header Notes Collection

500 Mark 1991, Germany

in Krause book Number: 43
Years of issue: 27.10.1992
Signatures: Bundesbank Präsident: Prof. Helmut Schlesinger (01.08.1991-31.09.1993), Vizepräsident: Prof. Hans Tietmeyer (01.08.1991-30.09.1993)
Serie: Fourth Series
Specimen of: 01.08.1991
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 170 х 80
Printer: Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

500 Mark 1991




Maria Sibylla Merian (mirror reflection). Denomination 500.


500 Mark 1991

Maria Sibylla Merian Maria Sibylla Merian

The engraving on banknote is made after this image of Maria Sibylla Merian. The painting by printer Bundesdruckerei Berlin was made after medieval engraving by Swiss engraver Johann Rudolph Schellenberg (1740-1806).

Maria Sibylla Merian (2 April 1647 – 13 January 1717) was a German-born naturalist and scientific illustrator, a descendant of the Frankfurt branch of the Swiss Merian family. Merian was one of the first naturalists to observe insects directly.

Merian received her artistic training from her stepfather, Jacob Marrel, a student of the still life painter Georg Flegel. Merian published her first book of natural illustrations in 1675. She had started to collect insects as an adolescent and at age thirteen she raised silk worms. In 1679 Merian published the first volume of a two-volume series on caterpillars, the second volume followed in 1683. Each volume contained 50 plates engraved and etched by Merian. Merian documented evidence on the process of metamorphosis and the plant hosts of 186 European insect species. Along with the illustrations Merian included a descriptions of their life cycles.

In 1699 Merian travelled to Dutch Surinam to study and record the tropical insects. In 1705 she published Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium. Few colour images of the New World were printed before 1700 and thus Merian's Metamorphosis has been credited with influencing a range of naturalist illustrators. Because of her careful observations and documentation of the metamorphosis of the butterfly, she is considered by David Attenborough to be among the most significant contributors to the field of entomology. She was a leading entomologist of her time and she discovered many new facts about insect life through her studies.

Centered is stylized Vespe.

The subfamily Vespinae contains the largest and best-known eusocial wasps, including true hornets (the genus Vespa), and the "yellowjackets" (genera Dolichovespula and Vespula). The remaining genus, Provespa, is a small, poorly known group of nocturnal wasps from Southeast Asia. One genus, Palaeovespa, has been described from the Eocene fossil record, from Colorado. Collectively, the group can be found on all continents except Antarctica, and several of these wasps are invasive species, introduced beyond their native ranges, and can be major pests.

In the background is a collage of historic buildings of Nuremberg (Historische Meile Nürnberg). Of these, I was able to distinguish:

Nürnberger Burg

On top is the Nurnberg castle (Nürnberger Burg). Nuremberg Castle: Palas, Imperial Chapel, Heathens' Tower on the left - Sinwell Tower in the middle left - Pentagonal Tower, Imperial Stables and Luginsland Tower on the right.

Nuremberg Castle (German: Nürnberger Burg) is a group of medieval fortified buildings on a sandstone ridge dominating the historical center of Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany.

The castle, together with the city walls, is considered to be one of Europe's most formidable medieval fortifications. It represented the power and importance of the Holy Roman Empire and the outstanding role of the Imperial City of Nuremberg.

In the Middle Ages, German kings (respectively Holy Roman Emperors after their coronation by the Pope) did not have a capital, but voyaged from one of their castles (Kaiserpfalz or Imperial castle) to the next. Thus, the castle at Nürnberg became an important imperial castle, and in the following centuries, all German kings and emperors stayed at the castle, most of whom on several occasions.

Nuremberg Castle comprises three sections: the Imperial castle (Kaiserburg), the former Burgraves' castle (Burggrafenburg), and the buildings erected by the Imperial City at the eastern site (Reichsstädtische Bauten).

The first fortified buildings appear to have been erected around 1000. Thereafter, three major construction periods may be distinguished:

the castle built under the Salian kings respectively Holy Roman Emperors (1027–1125);

a new castle built under the Hohenstaufen emperors (1138–1254);

reconstruction of the Palas as well as various modifications and additions in the late medieval centuries.

The castle lost its importance after the Thirty Years' War (1618 to 1648). In the 19th century with its general interest in the medieval period, some modifications were added. During the Nazi period, in preparation of the Nuremberg party rally in 1936, it was "returned to its original state." A few years later, during World War II and its air raids in 1944/1945, a large part of the castle was laid in ruins. It took some thirty years to complete the rebuilding and restoration to its present state.


Imperial Castle.

The usual access to the castle is via Burgstrasse ending in front of the sandstone ridge. A wide footpath leads into the outer courtyard through the Heavenly Gate (Himmelstor) situated next to the Hasenburg tower (named after the Bohemian Hasenburg family).

The Sinwell Tower built in the 2nd half of the 13th century was the major keep of the Castle. It is named after its cylindrical form: in Middle High German sinwell means perfectly round. In the 1560s, its height was increased by a further floor and a pavilion roof with a pointed helm.

The Deep Well (Tiefer Brunnen) inside the small half-timbered house in the middle of the courtyard is certainly as old as the castle itself, as it was the castle's only source of water. Its shaft reaches the water level in a depth of 50 meters (164 feet) and the water usually is 3 m (10 ft) deep. Above the water level, a niche was cut out of the rock for cleaning purposes. The lower stone walls of the building date from 1563. The little annex built in the following year was used as bathroom and changing room. The Deep Well provided sufficient quantities of water for normal consumption, but during Imperial Diets and visits by the Emperor, water barrels had to be transported on wagons from the city.

The Castellan's House (Kastellansgebäude), the Secretarial Building (Sekretariatsgebäude) and the Finance Building (Finanzstadel) as well as the post-medieval Himmelsstallung are further buildings in the outer court, to a large extent reconstructed after World War II.

The Inner Gate (Inneres Tor) leads to the Inner Courtyard (Innerer Burghof), surrounded by the Palas, the Imperial Chapel and the Kemenate. In the courtyard, remains of foundations of the Salian Period may be seen. In the middle, there is the Kunigunde Lime Tree planted in 1984, replacing older trees first mentioned in 1455 and named after Saint Cunigunde, consort of Emperor Henry II (Saint Henry).

The Palas, the main building of the Imperial Castle, has two floors which were used for official functions and as the Emperors residence. It was rebuilt and modified a number of times during the castle's history. It now houses the permanent exhibition »Emperor – Empire – City. The Imperial Castle in Nuremberg«.

Upper Chapel.

The Imperial Chapel (Kaiserkapelle), from an architectural point of view, is the most important building on the castle rock. It was built around 1200, at the same time as the original Palas. It is a romanesque double chapel consisting of two chapels one above the other and connected only through an opening in the ceiling, thus representing the hierarchical levels in the medieval society.

The Heathens' Tower (Heidenturm) stands next to the Imperial Chapel. It was built at the same time as the Chapel. When the Castle was restored for the visit of Emperor Charles V, heathen idols and pictures on the tower were removed, meaning romanesque sculptures, and thus the tower's name in colloquial parlance subsists until today.

The Kemenate (Ladies' Building) originally was built during the Hohenstaufen period, but later replaced by a large four storeyed building. The present building was burned down in 1945 and later reconstructed. At present, it houses the ticket office, the small museum shop and a multimedia show about the building history of the Imperial Castle.

Burgraves' Castle.

The Burgraves' Castle was situated on the area between the Sinwell Tower and the Luginsland, but after its destruction in 1420 and the purchase of its remains by the city, very little is left.

The Pentagonal Tower standing above the northern rock face is among the oldest buildings on the castle rock. It was the keep of the Burgraves' Castle. Its lower part made of ashlars may have been built at the same time as the Imperial Chapel. During later gothic times, a storey of brickwork was added.

The Walburga Chapel appears to have been built shortly thereafter. It was originally dedicated to Saint Othmar, but after the city purchased the ruins of Burgraves' Castle, it was rebuilt and dedicated to Saint Walpurga. Destroyed in World War II, it was reconstructed and opened to the public in 1970.

The Luginsland (literally look into the land) was built in 1377 near the main gate of the Burgraves' castle, in order to enable the city to monitor the activities inside the Burgraves' Castle, at a time when the relations between the city and the Burgraves had already deteriorated.

The Vestner Gate was the only exit from the castle to the north, at that time an open land.

The Imperial Stables were built as a granary in 1494 to 1495 by Hans Beheim the Elder, Nuremberg's most important architect at that time. The ground floor was also used as stables. Severely damaged in World War II, it was renovated and is now a Youth Hostel.

The Bastions were built in 1538 to 1545 in response to the progress in artillery which threatened the northern side of the castle. At about the same time, the fortifications of the city of Nuremberg as a whole were renewed and extended.

Kirche St. Lorenz

Ниже крепости, on the left side is St. Lawrence church (Kirche St. Lorenz), view from east.

St. Lorenz (St. Lawrence) is a medieval church of the former free imperial city of Nuremberg in southern Germany. It is dedicated to Saint Lawrence. The church was badly damaged during the Second World War and later restored. It is one of the most prominent churches of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria.

The nave of the church was completed by around 1400. In 1439, work began on the choir in the form of a hall church in the late German Sondergotik style of Gothic architecture. The choir was largely completed by 1477 by Konrad Roriczer, although Jakob Grimm completed the intricate vaults.

In the choir one can find the carving of the Angelic Salutation by Veit Stoss, and the monumental tabernacle by Adam Kraft. The latter includes a prominent figure of the sculptor himself.

The building and furnishing of the church was cared of by the city council and by wealthy citizens. This is probably the reason why the art treasures of St. Lawrence were spared during the iconoclasm during the Reformation period. Despite St. Lawrence being one of the first churches in Germany to be Lutheran (1525), the wealthy citizens of Nuremberg wanted to preserve the memory of their ancestors and refused the removal of the donated works of art.

The west facade is richly articulated, reflecting the wealth of the Nuremberg citizens. The facade is dominated by the two towers, mirroring St. Sebald and indirectly Bamberg Cathedral with a sharp towering West portal doorway, and an indented rose window 9 metres in diameter.


Right of the church is Fembohaus.

The Stadtmuseum Fembohaus is the city museum on the history of Nuremberg. 950 years of city history are vividly portrayed. It presents in a new kind of museum atmosphere with ambitious exhibitions on current topics of the city's history a comprehensive view of the city's history. The museum belongs to the network of the museums of the city of Nuremberg.

The Fembohaus is Nuremberg's only surviving large merchant's house of the late Renaissance.

The Fembohaus in the Sebalder Altstadt, Burgstraße 15, was built in the years 1591-1596, probably after planning by Jakob Wolff the Elder, on behalf of the Dutch merchant Philipp van Oyrl. Oyrl, who was granted citizenship in 1592, had acquired the property in 1590 and had the existing building demolished. The new house became for Philip van Oyrl and his descendants family base and seat of the trading company founded by him.

The patrician Christof Jakob Behaim, son of the foremost Losungers, married Maria Sabina Pellerin in 1668 and, as a dignitary of the Baroque period, had the lavishly rebuilt the house that his wife had brought into marriage. She was the great-granddaughter of the builder of the house, Philipp van Oyrl. Behaim had the large baroque ceiling on the second floor of the Italian stucco Carlo Moretti Brentano and in the ballroom on the third floor ceiling paintings for motifs from the metamorphoses of Ovid create by an unknown master.

Johann Michael Franz (1700-1761) and Johann Georg Ebersberger (1695-1760) inherited in 1730 from Johann Christoph Homann (1703-1730) the card printing company with publisher of the cartographer Johann Baptist Homann (1664-1724), at that time the most important card printing company in Germany. In 1735 they acquired the prestigious house in Burgstraße 15 and continued to operate the company under the name "Homännische Erben". This was followed by their heirs Jacob Heinrich and Georg Christoph Franz, after Georg Peter Monath and Friederike Albrecht.

In 1804/13 the later namesake Georg Christoph Franz Fembo (1781-1848) acquired both ownership shares in the Fembohaus and the publisher, having already taken over the once important art and bookstore of Christoph Weigel in 1805. His son Christoph Melchior Fembo let the Homannische Map Verlagsbuchhandlung shut down. 1852 After his death in 1876, the building was sold, the collections and the remaining holdings were publicly auctioned.

In 1876, the building was acquired by David Zwick, a tobacco manufacturer in Nuremberg.

In 1928, the city of Nuremberg bought the house and used it partly as a service building. The Second World War survived the front building with minor war damage. At the intermediate building, the damage was moderate. The rear building had to be removed.

In 1953, the Fembohaus was opened as a city museum. In 1958, the rebuilt rear building was given over to its destination. Between 1996 and 2000, a complete renovation and redesign of the city museum Fembohaus.

The bourgeois building with front building, wing and back buildings around the inner courtyard is the only representative Nuremberg building complex, which survived the Second World War largely undestroyed.

Wilhelm Schwemmer, from 1952 head of the Municipal Art Collections, transformed the Fembohaus into a museum for Old Nuremberg culture. Founded in 1953 in Fembohaus City Museum was incorporated in 1994 in the museums of the city of Nuremberg. It was renovated between 1997 and 2000 and redesigned. In 2016, a new permanent exhibition unit was opened in the historic cinema in the former cinema hall.


Right of the Fembohaus is The Frauenkirche ("Church of Our Lady").

The Frauenkirche ("Church of Our Lady") is a church in Nuremberg, Germany. It stands on the eastern side of the main market. An example of brick Gothic architecture, it was built on the initiative of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor between 1352 and 1362. The church contains many sculptures, some of them heavily restored. Numerous works of art from the Middle Ages are kept in the church, such as the so-called Tucher Altar (c. 1440, originally the high altar of the Augustinian church of St. Vitus), and two monuments by Adam Kraft (c. 1498).

The church was built in the grand market, in place of the former Jewish synagogue, which was destroyed during the pogrom of 1349 (which followed an outbreak of Black Death). The architect was probably Peter Parler. Charles IV wanted to use the Frauenkirche for imperial ceremonies, which is reflected in the porch with the balcony, and in the fact that the church is relatively unadorned except for the coats of arms of the Holy Roman Empire, the seven Electors, the town of Nuremberg, and the city of Rome, where the Holy Roman Emperors were crowned.

Charles IV's son Wenceslas was baptized in the church in 1361, on which occasion the Imperial Regalia, including the imperial reliquaries, were displayed to the people. Beginning in 1423, the Imperial Regalia was kept permanently in Nuremberg and displayed to the people once a year on a special wooden platform constructed for that purpose.

The Frauenkirche is a hall church with two aisles and a tribune for the emperor. The church contains nine bays supported by four columns.

The triforium, named the Imperial Loft or St. Michael's Loft, opens on to the nave by means of an arcade, the arches of which are filled with floating tracery, consisting of three rosettes supported by a segmental arch.

The narthex of the church contains tracery. All three sides of the narthex have portals, the jambs and archivolts of which are decorated with sculptures. The gable contains many niches, which used to house sculptures.

One of the most notable features of the church is the Männleinlaufen, a mechanical clock that commemorates the Golden Bull of 1356. The clock was installed in the church between 1506 and 1509. The Holy Roman Emperor is shown seated with the prince-electors surrounding him.

The clock mechanism is activated at midday, when a bell is rung to start the sequence and is followed by the trumpeters and drummer. Then there is a procession of the electors around the figure of the Holy Roman Emperor.


Below the St. Lawrence church (Kirche St. Lorenz), view from east is Mauthalle.

The Mauthalle is a medieval, imperial city building in Nuremberg. It is one of the most important monuments of Nuremberg's Old Town and is a station of the historic mile Nuremberg.

The Mauthalle is located in the old town of Lorenz, between Königsstraße and Pfannenschmiedsgasse, north of the An der Mauthalle.

The tollgate was built between 1498 and 1502 by Hans Beheim d. Ä. built on the penultimate moat and was the largest "granary" of the city. Through these altogether 12 grain houses the supply of the citizens was secured in times of crisis. The building was passable on the narrow sides with cars. For transport into the interior, elevator hatches were used above the gable axles and at the eaves.

In 1571/72, the imperial city and customs office moved into the building, the cellar served as a defeat ("Herrenkeller"). The name Mauthalle got the property only in the XIX century through use as the main customs office (toll by customs). In 1898, the tollgate was converted into a commercial building. Since 1929 the cellar was used gastronomically, for decades the "toll cellar" was housed here, a traditional Franconian guest, beer and wine industry.

During the bombing on 8./9. March 1943, the attic burned down completely - after an emergency roof was built. On October 3, 1944, the building received light explosive bombing, on January 2, 1945, it was again hit hard, the emergency roof destroyed, the eastern gable and the southern outer wall were damaged, the tollbooth burned down completely.

1951 to 1953 it was rebuilt in a simplified form. The two six-storey, previously executed in timber framing dormer were only built in plastered masonry.

Even today, the tollgate is used as a commercial building. The medieval vaulted cellar has been home to the brewery since 1994, with its attached brewery "Barfüßer", which has a total of 835 seats in three guest areas; The traditional beer of the Franconian cuisine is offered for the brewed beer.

Kirche St. Lorenz

Right of the Mauthalle, is again - St. Lawrence church (Kirche St. Lorenz), but the view was taken from west.


To the right of the Church of St. Lorenz (view from the west) is the Almshouse of the Holy Spirit (Heilig-Geist-Spital).

This institution was built in the XV century and is used for its intended purpose, that is, as a nursing home, to this day. The first legend tells the story of its ... origin.

In Plobenhof (near today's museum bridge), the Heinze family lived in ancient times, which belonged to the Nuremberg "Geslecht", that is, to the rich and respected families that ruled the city. All these were, as they say, very prominent people. And Conrad was even a cut above his brothers. Therefore, his name was simply Gross (Big). And this name he, God sees, heard much more readily than his other nickname. Because for the eyes of everyone called Conrad "lousy Heinz." And all because of the fact that from childhood his skin was covered with an ugly rash, spots and scabs. No doctor could help him, no bath could clean him. Children teased him, and adults shunned. And Conrad was not accepted into the Council of the city, although he was a sensible and respectable person.

So little by little he began to look more for loneliness than human society.

Behind the Heinzes house was a large garden with beautiful old trees, descending down to the Pegnitz River itself. Conrad often retreated there. He worked or just sat on a bench, looking up at the sky.

Once, in the summer of 1320, after hard work, he was tired, lay down under a large linden tree, fell asleep and had a dream. In a dream Conrad walked through the garden, and then settled on a narrow lawn. Because - in his dream, he clearly saw this - an oak chest was buried there. Conrad dug up a chest, opened it and saw that it was full of gold and silver coins. And then (in a dream) Conrad was frightened that when he wakes up, he will not be able to find in reality the place where the treasure is buried. And then he tore thirteen leaves from a linden standing next to him and threw it to the place where the treasure was buried. At this the dream was dispelled, and Conrad woke up.

He rubbed his eyes, jumped, and rushed to run through the garden to the place he dreamed about. And - lo and behold! - on a narrow lawn, Conrad saw thirteen linden leaves lying in a heap, just like in a dream.

Immediately Konrad clicked the gardener and the bollard. They brought a shovel and a pick and began to dig up a treasure. Soon, a picket bump hit something solid, and the three men pulled a heavy chest full of gold and silver from the pit.

So "Gross" has further increased the considerable wealth of his family.

But only Konrad was not one of those people who does not know the measure of greed, but does not share anything with people. He, ridiculed and avoided by all, had a big heart full of compassion for the sick, the lonely, and especially the old people.

Therefore, he spent his treasure to buy a piece of land on the Pegnitz River and build a hospital there (almshouse). He called it “By the Holy Spirit”, because he was convinced that none other than the Holy Spirit sent him that wonderful dream.

And then it happened that one of the first in the almshouse found an shelter an old woman who made for Conrad herbs and fats an incense potion for forgotten recipes. He rubbed this spotted skin with this ointment, and after a few days the illness left him forever. There was no trace of the rash, and the skin became smooth and pink, like a child’s.

When Kaiser Ludwig heard about this miracle and about Conrad’s good deeds, he showered him with royal mercies and privileges. Among other things, he allowed his family to wear their own coat of arms with thirteen linden leaves in memory of a wonderful dream.

Another legend about the almshouse.

Ghost of the Almshouse of the Holy Spirit.

The first cook in the almshouse of the Holy Spirit was a widow from Werde named Gusterti. At first, she showed herself to be working, smart and clever in all economic affairs. But it soon changed and became such an eccentric person that the inhabitants nicknamed her Crazy Gusterti. She scolded all day, grumbled and argued fiercely with old people over every trifle. In addition, Gusterti became terribly greedy, so greedy that she couldn’t get snow from her in winter. For the money that was given to her on the farm, she bought rotten vegetables and stinky meat in the bazaar. She was also entrusted with a mitt for distributing soup, porridge and other food to the inhabitants of the almshouse. But Gusterty secretly ordered herself a similar cook, only a lot smaller, so that the old and weak could get less food.

People from the almshouse began to grumble and complain, because now every time they got up from the table hungry. Their complaints eventually came to the City Council. Therefore, once a city trustee appeared in Gusterti's kitchen. The cook, of course, met him with swearing, and called all the accusations a vile lie. But the trustee did not let himself be deceived, and soon found in the secret box a second, lesser mitt. In a rage, he grabbed her and with the words “it’s from the evil one!” Threw her through the window directly into the river.

“Me too,” Gusterti screamed right away and ... she kicked out the window after her mitt. Water swallowed the cook, and the current dragged into the depths. Since then, no one has ever seen an evil woman.

Only who thinks that since then Crazy Gusterti has left the inhabitants of the almshouse alone, he is in error. No, now she tormented the unhappy even more than in life. She appeared to them at night in a dream and stood with her arms crossed at their beds. Often she rushed through the halls with a cry: "Take a large mitt, and put a small one in place! Oooo!"

Oh, poor old people. If the old people heard this, then trembling crawled under the covers and waited for the horror to end.

And often it happened that Gusterti stood, pale and green, by the window, waving a cook, and cried and laughed at the same time.

However, when she once appeared, on the stairs, an almsman’s master, so much so that he almost recounted the steps with his own ridge, it was finally decided to expel the spirit of Crazy Gusterti.

And in those days there was no better exporter of spirits in Nuremberg than the executioner. And then one night he came with his assistants to the almshouse kitchen and put a large basket on the stove. When the church bells struck midnight, Gusterty flew into the chimney with thunder and lightning and landed right in that basket! In a flash, the assistants threw a handkerchief over the basket, tied it tightly with ropes and carried a light burden into the Sebald forest. There, the nimblest climbed along with a basket onto a tree and released a ghost to freedom.

Since that time, peace reigned in the almshouse. However, Gusterti has now settled in the forest. Mushroom pickers often in broad daylight saw her dancing, making wild jumps around the trees. Sometimes you look - in the middle of the path, a large basket stands out of nowhere, and from there Gusterty peeps out. Eyes burn with green fire, and red sparkles scatter hair.

If it happened to children to sit down at a forest source to relax and have a bite, then a bony hand often protruded from a tree, grabbed one of the boys by the whirlwinds and squealed in a creaky voice: "Take a large cook and put a small one in place!"

Yes, Gusterti hated people, favored only her fellow countrymen from Wörd. Sometimes he will meet a wanderer in the forest, so he immediately asks him if he is from Wörd. And if there was a wanderer that cunning and answered “yes”, then immediately she showed him a short way from the dense forest. And she also indicated to the compatriots mushroom and berry places, and broke off rotten branches for them from the trees.

So little by little the ghost earned the trust of the Woerders and they even began to ask Gusterty for advice and help. For example, when a child got lost in the forest, he raised his head to the crowns of trees and shouted: "Where is my mother?" And then a voice was heard: "From here, first go straight twenty steps, and after that turn right and you will come!" Indeed, the baby soon went out to meet his mother.

On windy nights and cloudy days, you can still hear otherworldly moans scaring birds. And again and again, a desperate voice shouts: "Take a large mitt, and put a small one in place!" ( rus.)

Äußerer Laufer Torturm

Below - the city wall of Nuremberg and the gate tower "Äußerer Laufer Torturm".

The city wall (German Stadtmauer) of the Old Town - medieval stone fortifications (engineering defenses), encircling the area of the historical center (the so-called Old Town) of Nuremberg.

The city wall is one of the most significant architectural and cultural monuments of the city.


On background is flowerish pattern.

Lower, left, the Braile symbols for visually impared.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on right side, in words on right side (vertically).


500 Mark 1991

Der Raupen Der Raupen

An illustration of a dandelion, as well as the caterpillar and night moth Ginster (Calliteara fascelina) from part 8, a book by Maria Sibylla Merian, published in 1679 "The caterpillars: wonderful transformation and strange flower food" (Plate 8)" ("Der Raupen: wunderbare Verwandelung und sonderbare Blumennahrung" (Tafel 8)).

Calliteara fascelina Calliteara fascelina

Ginster night moth or Summer woolly foot (Calliteara fascelina).

Species in the wingspan of 20-70 mm. Often dimorphic: males sharply differ from females in smaller sizes, coloring and pattern of wings. Antennae are double-crested. The male crests are significantly higher than the female. Labial palps hidden in the hairline, but well developed .. Proboscis rudimentary or absent. Eyes are naked, eyes are absent. The chest and abdomen are densely covered with hairy scales, sometimes collected at the end in the form of a wide brush. Tibia of middle legs with one pair of spurs, tibia of hind legs with one or two pairs of spurs. The wings are wide. Females of some species are wingless.

Twilight and night butterflies. Males are more active, and in species with wingless females, males often fly during the day.

Caterpillars are hairy and with tassels of hairs. (

Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717), an artist and tireless researcher of nature, whose biography and creativity cause unrelenting and growing interest not only by art historians, but also by botanists and entomologists. Name and works of M.S. Merian is well known in Europe, Japan, and America, which undoubtedly is facilitated by exhibitions devoted to the work of Maria Sibylla and luxurious reprints of her books.

Several countries claim to be called the birthplace of Maria Sibylla Merian. She was born on April 4, 1647 in Frankfurt am Main, lived there for a while, then in Nuremberg, therefore in Germany she is considered a German artist. The mother of Maria Sibylla, Johannes Sibylla Heim, was Dutch. The Dutch artist J. Marel (1614-1681) raised and taught to draw a girl her stepfather. Having married in 1664, the artist I.A. Graaf (1637-1701), a pupil of Marel, Maria Sibylla broke up with him in 1686, regained her father’s name, entered the sect of the Labadists and settled with her mother and two daughters, Johanna Helena and Dorothea Maria, in Walt Castle in West Friesland . In 1691, she and her children moved to Amsterdam. From 1691 to 1717, the year of her death, Maria Sibylla lived in Amsterdam (except for the period from 1699 to 1701, when she was in Suriname). Given all these facts of the artist’s biography, the Dutch consider her their compatriot. Some authors write about M.S. Merian as a Swiss artist, because her father was a Swiss by birth, the famous artist and engraver Matteus Merian the Elder (1593-1650). ( .rus)

More to the left is a seal of German Bundesbank.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on left side, in words on left side (vertically).


The signatures on banknote belong to:

Helmut Schlesinger

Helmut Schlesinger (04.09.1924).

Hans Tietmeyer

Hans Tietmeyer (18 August 1931).

Reinhold Gerstetter

Designer - Reinhold Gerstetter.

Reinhold Gerstetter (October 18, 1945 in Leonberg in Baden-Württemberg) is a German graphic artist and designer. The most famous work in Germany is the last series of DM banknotes, which he designed, as well as the revision of the second Euro Series, the so-called "Euro-Series".

Gerstetter studied graphic design at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart and later worked in advertising in London, Berlin and Haifa. From 1979 to 2002 he worked for the Bundesdruckerei. There he designed as a chief designer behördliches graphic design, stamps and banknotes (including for Israel, Bolivia and Peru). 1987 Gerst Etters design was chosen as the basis for the fourth and final series of banknotes of the German mark, which was from 1990 to early 2002 in circulation. A short time later, he also won the design competition of the Banco de España, which published four banknote values ​​from 1992, based on Gerst Etters designs. Although his designs submitted for the first series of banknotes of the common currency were not selected euro by the jury for the implementation, however, he was entrusted with the revision of the second series of euro banknotes that came into circulation as of May 2013.

His daughter, Avitall, is Germany's first female Jewish cantor.

Fourth Series of DM.

On March 19, 1981, the members of the Central Bank Council of the Deutsche Bundesbank decided to issue a new banknote series. She had become necessary due to technological progress, by the falsification of the old notes had become ever easier. Also a new series for the automatic payment transactions would be more appropriate. It took almost ten years, until the first two banknote values ​​were put into circulation on 1 October 1990 levels. This was around the 100- and 200-mark note. The latter denomination was introduced in this series of banknotes.

When designing the bank notes and the selection of the design elements were a lot of decisions to make. As early as the preliminary to the new series portraits were determined as the main subject. It should "be chosen brilliant portraits of personalities of German history in the fields of art, literature, music, economics, science and technology". In addition, the rear in conjunction should be about the person depicted on the front. Further, the primary colors of the note values ​​should remain unchanged and the word banknote stand on every bill in Gothic script.

People Picker.

A committee, consisting of historians Karl Otmar von Aretin, Knut Borchardt and Horst Fuhrmann, was commissioned to define the persons who should appear on the banknotes. The choice was between about 70 to 80 people. Here to "Top Artists" (z. B. Goethe, Schiller, Dürer) has been omitted. Likewise, retired people from whose expellees affiliation was unclear or a provocation in creed or political manner could mean (for example, Martin Luther, Karl Marx) or who had rendered her work mainly abroad, such as Jacques Offenbach.

When selecting the people should pay attention to balance in terms of gender, religion, national origin and work area. It should, if possible, three, but at least be represented two female characters in the series. However, the selection was very limited to female personalities. The aim was to show women who have created an independent work and not in the shade close to them were men (Charlotte von Stein, Charlotte von Kalb). However, such women were very rare until the XIX century. Therefore, the Panel chose to begin with the female figures, so not limitations on the field of activity, origin or confession had to be considered.

One of the requirements for the design was that the people viewed by the observer, the left should look towards banknote center. This meant that the provided portraits for five, ten, twenty, fifty and two hundred-Mark banknotes had to be mirrored. As with the Brothers Grimm two people should be ready to give them the largest banknote was reserved because of the large space requirement. Otherwise, men and women should alternate. The rest of the allocation of person and note value, however, was random and does not constitute a rating of persons.

Actually, Maria Sibylla Merian was earmarked for the 100- and Clara Schumann for the 500-mark note. However, only an artistically inferior etching by Johann Rudolf Schellenberg was for the portrait of Maria Sibylla Merian available, as in the original template doubts about the authenticity arose. Therefore, the Bundesbank held a design competition in order to get a high-quality master of this etching, which was the basis for the portrait on the bill later. Since the 100-DM-note should appear as one of the first, the people were replaced because of these difficulties.

Selection of the winning design.

Bundesdruckerei (represented by Rudolf Gerhardt, who had already designed the bench marks (BBK-II) for West Berlin), Ernst: For the design competition, which ran from 1 January to 30 June 1987, four graphic designers were by the Bundesbank in charge disciples, Johann Müller and Adrian Arthur Senger. According to the judgment of an expert commission consisting of historians, designers and graphic designers as well as a sociologist, corresponded to only one series to the high expectations. However, this reminded too much of the Swiss franc, so that she did not come into question. Thus, it would have been necessary actually a new design competition, which would have delayed the project by at least one year. But since Bundesdruckerei did submit two drafts, which was not accepted by the Bundesbank, was the draft by the then chief graphic designer of Bundesdruckerei, Reinhold Gerstetter, yet unseen in custody of the Bundesbank. After review by the Panel of this design was selected eventually as a basis for the new banknote series. The experts wrote: "The art expert panel is unanimously of the view that the here [...] compiled draft properties largely meet the requirements [...]. The art expert panel may recommend in this sense, the Deutsche Bundesbank, to make the present proposals for the basis of a new banknote series."

Configuration of the front sides.

The to be seen on the front towns pictures were an idea Gerst Etters. In his designs were to be seen in some cases striking modern building of the respective cities. However, the draft of the city of Frankfurt led to the decision to represent only historical buildings. The reason given was that the office towers of Deutsche Bank dominated the design and the Bundesbank should not be suspected to advertise for a private company.

In 1988, it was now necessary to select the appropriate city for each person. The design of the graphic looked for Paul Ehrlich Bad Homburg, his place of death, before. However, his work was held in Berlin and Frankfurt mostly. Frankfurt had Gerstetter however provided for Clara Schumann, who spent her final years there. After deciding on the introduction of the 5-DM-bill with the portrait of Bettina von Arnim was soon clear map to this the city of Berlin. Because each city should appear on the banknotes only once, only came for Paul Ehrlich thus Frankfurt in question. For Clara Schumann, the city of Leipzig was chosen because Leipzig was not just her birth, but because they also had their first successes there later.

Due to the events in the years 1989/1990, the decision for Leipzig proved a stroke of luck; because the banknote series was originally intended only for West Germany and West Berlin. But as the new federal states were represented with a city which also still has a special symbolic meaning: Here is the first Monday demonstrations took place that led to the dissolution of the GDR and the reunification of Germany.

Design of backs.

Reinhold Gerstetter looked for the back of the 1000-Mark certificate as the main subject is a figure from the fairy tale The Star Money before. However, the Brothers Grimm should, despite their extensive collection of fairy tales, can not be reduced to the fairy tale, as they have rendered outstanding services to the issuing of the German dictionary much about the German language. Thus, the dictionary was the main motif, and the Sterntaler "wandered" into the White Field.

Also in the design of the back was done with great attention to detail. So, even the background pattern a reference to the person who is pictured on the front. A penalty for the forgery of bank notes was no longer available in the fourth series.