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1000 Mark 1960, Germany

in Krause book Number: 24a
Years of issue: 24.07.1964
Edition:
Signatures: Bundesbank Präsident: Dr. rer. pol. h.c. Karl Blessing (01.01.1958 - 31.12.1969), Vizepräsident: Dr. Heinrich Troeger
Serie: Serie 1960
Specimen of: 02.01.1960
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 180 х 90
Printer: Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1000 Mark 1960

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The Portrait of a Man by Lucas Cranach the Elder, Oil on wood, 1529. About the portrait, please, read obverse description!

Avers:

1000 Mark 1960

man

The engraving on banknote is made after the portrait of a man (after a painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder), 1529. Today is in Royal Museums of Fine Arts in Brussels, Belgium.

There is still controversy around this portrait.

For a long time it was believed that Cranach the Elder made the portrait of the Magdeburg canon Johannes Scheyring (der Magdeburger Domherr Johannes Scheyring), but, it is possible that the portrait is of mathematician and astronomer Johannes Schöner.And now more exactly about those people:

Johannes Scheyring (Ziering) (* 1454 in Wemding, † 1516 in Halberstadt) was rector of the University of Leipzig and later canon to Magdeburg and Halberstadt.

A 1529 created by Lucas Cranach the Elder portrait, which is located in the Royal Museum of Fine Arts in Brussels and represents according to a later inscription Scheyring was mapped from 1964 to 1992 on the bill over 1000 German marks. However, there are doubts about the identity of the person depicted; it could also be about Scheiring's contemporary, the astronomer and mathematician Johannes Schöner (1477-1547).

Since Johannes Scheyring had no descendants, he founded in 1516 by his will the Zieringsche family foundation. This awarded until after the First World War to descendants of the brother Emeran Ziering (1464-1547) scholarships for young men and driving aids for young women. The City Council of Magdeburg wanted to dissolve the foundation in 1955 for political reasons; However, at the end of 2007, the foundation supervisory board of the state of Saxony-Anhalt found that the dissolution was already ineffective under the law then in force and the foundation therefore continues to exist. The Ziering family foundation was reactivated on December 22, 2010 as an existing family foundation under civil law by entry in the foundation directory of the state of Saxony-Anhalt.

The only surviving child of Emeran Ziering was Johannes Scheyring (Ziering) (1505-1555), the nephew of Johannes Scheyring (1454-1516).

Descendants of the family of Johannes Scheyring were among others the wife of Otto von Guericke, Johann Friedrich Böttger, Gustav Nachtigal and Wilhelm Krelle.

Johannes Schöner

Johannes Schöner (16 January 1477 in Karlstadt am Main – 16 January 1547 in Nürnberg) (aka, Johann Schönner, Johann Schoener, Jean Schönner, Joan Schoenerus) was a renowned and respected German polymath. It is best to refer to him using the usual XVI-century Latin term "mathematicus", as the areas of study to which he devoted his life were very different from those now considered to be the domain of the mathematician. He was a priest, astronomer, astrologer, geographer, cosmographer, cartographer, mathematician, globe and scientific instrument maker and editor and publisher of scientific tests. In his own time he enjoyed a European wide reputation as an innovative and influential globe maker and cosmographer and as one of the continent's leading and most authoritative astrologers. Today he is remembered as an influential pioneer in the history of globe making and as a man who played a significant role in the events that led up to the publishing of Copernicus' "De revolutionibus" in Nürnberg in 1543.

Schöner was born on 16 January 1477 in Karlstadt am Main in Lower Franconia. As with most Renaissance scholars nothing is known about his parents or his early life. All that is known is that he had a brother, Peter, to whom he addressed his "Arzneibuch" in 1528. Quite detailed information for Schöner’s adult life, at least up to 1506, has been preserved in his own marginalia in his copy of Regiomontanus' printed Ephemerides, which he used as a diary. He matriculated at the University of Erfurt in the winter semester 1494/5 and graduated Baccalaureus on 21 March 1498. He was appointed to a position in the school in Gemünden on 22 February 1499 and ordained as a Catholic priest in the Bishopric of Bamberg on 13 June 1500. On 2 February 1500 he moved to Bamberg and was appointed chaplain in Hallstatt near Bamberg on 18 April 1500. His next appointment was as vicar in his hometown Karlstadt from 4 June 1504. Between 4 May and 29 October 1506 he was again in Bamberg before he returned to Karlstadt. His diary also informs us that he entered a relationship with Kunigunde Holocher in 1499, with whom he had three children: a son Johannes born on 1 February 1502, a daughter Sibilla born on 12 June 1503 and a second son Vitus born on 21 November 1504.

Schöner was the owner of the only specimen of the 1507 Waldseemüller map of the world that has survived and which was rediscovered at Schloss Wolfegg in Upper Swabia in 1901. Since 2003 it is in possession of the Library of Congress.

No diary exists after 1506, and up to 1515 there are only indirect traces of Schöner's existence in the financial records of the bishopric and in the correspondence of Lorenz Beheim (?1457 - 1521), who after 24 years in Rome as chamberlain to Pope Alexander IV had returned to Bamberg in 1505 as a canon of the cathedral.

1526, he was called to Nürnberg as the first professor of mathematics at the newly founded gymnasium Aegidianum, a post he held till one year prior to his death. At the same time, he converted to Protestantism and married.

Already in Bamberg, he owned his own printing company and published many maps and globes. The very first printed globe of the sky was made in his workshop in 1515. He made another globe in 1520.

Schöner had also made still unpublished data of Mercury observations from Walther available to Copernicus, 45 observations in total, 14 of them with longitude and latitude. Copernicus used three of them in "De revolutionibus", giving only longitudes, and falsely attributing them to Schöner. The values differed slightly from the ones published by Schöner in 1544.

1538, Georg Joachim Rheticus, a young professor of mathematics at Wittenberg and former assistant of Copernicus, stayed for some time with Schöner who convinced him to visit Nicolaus Copernicus in Frauenburg. In 1540, Rheticus dedicated the first published report of Copernicus work, the Narratio prima, to Schöner, to test the waters of the reaction by the Catholic Church. As this was well received, Copernicus finally agreed to publish his main work, and Rheticus prepared Copernicus' manuscript for printing.

In Nürnberg, Schöner published in 1544 the astronomical observations of Regiomontanus and Walther, as well as manuscripts of Regiomontanus, which had been in the hand of Walther, as Observationes XXX annorum a I. Regiomontano et B. Walthero Norimbergae habitae, [4°, Norimb. 1544].

A crater on Mars is named in his honor.

Lucas Cranach the Elder (Lucas Cranach der Ältere, c. 1472 - 16 October 1553), was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving. He was court painter to the Electors of Saxony for most of his career, and is known for his portraits, both of German princes and those of the leaders of the Protestant Reformation, whose cause he embraced with enthusiasm, becoming a close friend of Martin Luther. He also painted religious subjects, first in the Catholic tradition, and later trying to find new ways of conveying Lutheran religious concerns in art. He continued throughout his career to paint nude subjects drawn from mythology and religion. He had a large workshop and many works exist in different versions; his son Lucas Cranach the Younger, and others, continued to create versions of his father's works for decades after his death.

Revers:

1000 Mark 1960

The Limburg Cathedral symbolizes Romanesque architecture in Germany.

On the banknote is a view of the Limburg Cathedral from the Lahnbrücke Bridge (now the old Lahnbrücke Bridge).

Limburger Dom Limburger Dom

The Catholic Cathedral of Limburg (German: Limburger Dom), also known as Georgsdom in German after its dedication to Saint George, is located above the old town of Limburg in Hesse, Germany. It is the cathedral of the Catholic Diocese of Limburg. Its high location on a rock above the river Lahn provides its visibility from far away. It is the result of an Early Gothic modernization of an originally Early Romanesque building and therefore shows a Romanesque-Gothic transitional style.

The medieval patron saints of the church were Saint George and Nicholas of Myra.

Limburger Dom Limburger Dom

When the first church was built above the Lahn on the "Limburger Felsen" (German: "Limburg Rock") is not exactly known. According to a reference in the Nekrolog of the Basilica of St. Castor in Koblenz, Archbishop Hetti of Trier (814-847) consecrated a church of St George in "Lympurgensis."

Incidental archaeological discoveries from Carolingian times under the current church support the existence of a IX-century church building in the area of the current chapel. There are no actual remains of the building however, nor any indications of its exact location or of its patron saint. Since the aforementioned record of its consecration was first written down in the sixteenth century, its accuracy has been controversial in scholarly literature.

On 10 February 910, King Louis the Child issued a deed for the foundation of a Stift of canons, which the Gaugraf of Niederlahngau, Konrad Kurzbold (~ 885-948) had pushed for. The construction of a collegial church probably began immediately. The choice of St George as patron is mentioned by Emperor Otto I in a document from the year 940. By then, the first church had very likely already been completed.

Limburger Dom

In the eleventh century, that first church was replaced by an Early Romanesque basilica. A lead reliquary from the eleventh century found in 1776 in the main altar in the form of a schematic model of a church, is mentions a Graf (count) Heinrich as founder and builder of a new "templum". Obviously, that count had been the sponsor of this basilica.

At about 1180, a new relaunch was started that gave the church its present day shape. In the western part, the nave and the transept, the walls up to the top of the storey of galleries are remainders of the Early Romanesque basilica. The Gothic modernization was begun ind the west and proceeded eastward. Most of the windows and the western portal were enlarged in Gothic style, but the vaults of the aisles of the nave are still of Romanesque type. Relics of the Romanesque walls of the choir, including a bank of stone, can be seen below the arcades around the choir. The outer walls of the ambulatory are originally Gothic, and so are the vaults of the ambulatory. Many details inside the church suggest that the builders followed the example of Laon Cathedral, the construction of which had been started one or two decades before the Gothic relaunch of St George collegial church in Limburg.

In 1802, during secularisation, the Stift's independence was brought to an end (like many other abbeys and Stifte) and it was given to the Princes of Nassau-Usingen. This seizure took place as part of the German mediatization, in which the House of Nassau received the Stift as compensation for the loss of the County of Saarbrücken on the left bank of the Rhine. After secularisation, the cathedral was used as a parish church. In 1827, at the request of the Duchy of Nassau, the independent Diocese of Limburg was founded. This diocese contained the territory of the Duchy and the free city of Frankfurt am Main. The see was Limburg. This way, the former collegial church of St George was promoted to the rank of cathedral.

The first bishop of Limburg was Jakob Brand (1827 to 1833). The diocese has currently about 700,000 Catholics and is one of the younger dioceses. On Friday, February 2, 2007, Pope Benedict XVI accepted the age-related resignation of former bishop Franz Kamphaus. Franz-Peter Tebartz-van Elst was named new bishop on November 28, 2007, and took office on January 20, 2008. He was suspended on 23 October 2013, the administrator of the diocese has been general vicar Wolfgang Rösch.

Limburger Dom

The cathedral is a three-aisled basilica, which combines late Romanesque and early Gothic elements. It has a narthex at the western end and a semi-circular choir with an ambulatory. The outside measures 54.5 m long, with a width of 35.4 m. The building has a complicated structure; seven spires rise from it. The number seven is a symbolic reference to the number of the sacraments. The tallest of these towers are on the western side and rise to a height of 37 m. They form the distinctive "twin-tower façade". Such twin-tower facades are common in the Rheinland, for example at Xanten, Andernach and Koblenz. The pointed crossing spire towers over all the other spires with a height of 66 m and stands at the centre of the building. This height is the result of a lightning strike in 1774, before which the tower was 6.5 metres higher. The corner towers on the southern transept were erected in 1863.

The west facade is divided into five levels. The most eye catching stylistic element is a huge round window, surrounded by eight small rosettes, which forms a clear centre of the west facade. The rosette symbolises the four Evangelists. Despite the symmetry of the twin towers, there is rich variation in forms and building elements, e.g. round and pointed arches, pilaster strips, small pillars, archivolts, windows and blind arches. The upper level of the north tower includes Gothic elements (e.g. window tracery).

During restorations between 1872 and 1873, the polychrome exterior painting of the cathedral was removed (the colours were, previously, white, red, yellow-brown, black and a little green) and the stone was left bare. Between 1968 and 1972, the polychrome exterior was restored, using remains of the colour from the period before 1872 in order to reconstruct the old patterns.

The seal of German Bundesbank is nearby.

The inscription on the right top: "Wer Banknoten nachmacht oder verfälscht oder nachgemachte oder verfälschte sich verschafft und in Verkehr bringt, wird mit Zuchthaus nicht unter zwei Jahren bestraft".

Translation reads: "Those who forge bank notes or runs the counterfeit into circulation will be subject to imprisonment for at least two years."

DM printed until 1963 (then have been changed the interpretation of this article in the German law) instead of the word "Freiheitsstrafe" (deprivation of freedom) have the word "Zuchthaus" (penitentiary). At that time, the notion of a house of correction has become obsolete, so it was replaced.

Among the collectors the third series of banknotes (Series 1960) with the word "Zuchthaus" valued much higher then releases of the same series in 1970, 1977 and 1980. Although, in general, all notes in this series are valued higher then exchange rate, according to which, by the way, the Bundesbank still takes them for exchange to Euro.

Comments:

The signatures on banknote belongs to:

Karl Blessing

Karl Blessing (05.02.1900 - 25.04.1971).

Heinrich Troeger

Heinrich Troeger (4 March 1901 - 28 August 1975).

Hermann Eidenbenz

Graphic artist: Hermann Eidenbenz.

Hermann Eidenbenz (September 4, 1902 - 25 February 1993) was a Swiss graphic artist and stamp artist.

The time of his birth his father managed several companies in India, his mother came from Germany (Schwaben). But he received his education in Switzerland.

His training as a graphic artist took place in Switzerland, first at "Orell Füssli" in Zurich and then in the School of Applied Arts in Zurich. 1923 was followed by a stay abroad at "Deffke and Hadank" in Berlin. As early as 1926 he became a teacher of writing and graphics at the arts and crafts school in Magdeburg. He practiced six years of this profession before he opened his own graphic studio in Basel with his brothers - Reinhold and Willi. In 1937 he was involved in the Pavilion of Switzerland for the World Exhibition in Paris from 1940 to 1943 he taught at the general trade school in Basel.

For Haas'sche type foundry he designed in 1945 the Graphique Font, in 1950 was followed by the Clarendon Font. Today these fonts are available from Linotype Library.

In 1953 he returned to Germany and became head of the department of commercial art at Werkkunstschule, in Braunschweig. In 1955 he joined the company "Fa.Reemtsma", in Hamburg, there to act as artistic collaborator.

He created numerous logos and posters. This also includes the logo of "Basler Verkehrsbetriebe" (BVB). The supported by two arms of Basilisk in Basel graced so many BVB vehicles than any other Signet before or since. In 1947 thus drove the first motor car. In addition Eidenbenz took over even the graphic design of the car numbers used from 1947 until today.

He created for Switzerland and for Germany In addition, banknotes and stamps. So he designed the first series of the D-Mark banknotes, issued by the Deutsche Bundesbank and the fifth series of banknotes of the Swiss franc, which came into circulation from 1956. The stamp of the German Post Office for the 100th anniversary of Carl Friedrich Gauss from 1955 was designed by him.