header Notes Collection

200 Mark 1989, Germany

in Krause book Number: 42
Years of issue: 01.10.1990
Signatures: Bundesbank Präsident: Dr. h.c. mult. Karl Otto Pöhl (01.01.1980 - 31.07.1991), Vizepräsident: Prof. Dr. oec. publ. Dr. h.c. mult. Helmut Schlesinger
Serie: Fourth Series
Specimen of: 02.01.1989
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 162 х 77
Printer: Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

200 Mark 1989




Paul Ehrlich.


200 Mark 1989

Paul Ehrlich

The engraving on banknote is made, probably, after the portrait of Paul Ehrlich. Photography on the occasion of his 60th birthday, private property.

Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 - 20 August 1915) was a Nobel prize-winning German-Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy. He is credited with finding a cure for syphilis in 1909. He invented the precursor technique to Gram staining bacteria. The methods he developed for staining tissue made it possible to distinguish between different types of blood cells, which led to the capability to diagnose numerous blood diseases.

His laboratory discovered arsphenamine (Salvarsan), the first effective medicinal treatment for syphilis, thereby initiating and also naming the concept of chemotherapy. Ehrlich popularized the concept of a magic bullet. He also made a decisive contribution to the development of an antiserum to combat diphtheria and conceived a method for standardizing therapeutic serums.

In 1908, he received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his contributions to immunology. He was the founder and first director of what is now known as the Paul Ehrlich Institute.

Centered is the stylized molecular model of the syphilis medicament Salvarsan discovered by Paul Ehrlich.

Arsphenamine, also known as Salvarsan or compound 606, is a drug that was introduced at the beginning of the 1910s as the first effective treatment for syphilis, and was also used to treat trypanosomiasis. This organoarsenic compound was the first modern chemotherapeutic agent.

Arsphenamine was first synthesized in 1907 in Paul Ehrlich's lab by Alfred Bertheim. The antisyphilitic activity of this compound was discovered by Sahachiro Hata in 1909, during a survey of hundreds of newly synthesized organic arsenical compounds. Ehrlich had theorized that by screening many compounds, a drug could be discovered that would have anti-microbial activity but not kill the human patient. Ehrlich's team began their search for such a "magic bullet" among chemical derivatives of the dangerously toxic drug atoxyl. This project was the first organized team effort to optimize the biological activity of a lead compound through systematic chemical modifications, the basis for nearly all modern pharmaceutical research.

Arsphenamine was used to treat the disease syphilis because it is toxic to the bacterium Treponema pallidum, a spirochete that causes syphilis.

Arsphenamine was originally called "606" because it was the sixth in the sixth group of compounds synthesized for testing; it was marketed by Hoechst AG under the trade name "Salvarsan" in 1910. Salvarsan was the first organic antisyphilitic, and a great improvement over the inorganic mercury compounds that had been used previously. It was distributed as a yellow, crystalline, hygroscopic powder that was highly unstable in air. This significantly complicated administration, as the drug had to be dissolved in several hundred milliliters of distilled, sterile water with minimal exposure to air to produce a solution suitable for injection. Some of the side effects attributed to Salvarsan, including rashes, liver damage, and risks of life and limb, were thought to be caused by improper handling and administration. This caused Ehrlich, who worked assiduously to standardize practices, to observe, "the step from the laboratory to the patient's bedside ... is extraordinarily arduous and fraught with danger."

Ehrlich's laboratory developed a more soluble (but slightly less effective) arsenical compound, Neosalvarsan (neoarsphenamine), which was easier to prepare, and it became available in 1912. Less severe side-effects such as nausea and vomiting were still common. An additional problem was that both Salvarsan and Neosalvarsan had to be stored in sealed vials under a nitrogen atmosphere to prevent oxidation. These arsenical compounds were supplanted as treatments for syphilis in the 1940s by penicillin.

After leaving Ehrlich's laboratory, Hata continued parallel investigation of the new medicines in Japan.

On background is collage of historic buildings of Frankfurt am Main. Of these, I was able to distinguish:


On top, centered is the Paulskirche (St. Paul's Church).

St. Paul's Church is the most important monument of German democracy and represents both historical and cultural value not only for Frankfurt, but for the whole of Germany.

Paulskirche was erected from 1789 to 1833 on the site of the demolished medieval church in 1786, and until 1944 was the main Lutheran church in Frankfurt.

In the years 1848-49. The church hosted the meetings of the Frankfurt National Assembly, the first freely elected German parliament. Under the arches of Paulskirche on March 28, 1849, the first German Constitution was born.

During World War II, St. Paul's Church burned down and was completely restored in the post-war years. The opening of the restored church in 1948 was timed to the hundredth anniversary of the Frankfurt National Assembly. Since then, Paulskirche has been a national monument to the Beginning of German Democracy and is used mainly for public events.

Today, Paulskirche is an integral part of the cultural life of Frankfurt - meetings and receptions are held within its walls. With the award of the German Book Trade Peace Prize (Friedenspreis des Deutschen Buchhandels), the world-famous Frankfurt Book Fair (Frankfurter Buchmesse) annually concludes here. By the way, initially, before moving to the exhibition complex, book fairs were held exactly under the arches of Paulskirche. In addition, the walls of Paulskirche every three years is the presentation of the prize to them. Goethe of Frankfurt. ( .rus)


Top, left is the Frankfurt Cathedral.

Frankfurt Cathedral (German: Frankfurter Dom), officially Imperial Cathedral of Saint Bartholomew (German: Kaiserdom Sankt Bartholomäus) is a Roman Catholic Gothic church located in the centre of Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It is dedicated to Saint Bartholomew.

It is the largest religious building in the city and a former collegiate church. Despite its common English name, it has never been a true cathedral (episcopal see), but is called the Kaiserdom (an "imperial great church" or imperial cathedral) or simply the Dom due to its importance as former election and coronation church of the Holy Roman Empire. As one of the major buildings of the Empire's history, it was a symbol of national unity, especially in the 19th century.

The present church building is the third church on the same site. Since the late XIX century, excavations have revealed buildings that can be traced back to the VII century. The history is closely linked with the general history of Frankfurt and Frankfurt's old town because the cathedral had an associated role as the religious counterpart of the Royal Palace in Frankfurt.

Frankfurt Cathedral was an imperial collegiate church, termed Dom in German - a synecdoche for all collegiate churches used totum pro parte also for cathedrals -, and thus traditionally translated as cathedral in English. St. Bartholomew's is the main church of Frankfurt and was constructed in the XIV and XV centuries on the foundation of an earlier church from the Merovingian time.

From 1356 onwards, emperors of the Holy Roman Empire were elected in this collegiate church as kings in Germany, and from 1562 to 1792, emperors-elect were crowned here. The imperial elections were held in the Wahlkapelle, a chapel on the south side of the choir (Hochchor) built for this purpose in 1425 (See the Plan to the right) and the anointing and crowning of the emperors-elect as kings in Germany took place before the central altar–believed to enshrine part of the head of St. Bartholomew - in the crossing of the church, at the entrance to the choir (See the Plan to the right).

In the course of the German Mediatisation the city of Frankfurt finally secularised and appropriated the remaining Catholic churches and their endowments of earning assets, however, leaving the usage of the church buildings to the existing Catholic parishes. Thus St. Bartholomew's became of the city's dotation churches, owned and maintained by the city but used by Catholic or Lutheran congregations.

St. Bartholomew's was seen as symbol for national unity in Germany, especially during the XIX century. Although it had never been a bishop's seat, it was the largest church in Frankfurt and its role in imperial politics, including crowning of medieval German emperors, made the church one of the most important buildings of Imperial history.

In 1867, St. Bartholomew's was destroyed by a fire and rebuilt in its present style. During World War II, between October 1943 and March 1944, the old town of Frankfurt, the biggest old Gothic town in Central Europe, was devastated by six bombardments of the Allied Air Forces. The greatest losses occurred in an attack by the Royal Air Force on 22 March 1944, when more than a thousand buildings of the old town, most of them half-timbered houses, were destroyed.

St. Bartholomew's suffered severe damage; the interior was burned out completely. The building was reconstructed in the 1950s. The height of the spire is 95 meters.


Right and a little bit lower of St. Pauls church is the main railway station of Frankfurt (Hauptbahnhof).

The ensemble of Frankfurt Central Station (Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof, 1888) was the largest in Europe until 1915.

In the XIX century, Frankfurt Central Station consisted of three small stations operating in the western, northern and southern directions. Due to the growing number of passengers, the building decided to modernize and expand, and move beyond the city limits. Frankfurt authorities held a competition among architects, the winner of which was Hermann Eggert, who created the design of the station hall. The second place went to Johann Schwedler and he was appointed chief engineer.

The new building was erected a kilometer from the original three platforms, and the structures were covered with semicircular roofs of glass and steel. Later, Frankfurt Main Station was repeatedly expanded and rebuilt. In 1924, two more were added on each side of the main hall, decorated in a neoclassical style. During World War II, the station was damaged, but not much, and already in 1956 it was restored and electrified. ( .rus)


Below the rail station building is Römerberg (old City Hall building).

Römerberg is Frankfurt's main historical square on the Main. Römeberg Square, built up with unique half-timbered houses, is deservedly considered one of the most famous historical sights of the financial capital of Germany.

The name of the Römerberg square in the minds of Frankfurt is directly related to the appearance of the city hall of Frankfurt, which dominates the architectural ensemble of the square.

The ancient building of the city hall, which is briefly called "Römer", was built in the XVI-XVIII centuries. Its magnificent Gothic facades are decorated with statues of emperors Frederick Barbarossa, Charles IV, Maximilian II and Ludwig II. Römer consists of a complex of eleven once separate buildings, among which is the so-called "Haus Römer", the Kaiser halls of which were once the site of ceremonies and coronation.

Another important component of the appearance of Römeberg is the statue of the goddess of justice, located in the center of the square.

Römeberg Square is famous for its cozy cafes and bars and is a favorite motive of tourist photo reports. In addition, the square is an imaginary axis, in a relatively small compartment from which are the exhibition halls of the Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt, archaeological garden, the Nikolaikirche church, the Frankfurt Jewish community museum, the Gothic cathedral with a 95-meter tower, a museum of modern art "Tortenstuck" (Museum für moderne Kunst „Tortenstück“) and the famous church Paulskirche. ( .rus)

Der Eiserne Steg

At the bottom is the bridge Der Eiserne Steg.

Eiserner Steg is located in Frankfurt, next to Alte Brucke. This is a unique bridge. Firstly, its width is 5.5 meters, its length is more than 170 meters. Its reconstruction and construction in 1993 cost an amount equivalent to 30 million euros. Secondly, the bridge was built from a special steel alloy, made specifically for this structure.

The construction of another transshipment point across Mine matured in the 19th century. The reliable Alte Brucke was still the only bridge without a railway marking of the already quite large city of Frankfurt. The construction of Eisener Steg began in 1868 according to the plans of engineer and architect Peter Schmick. According to his design, the bridge was to be not only functional, but also attractive. That is why numerous rivets and steel patterns were placed along the structure. The discovery took place a year after the start of construction.

Numerous decorative elements were removed from the bridge in 1917. In the last days of World War II, the structure was partially destroyed during the bombing, but after 7 years it was completely restored. In 1993, the last reconstruction took place, after which lifts for the disabled appeared on the bridge, and the parts affected by corrosion were replaced with new ones. ( .rus)


Right of the portrait is microtext.


On background are the molecular structures.

Lower, left, are the Braille symbols for visually impaired.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on right side, in words on right side (vertically).


200 Mark 1989

A microscope as well as abstract representations of viruses and bacteria.

Lichtmikroskop von Zeiss

The Zeiss light microscope (1879), with which Paul Erlich most likely worked. Photo made by Dr. Timo Mappes (Lichtmikroskop von Zeiss (1879). Foto von Dr. Timo Mappes (Bildquelle))

Rod of Asclepius

In lower right corner are the Rod of Asclepius and Retort.

In Greek mythology, the Rod of Asclepius (Greek: Ράβδος του Ασκληπιού, Rábdos tou Asklipioú; Unicode symbol: ⚕), also known as the Staff of Asclepius (sometimes also spelled Asklepios or Aesculapius) and as the asklepian, is a serpent-entwined rod wielded by the Greek god Asclepius, a deity associated with healing and medicine. The symbol has continued to be used in modern times, where it is associated with medicine and health care, yet frequently confused with the staff of the god Hermes, the caduceus. Theories have been proposed about the Greek origin of the symbol and its implications.


In a chemistry laboratory, a retort is a device used for distillation or dry distillation of substances. It consists of a spherical vessel with a long downward-pointing neck. The liquid to be distilled is placed in the vessel and heated. The neck acts as a condenser, allowing the vapors to condense and flow along the neck to a collection vessel placed underneath.

In the chemical industry, a retort is an airtight vessel in which substances are heated for a chemical reaction producing gaseous products to be collected in a collection vessel or for further processing. Such industrial-scale retorts are used in shale oil extraction, the production of charcoal and in the recovery of mercury in gold mining processes and hazardous waste. A process of heating oil shale to produce shale oil, oil shale gas, and spent shale is commonly called retorting. Airtight vessels to apply pressure as well as heat are called autoclaves.

In the food industry, pressure cookers are often referred to as retorts, meaning "canning retorts", for sterilization under high temperature (116-130 °C).

With the invention of the alembic, a kind of retort, the alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān developed the process of distillation into what it is today. Retorts were widely used by alchemists, and images of retorts appear in many drawings and sketches of their laboratories. Before the advent of modern condensers, retorts were used by many prominent chemists, such as Antoine Lavoisier and Jöns Berzelius.

An early method for producing phosphorus starts by roasting bones, and uses clay retorts encased in a very hot brick furnace to distill out the highly toxic product.

In laboratory use, due to advances in technology, especially the invention of the Liebig condenser, retorts were largely considered to have been rendered obsolete as early as the beginning of the XX century. However, some laboratory techniques that involve simple distillation and do not require sophisticated apparatus may use a retort as a substitute for more complex distillation equipment.

More to the left is a seal of German Bundesbank.

Denominations in numerals are lower and on left side, in words on left side (vertically).


The signatures on banknote belong to:

Karl Otto Pöhl

Karl Otto Pöhl (01.12.1929 - 09.12.2014).

Helmut Schlesinger

Helmut Schlesinger (04.09.1924).

Reinhold GerstetterDesigner - Reinhold Gerstetter.

Reinhold Gerstetter (October 18, 1945 in Leonberg in Baden-Württemberg) is a German graphic artist and designer. The most famous work in Germany is the last series of DM banknotes, which he designed, as well as the revision of the second Euro Series, the so-called "Euro-Series".

Gerstetter studied graphic design at the State Academy of Fine Arts in Stuttgart and later worked in advertising in London, Berlin and Haifa. From 1979 to 2002 he worked for the Bundesdruckerei. There he designed as a chief designer behördliches graphic design, stamps and banknotes (including for Israel, Bolivia and Peru). 1987 Gerst Etters design was chosen as the basis for the fourth and final series of banknotes of the German mark, which was from 1990 to early 2002 in circulation. A short time later, he also won the design competition of the Banco de España, which published four banknote values ​​from 1992, based on Gerst Etters designs. Although his designs submitted for the first series of banknotes of the common currency were not selected euro by the jury for the implementation, however, he was entrusted with the revision of the second series of euro banknotes that came into circulation as of May 2013.

His daughter, Avitall, is Germany's first female Jewish cantor.

Fourth Series of DM.

On March 19, 1981, the members of the Central Bank Council of the Deutsche Bundesbank decided to issue a new banknote series. She had become necessary due to technological progress, by the falsification of the old notes had become ever easier. Also a new series for the automatic payment transactions would be more appropriate. It took almost ten years, until the first two banknote values ​​were put into circulation on 1 October 1990 levels. This was around the 100- and 200-mark note. The latter denomination was introduced in this series of banknotes.

When designing the bank notes and the selection of the design elements were a lot of decisions to make. As early as the preliminary to the new series portraits were determined as the main subject. It should "be chosen brilliant portraits of personalities of German history in the fields of art, literature, music, economics, science and technology". In addition, the rear in conjunction should be about the person depicted on the front. Further, the primary colors of the note values ​​should remain unchanged and the word banknote stand on every bill in Gothic script.

People Picker.

A committee, consisting of historians Karl Otmar von Aretin, Knut Borchardt and Horst Fuhrmann, was commissioned to define the persons who should appear on the banknotes. The choice was between about 70 to 80 people. Here to "Top Artists" (z. B. Goethe, Schiller, Dürer) has been omitted. Likewise, retired people from whose expellees affiliation was unclear or a provocation in creed or political manner could mean (for example, Martin Luther, Karl Marx) or who had rendered her work mainly abroad, such as Jacques Offenbach.

When selecting the people should pay attention to balance in terms of gender, religion, national origin and work area. It should, if possible, three, but at least be represented two female characters in the series. However, the selection was very limited to female personalities. The aim was to show women who have created an independent work and not in the shade close to them were men (Charlotte von Stein, Charlotte von Kalb). However, such women were very rare until the XIX century. Therefore, the Panel chose to begin with the female figures, so not limitations on the field of activity, origin or confession had to be considered.

One of the requirements for the design was that the people viewed by the observer, the left should look towards banknote center. This meant that the provided portraits for five, ten, twenty, fifty and two hundred-Mark banknotes had to be mirrored. As with the Brothers Grimm two people should be ready to give them the largest banknote was reserved because of the large space requirement. Otherwise, men and women should alternate. The rest of the allocation of person and note value, however, was random and does not constitute a rating of persons.

Actually, Maria Sibylla Merian was earmarked for the 100- and Clara Schumann for the 500-mark note. However, only an artistically inferior etching by Johann Rudolf Schellenberg was for the portrait of Maria Sibylla Merian available, as in the original template doubts about the authenticity arose. Therefore, the Bundesbank held a design competition in order to get a high-quality master of this etching, which was the basis for the portrait on the bill later. Since the 100-DM-note should appear as one of the first, the people were replaced because of these difficulties.

Selection of the winning design.

Bundesdruckerei (represented by Rudolf Gerhardt, who had already designed the bench marks (BBK-II) for West Berlin), Ernst: For the design competition, which ran from 1 January to 30 June 1987, four graphic designers were by the Bundesbank in charge disciples, Johann Müller and Adrian Arthur Senger. According to the judgment of an expert commission consisting of historians, designers and graphic designers as well as a sociologist, corresponded to only one series to the high expectations. However, this reminded too much of the Swiss franc, so that she did not come into question. Thus, it would have been necessary actually a new design competition, which would have delayed the project by at least one year. But since Bundesdruckerei did submit two drafts, which was not accepted by the Bundesbank, was the draft by the then chief graphic designer of Bundesdruckerei, Reinhold Gerstetter, yet unseen in custody of the Bundesbank. After review by the Panel of this design was selected eventually as a basis for the new banknote series. The experts wrote: "The art expert panel is unanimously of the view that the here [...] compiled draft properties largely meet the requirements [...]. The art expert panel may recommend in this sense, the Deutsche Bundesbank, to make the present proposals for the basis of a new banknote series."

Configuration of the front sides.

The to be seen on the front towns pictures were an idea Gerst Etters. In his designs were to be seen in some cases striking modern building of the respective cities. However, the draft of the city of Frankfurt led to the decision to represent only historical buildings. The reason given was that the office towers of Deutsche Bank dominated the design and the Bundesbank should not be suspected to advertise for a private company.

In 1988, it was now necessary to select the appropriate city for each person. The design of the graphic looked for Paul Ehrlich Bad Homburg, his place of death, before. However, his work was held in Berlin and Frankfurt mostly. Frankfurt had Gerstetter however provided for Clara Schumann, who spent her final years there. After deciding on the introduction of the 5-DM-bill with the portrait of Bettina von Arnim was soon clear map to this the city of Berlin. Because each city should appear on the banknotes only once, only came for Paul Ehrlich thus Frankfurt in question. For Clara Schumann, the city of Leipzig was chosen because Leipzig was not just her birth, but because they also had their first successes there later.

Due to the events in the years 1989/1990, the decision for Leipzig proved a stroke of luck; because the banknote series was originally intended only for West Germany and West Berlin. But as the new federal states were represented with a city which also still has a special symbolic meaning: Here is the first Monday demonstrations took place that led to the dissolution of the GDR and the reunification of Germany.

Design of backs.

Reinhold Gerstetter looked for the back of the 1000-Mark certificate as the main subject is a figure from the fairy tale The Star Money before. However, the Brothers Grimm should, despite their extensive collection of fairy tales, can not be reduced to the fairy tale, as they have rendered outstanding services to the issuing of the German dictionary much about the German language. Thus, the dictionary was the main motif, and the Sterntaler "wandered" into the White Field.

Also in the design of the back was done with great attention to detail. So, even the background pattern a reference to the person who is pictured on the front. A penalty for the forgery of bank notes was no longer available in the fourth series.