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10000 Forint 2014, Hungary

in Krause book Number: 206a
Years of issue: 02.09.2014
Edition:
Signatures: Dr. Matolcsy György; Dr. Balog Ádám
Serie: Second Series
Specimen of: 01.07.1997
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 154 x 70
Printer: Magyar Pénzjegynyomda, Budapest

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10000 Forint 2014

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Denomination 10000. Stephen I of Hungary.

Avers:

10000 Forint 2014

Szent I. István

The engraving on banknote, probably, made after this monument to the Stephen I of Hungary.

Stephen I, also known as King Saint Stephen (Hungarian: Szent István király, Latin: Sanctus Stephanus; Slovak: Štefan I. or Štefan Veľký; c. 975 – 15 August 1038 AD), was the last Grand Prince of the Hungarians between 997 and 1000 or 1001, and the first King of Hungary from 1000 or 1001 until his death in 1038. The year of his birth is uncertain, but many details of his life suggest that he was born in or after 975 in Esztergom. At his birth, he was given the pagan name Vajk. The date of his baptism is unknown. He was the only son of Grand Prince Géza and his wife, Sarolt, who was descended from the prominent family of the gyulas. Although both of his parents were baptized, Stephen was the first member of his family to become a devout Christian. He married Gisela of Bavaria, a scion of the imperial Ottonian dynasty.

After succeeding his father in 997, Stephen had to fight for the throne against his relative, Koppány, who was supported by large numbers of pagan warriors. He defeated Koppány mainly with the assistance of foreign knights, including Vecelin, Hont and Pázmány, but also with help from native lords. He was crowned on 25 December 1000 or 1 January 1001 with a crown sent by Pope Sylvester II. In a series of wars against semi-independent tribes and chieftains—including the Black Hungarians and his uncle, Gyula the Younger—he unified the Carpathian Basin. He protected the independence of his kingdom by forcing the invading troops of Conrad II, Holy Roman Emperor, to withdraw from Hungary in 1030.

Stephen established at least one archbishopric, six bishoprics and three Benedictine monasteries; thus the Church in Hungary developed independently of the archbishops of the Holy Roman Empire. He encouraged the spread of Christianity with severe punishments for ignoring Christian customs. His system of local administration was based on counties organized around fortresses and administered by royal officials. Hungary, which enjoyed a lasting period of peace during his reign, became a preferred route for pilgrims and merchants traveling between Western Europe and the Holy Land or Constantinople.

He survived all of his children. He died on 15 August 1038 and was buried in his new basilica, built in Székesfehérvár and dedicated to the Holy Virgin. His death caused civil wars which lasted for decades. He was canonized by Pope Gregory VII, together with his son, Emeric, and Bishop Gerard of Csanád, in 1083. Stephen is a popular saint in Hungary and the neighboring territories. In Hungary, his feast day (celebrated on 20 August) is also a public holiday commemorating the foundation of the state, known as State Foundation Day.

coat

The current coat of arms of Hungary was reinstated on July 3, 1990, after the end of communist rule. The arms have been used before, both with and without the Holy Crown of Hungary, sometimes as part of a larger, more complex coat of arms, and its elements date back to the Middle Ages.

The shield is split into two parts:

The dexter (left side from the viewer's point) features the so-called Árpád stripes, four Argent (silver) and four Gules (red) stripes. Traditionally, the silver stripes represent four rivers: Duna (Danube), Tisza, Dráva, and Száva.

The sinister (right side from the viewer's point) consists of an Argent (silver) double cross on Gules (red) base, situated inside a small Or (golden) crown, the crown is placed on the middle heap of three Vert (green) hills, representing the mountain ranges (trimount) Tátra, Mátra, and Fátra.

There are many myth ans legends about curved cross on the top of St.Stefan crown. But here is one of them, mostly known.

"What could have caused this damage, and when? In studying the history of the Holy Crown, were found the following: When King Albert died in 1439, his wife was already pregnant with the boy who would become László V. To secure the Crown for her son, she instructed her lady-in-waiting, the wife of Kottaner János, to steal it from Visegrád, where it was kept. She arranged the theft, packed the Crown in a large red velvet pillow, and covered it with cowhide. Then they took the Crown to Komárom, and from there to Székesfehérvár, where they crowned the 3-month old infant with it. The Queen, however, still would not relinquish the Crown, and instructed the same lady-in-waiting to take it to Győr. As Kottaner Jánosné wrote in her journal:

“I took the Holy Crown, and wrapped it very well in a shawl, and placed it in the cradle, among straw, because his highness did not sleep on feathers yet, and I also put a large spoon next to him, with which one usually amuses children. I did this so that, should anyone reach into the cradle, he should think there was something there with which one amuses the noble king. At that time, no one knew of this, except my gracious lady and myself.”

The cradle was placed on a cart, and the little king was placed in it. On the way, the infant was often taken out and placed back in. An infant’s weight corresponds perfectly with the pressure estimated by Gyergyai. In addition, the first repairs made to the Holy Crown correspond to the methods used around 1440." (Magyar news)

Top left is guilloche window.

On the left side is hologram strip.

Denominations in numerals are on top and in lower right corner. In words - on top.

Revers:

10000 Forint 2014

Esztergomi látkép Esztergomi látkép

The paint of Austrian painter Hubert Sattler (1817-1904) "Esztergomi látkép" or "Esztergom", second part of XIX century.

On second plan is the Basilica.

The Primatial Basilica of the Blessed Virgin Mary Assumed Into Heaven and St Adalbert (Hungarian: Nagyboldogasszony és Szent Adalbert prímási főszékesegyház), also known as the Esztergom Basilica (Hungarian: Esztergomi bazilika), is an ecclesiastic basilica in Esztergom, Hungary, the mother church of the Archdiocese of Esztergom-Budapest, and the seat of the Catholic Church in Hungary. It is dedicated to the Saint Mary of the Assumption and Saint Adalbert.

It is the largest church and the tallest building in Hungary. Its inner area is 5,600 m². It is 118 m. long and 49 m. wide. It has a reverberation time of more than 9 seconds. Its dome, forming a semi-sphere, is situated in the middle, and it has 12 windows. It is 71.5 m. high inside, with a diameter of 33.5 meters, and is 100 m. high from outside, the stairs count 400 steps counted from the crypt.

The altarpiece (13.5×6.6 meters, depicting the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, by Girolamo Michelangelo Grigoletti) is the largest painting in the world painted on a single piece of canvas.

The basilica is also known for Bakócz Chapel (named after Tamás Bakócz), built by Italian masters between 1506-1507 out of red marble of Süttő, its walls adorned with Tuscan Renaissance motifs. It is the most precious remaining example of Renaissance art in Hungary.

The huge crypt, built in Old Egyptian style in 1831, is today the resting place of late archbishops, among others, József Mindszenty, famous for his opposition to both Nazi and Communist rule.

The building of the present church took place on the foundation of several earlier churches. The first was built by Stephen I of Hungary between 1001–1010 (as the original Saint Adalbert church), the first cathedral in Hungary, which was burned down at the end of the XII century. It was rebuilt, and even survived the Mongol invasion of Hungary. However, in 1304, Wenceslaus III, a probable candidate for the Hungarian throne, sacked the castle and the church. It was repaired in the following years. The archbishops of the XIV and XV century made the church more ornate and added a huge library, the second most significant one in the country. It was ruined again under Turkish rule, in 1543. In 1820, the Archdiocese was restored and archbishop Sándor Rudnay decided to restore Esztergom's status as mother church of the country. The church maintains the relics of Catholic martyr and saint Marko Krizin.

The architect was Pál Kühnel and the lead contractor was János Packh. The foundation-stone was laid and work began in 1822. The Bakócz chapel was carefully disassembled (into about 1,600 pieces) and was moved 20 meters away from its original location and attached to the new basilica. In 1838 Packh was murdered, so József Hild was placed in charge of construction. He completed it in Classicistic style. Under the next archbishop, János Scitovszky, the upper church was completed and dedicated on August 31, 1856. The 1856 consecration ceremonies featured the premiere of the Missa solennis zur Einweihung der Basilika in Gran (Gran Mass), composed and conducted by Franz Liszt, and featuring the organist Alexander Winterberger. The final completion of the cathedral took place twelve years later in 1869.

On foreground is th building, where , today, is The Christian Museum.

The Christian Museum (Hungarian: Keresztény Múzeum) is the largest ecclesiastical collection in Hungary; it conserves European and Hungarian works of art from the period between the XIII and XIX centuries.

The permanent exhibition of the Christian Museum is situated on the second floor of the Primate's Palace in Esztergom-Víziváros, on the bank of the Danube river.

The extensive collections of Hungarian, Italian, Dutch, German and Austrian paintings make this museum the third most important picture gallery in Hungary. Many works of art come from the territory of present day Slovakia in which area part of the archdiocese of Esztergom lay at the time of the formation of the collection (the 1870s). Besides late medieval and Renaissance works of art - including the Calvary Altarpiece by Thomas of Coloswar, the Lord's Coffin from Garamszentbenedek, and the Passion scenes by Master MS - the baroque and modern collections, the collection of the decorative arts, and the collection of prints and drawings are significant.

Collections on permanent display

Hungarian, German and Austrian late Gothic painting and sculpture (XV and XVI centuries)

Italian Renaissance and Baroque painting (XIII to XVIII centuries)

Hungarian, Austrian, and German Baroque painting (XVII and XVIII centuries)

Early Netherlandish painting (XV and XVI centuries)

Tapestries (XV to XX centuries)

Icons and orthodox metalwork (XVI to XX centuries)

Select works of the decorative arts – goldsmithworks, ivory carvings, clocks, caskets and snuff boxes, ceramic art, glass paintings, eastern knotted carpets (XII to XX centuries)

The Keresztény Múzeum was founded by archbishop János Simor (1813-1891) who in 1875 established the third public museum of the Kingdom of Hungary by opening his private collection to all visitors. The first exhibition installed on the upper floor of the Cathedral Library included 206 pictures, mainly late medieval and XIX century works. The Archbishop greatly enlarged his collection in the following years. His most significant purchase was that of the Bertinelli collection in Rome in 1878, when the Museum acquired sixty, mainly Italian Renaissance paintings. Further important acquisitions were the wooden sculptures and works of applied art bought in 1884 from the Schnütgen Collection in Cologne. After 1882, the enlarged collection was transferred to the second floor of the newly rebuilt Primate’s Palace on the Danube bank, where it is still located. In 1887, Simor ensured the future of the collection by entrusting it to the care of the Cathedral chapter of Esztergom. After World War I, the Museum was enriched with two large collections: in 1920 with the collection of Arnold Ipolyi, Bishop of Oradea (1823–1886), which consisted mainly of late medieval Italian, German, Austrian and Hungarian paintings and sculptures, and in 1925 with Count San Marco's bequest, which primarily contained works of applied arts and paintings.

Chronicon pictum

Below, to the right of the center is the representation of King St. Stephen in the Hungarian illustrated chronicle (Chronicon pictum, Képes Krónika). The richly decorated initial of St. Stephen S, the emblem is the apostolic flag with a double cross (crux gemina), which is actually the coat of arms of Bela III.

The Chronicon Pictum (Latin for illustrated chronicle, English: Illuminated Chronicle or Vienna Illuminated Chronicle, Hungarian: Képes Krónika also referred to as Chronica Hungarorum, Chronicon (Hungariae) Pictum, Chronica Picta or Chronica de Gestis Hungarorum) is a medieval illustrated chronicle from the Kingdom of Hungary from the second half of fourteenth century. It represents the international artistic style of the royal courts in the court of Louis I of Hungary.

Its full name is: Chronicon pictum, Marci de Kalt, Chronica de gestis Hungarorum, that is Illustrated Chronicle, Mark of Kalt's Chronicle About the Deeds of the Hungarians.

The chronicle was written by Márk Kálti (lat. Marci de Kalt) shortly after the year 1358, with the last of the illuminations being finished between 1370 and 1373. The chronicle was given by the Hungarian king Louis I to the French king Charles V, when the daughter of Louis, Catherine, was engaged to Charles's son Louis I, Duke of Orléans.

The chronicle was then given to Đorđe Branković in 1456, where it was copied, and later lost, possibly spending some time in Turkish possession.

The chronicle reappears in the first half of the 17th century in royal archives of Vienna by unknown means, which is why it is also referred as the Vienna Illuminated Chronicle. The manuscript is now kept in the National Széchényi Library in Budapest (Országos Széchényi Könyvtár, Budapest).

The 147 pictures of the chronicle are great sources of information on medieval Hungarian cultural history, costume, and court life in the XIV century. Many miniatures seen inside this chronicle are painted with gold. The artistic value of the miniatures are quite high, if we compare similar miniatures from other parts of Western Europe from the same time[citation needed]. The characters are drawn with detail and with knowledge of anatomy; for example, even the eyeballs are painted, a fact which can only be ascertained by using a microscope on the miniature.

All miniatures showing Attila the Hun are disrupted or even rubbed out (especially the last miniature depicting Attila's death); this cannot be due to the time as all other miniatures and text are preserved well. The miniatures make use of symbolism, i.e. "primus ingressus" ('first incoming') is with a camel, while the "secundus ingressus" ('second incoming') is with a white horse, probably meaning that entering the Carpathian Basin the first time was not a successful or was a culturally diverted act (as the camel is a "diverted" horse and white horse is the "pure quality"). The text of Latin is without error and is representing a high quality.

In the background is the scattered background of the ornaments of the coronation mantle of St. Stephen I.

Denominations in numerals are top and in lower right corner. On top in words.

Comments:

Obverse engraver: Vagyoczki K. Del. Et.SC, Palinkas GY. Sc.

Reverse engravers: Vagyoczki K. Del. Et.SC, Palinkas GY. Sc.

The forint's name comes from the city of Florence, where golden coins were minted from 1252 called fiorino d'oro. In Hungary, florentinus (later forint), also a gold-based currency, was used from 1325 under Charles Robert and several other countries followed its example.