitics. 1760.

The Old Academic Building (also known as Mazepinsky), on Gregory Skovoroda Street 2, is a building that belongs to the university city of the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.

The history of the building begins from the beginning of the XVIII century. At the time when the building was built for students of the academy by order of the hetman Ivan Mazepa. Later, with the expansion of the university, the second and third floors were completed. After a fire in 1811 in Kiev, the building was rebuilt with the participation of architect Andrei Melensky. The case was depicted on the seal of the old Kiev-Mohyla Academy. His image is also contained in a banknote of 500 Ukrainian hryvnias, on the logos of the Ukrainian Scientific Institute of Harvard University and the Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and Source Studies M.S. Grushevskogo NAS of Ukraine.

The modern university building is used as a research library. The Old Academic Building also contains the Congregation Hall, which hosts the most solemn university events such as visits of guests and scientific conferences. Also in the building the Research Center for Visual Culture at NaUKMA conducts its events, conferences and exhibitions.

Memorial plaques to the philanthropists of the University Elizaveta Vasilyevna Galshke and Petro Mogile, as well as students of the Academy Mikhail Lomonosov and Artem Vedel, are placed on the building.

It is traditionally believed that from the fall of 1738 to the summer of 1741, Grigory Skovoroda studied at the Kiev Theological Academy, but his name was not preserved in the list of students. The first period of Skovoroda's studies at the Academy was restored in 1902 by N. I. Petrov, based on information about Samuel Mislavsky and a copy of the Latin book “On the Exodus of the Holy Spirit” by Adam Zernikav, rewritten by 35 students for Timofei Shcherbatsky, among whom was Skovoroda. According to L. E. Makhnovets, N. I. Petrov made a number of inaccuracies in the reconstruction of the length of the “first Little Russian period” of the Frying Pan, which was later reproduced and developed by D. I. Bagaley. According to archival studies of L. E. Makhnovets, Skovoroda was supposed to study at the Academy from 1734 to 1741, from 1744 to 1745 and from 1751 to 1753, that is, it turns out that Skovoroda entered the Academy at the age of 12 years, and, based on of these calculations, in the Kiev Academy, the young Skovoroda could personally see the young Mikhail Lomonosov. Although most modern scholars share the position of L. E. Makhnovets, there are more questions than answers in the Academy about the first period of study; therefore, its periodization remains debatable.

Kyivan Mohyla Academy ( Kyievo-Mohylianska akademiia). The leading center of higher education in XVII- and XVIII-century Ukraine, which exerted a significant intellectual influence over the entire Orthodox world at the time. Established in 1632 by Petro Mohyla through the merger of the Kyiv Epiphany Brotherhood School (est 1615–16) with the Kyivan Cave Monastery School (est 1631 by Mohyla), the new school was conceived by its founder as an academy, ie, an institution of higher learning offering philosophy and theology courses and supervising a network of secondary schools. Completing the Orthodox school system, it was to compete on an equal footing with Polish academies run by the Jesuits. Fearing such competition, King Władysław IV Vasa granted the school the status of a mere college or secondary school, and prohibited it from teaching philosophy and theology. It was only in 1694 that the Kyivan Mohyla College (Collegium Kijoviense Mohileanum) was granted the full privileges of an academy, and only in 1701 that it was recognized officially as an academy by Peter I.

In founding the school, Petro Mohyla's purpose was to master the intellectual skills and learning of contemporary Europe and to apply them to the defense of the Orthodox faith. Taking his most dangerous adversary as the model, he adopted the organizational structure, the teaching methods, and the curriculum of the Jesuit schools. Unlike other Orthodox schools, which emphasized Church Slavonic and Greek, Mohyla's college gave primacy to Latin and Polish. This change was a victory for the more progressive churchmen, who appreciated the political and intellectual importance of these languages.

Church Slavonic, the sacral language, and Ruthenian, the literary language of Ukrainians and Belarusians closest to the vernacular, continued to be taught, while Greek was relegated to a secondary place. The undergraduate program, based on the liberal arts, was designed to develop the basic skills of public speaking rather than to pass on a body of knowledge, and was organized into five grades. The three lower grades were essentially grammarian. They were preceded by an introductory grade, analog or fara, devoted to reading and writing and elementary Latin, Polish, and Slavonic. The first grade, infima, provided an introduction to Latin grammar based on E. Álvarez's De Institutione Grammatica Libri Tres, the standard textbook adopted by the Jesuits. In the next grade, grammatica, Álvarez continued to be used for Latin syntax, readings from Cicero and Ovid were analyzed, and Greek grammar was introduced. In the syntaxis grade Álvarez was completed and Greek continued to be studied. Besides Ovid and Cicero, some works by Catullus, Virgil, Tibullus, and Aesop were read. Each grade required a year to complete and included some instruction in catechism, arithmetic, music, and painting.

The intermediate level consisted of two grades, in which students began to compose Latin prose and verse. The first, poetica, took one year and provided a grounding in the theory and practice of literature, and a close study of the writings of Caesar, Sallust, Livy, Curtius, Martial, Virgil, and Horace. Polish Renaissance and baroque poetry (Jan Kochanowski, Samuel Twardowski) and, later in the century, some Ukrainian poetry (Ivan Velychkovsky) were also read. The two-year rhetorica grade completed the secondary-school program. Cicero and Aristotle's Poetics were studied in the course of mastering the rules of elegant composition. In both grades students absorbed much prose and verse information on secular and biblical history, mythology, and classical geography for the purpose of rhetoric, not of knowledge.

Kyivan instructors, like the instructors of Polish and other European schools, prepared their own Latin manuals of poetics and rhetoric. Approximately 120 XVII- and XVIII-century manuals have survived, including Teofan Prokopovych's De Arte Poetica Libri III (1705) and De Arte Rhetorica Libri X (1706). The remarkable efflorescence of Ukrainian baroque literature was closely connected with the school's philological program.

Higher education consisted of a three-year philosophy program that paved the way to four years of theology. In spite of the king's prohibition, some course in philosophy was usually taught, and in 1642–6 a theology course was offered. In the mid-1680s a full philosophy and theology program was given a permanent place in the curriculum. Logic, physics, and metaphysics were the main parts of the philosophy program. The philosophy manuals prepared by the school's professors, of which about 80 have survived, show that there was no uniform system of thought, but that each course reflected the preferences and abilities of the instructor. The basically Aristotelian philosophy taught in the school was derived not from Aristotle himself but from his medieval interpreters and was supplemented with doctrines from Saint Augustine, Saint Thomas Aquinas, Duns Scotus, and William of Ockham, humanists such as L. Valla, L. Vives, and D. Erasmus and the Protestant scholar P. Melanchthon, and the Jesuits F. Suárez, P. da Fonseca, and L. de Molina. At the beginning of the 18th century Teofan Prokopovych showed an interest in R. Descartes and F. Bacon. From the middle of the 18th century on orders from the Holy Synod the academy adopted C. Wolff's philosophy. The theological courses at the academy consisted of commentaries on Catholic theologians such as R. Bellarmine, F. Suárez, T. González, and the Polish Jesuit T. Młodzianowski. In method, if not in content, they were very Thomistic. The only attempt to work out an independent theological system was Petro Mohyla's Pravoslavnoe ispovedanie ... (Orthodox Confession ..., 1640).

From its beginnings, the academy had close ties with the Cossack starshyna, which provided it with moral and material support. Hetman Ivan Petrazhytsky-Kulaha approved Petro Mohyla's plans for the new school in 1632 and granted it a charter. The school, in turn, educated the succeeding generation of the service elite. In the 1640s, when the Orthodox hierarchy sided with the Polish Crown against the rebellious Cossacks, Cossack sons continued to attend the college. Among them were the future hetmans Ivan Vyhovsky, Ivan Samoilovych, Pavlo Teteria, Ivan Mazepa, and Pavlo Polubotok. Bohdan Khmelnytsky established the tradition of hetman grants in money, lands, and privileges to the college. The Kyiv clergy's opposition to the Pereiaslav Treaty of 1654 severely strained their relation with the Cossacks. During the Cossack-Polish War (1648–57) and the Ruin period (1657–87), the activities of the college were severely disrupted. Its buildings and property were looted and destroyed several times by Muscovite and Polish armies. The strong Hetman state that emerged in Left-Bank Ukraine after the Ruin period provided favorable conditions for the college's growth. Supported generously by Hetman Samoilovych (1672–87), the school began to flourish towards the end of his rule, and during Hetman Mazepa's reign (1687–1709), enjoyed its golden age. The enrollment at the time exceeded 2,000. Some of the students, including S. Maksymovych, O. Turansky, and A. Runovsky, later gained prominence as Cossack officers.

Many of the most accomplished Ukrainian authors and churchmen of the time served on the school's faculty: Lazar Baranovych, Ioan Maksymovych, Dymytrii Tuptalo, Stefan Yavorsky, and Teofan Prokopovych. Some of them played instrumental roles in Peter I's educational reforms in Russia. The Moscow academy was patterned after the Kyivan one and numerous Russian schools were organized by bishops who were graduates of the Kyiv academy. Open to young men from all social strata, the academy attracted students from various regions of the Orthodox world. Some of its graduates, Ukrainian or foreign, continued their studies in Polish or European academies and universities, and returned home to weave Kyivan and European thought patterns into their native tradition.

At the same time, Moscow's expanding political power and increasing interference in Ukrainian affairs threatened the academy's freedom and well-being. Gaining control of Kyiv metropoly in 1686, the Patriarch of Moscow attempted to end the intellectual influence of Kyiv on Muscovite society by placing almost all Kyiv publications on an index of heretical books. It was forbidden to print books in Ruthenian. Although in 1693 Patriarch Adrian eased the linguistic restrictions, Ukrainian books were denied entry into Muscovy. The academy's golden age came to an abrupt end with Ivan Mazepa's defeat at the Battle of Poltava in 1709. The school's properties were plundered by Russian troops. Students from Right-Bank Ukraine, which was under Polish rule, were no longer admitted. By 1711 the enrollment fell to 161. Graduates of the academy were encouraged to seek positions in Moscow or Saint Petersburg. Peter I's ban on Ruthenian publications and religious texts in the Ukrainian recension of Church Slavonic was a heavy blow to the academy.

After Peter I's death, Ivan Mazepa's endowments were returned to the academy. Thanks to the support of Hetman Danylo Apostol and the administrative talents of Metropolitan Rafail Zaborovsky (1731–42), the school revived. New courses in modern languages, history and mathematics, medicine, and geography were added to its curriculum. The enrollment rose steadily from 490 in 1738–9 to 1,110 in 1744–5. Graduates were encouraged to complete their education in European universities and many sons of wealthy Cossack families studied abroad. The academy continued to educate the civil and ecclesiastical elite of the Hetman state and the Russian Empire. Catherine II's abolition of the Hetmanate in 1764 and secularization of the monasteries in 1786 deprived the academy of its chief sources of financial support. The school became a ward of the Russian imperial government and its importance declined rapidly. By the end of the century it was reduced to an eparchial seminary. In 1811, 1,069 of its 1,198 students were candidates for the priesthood. In 1817 the academy was closed down, and two years later the Kyiv Theological Academy was opened in its place. In 1991 the Academy was formally revived as a national university and in 1992 it opened its doors to students on its historic campus (see Kyiv Mohyla Academy National University).

The academy's adaptation of European education was largely conditioned by the social and religious demands of early XVII-century Ukrainian society. Hardly touched by the Renaissance and Reformation movements, it placed little value on the vernacular Ukrainian language and felt no need for a secular culture. It defined itself mostly in religious terms and, therefore, made the preservation of the Orthodox faith its primary concern. By arming the Ukrainian members of the leading estates in the Polish Commonwealth with the languages and intellectual tools of the dominant culture, the academy fulfilled the demands placed on it by society. Accustomed to a defensive, conservative posture, the intellectual elite nurtured by the academy failed to capitalize on the new opportunities offered by the Hetman state. In the XVIII century the academy adjusted itself as best it could to the increasing restrictions placed on it by an alien church hierarchy and imperial power. Its literary and scholarly achievement had a decisive impact on the development of Ukrainian culture and provided a firm foundation for later accomplishments. (www.encyclopediaofukraine.com)

seal Kyievo-Mohylianska akademiia

The background depicts the seal of the Kiev-Mohyla Academy used in the XVIII century with a circular Latin inscription “ACADEMIA KIIOVIENSIS SIGILLUM” and an image of the Old Academic Corps in the center. To the right of the academy’s image is a vertical inscription “Kyiv-Mohyla academy”.

To the left of the Academy’s image is a graphic image of Grigory Skovoroda’s author’s drawing to his works (“Pythagorean triangle” in which G. Skovoroda put a deep symbolic and philosophical meaning) ”, in the form of a triangle with an eye inscribed in a circle with Greek letters placed at the corners α, β, and ω. Also, the reverse side of the banknote contains a series (two letters) and the number (seven digits) of the banknote; face value indicated by number and words (“P’yat hundred hryvnia”); year and place of printing (“Kyiv 2015”); vertical inscription "UKRAINE".

Comments:

Artists: Alexander Kharuk, Sergey Kharuk.