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2,5 Gulden 1985, Suriname

in Krause book Number: 119a
Years of issue: 01.11.1985
Edition:
Signatures: De Minister van Financien en Planning: Willem Alfred (Wim) Udenhout
Serie: Muntbiljet
Specimen of: 01.09.1973
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 128 х 73
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

2,5 Gulden 1985

Description

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2,5 Gulden 1985

Thraupis episcopus

The blue-gray tanager (Thraupis episcopus) is a medium-sized South American songbird of the tanager family, Thraupidae. Its range is from Mexico south to northeast Bolivia and northern Brazil, all of the Amazon Basin, except the very south. It has been introduced to Lima (Peru). On Trinidad and Tobago, this bird is called blue jean.

In 1760 the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson included a description of the blue-grey tanager in his Ornithologie based on a specimen collected in Brazil. He used the French name L'evesque and the Latin name Episcopus avis. Although Brisson coined Latin names, these do not conform to the binomial system and are not recognised by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. When in 1766 the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus updated his Systema Naturae for the twelfth edition he added 240 species that had been previously described by Brisson in his Ornithologie. One of these was the fulvous-crested tanager. Linnaeus included a terse description, coined the binomial name Tanagra episcopus and cited Brisson's work. The specific name episcopus is Latin for "bishop". The current genus Thraupis was introduced by the German naturalist Friedrich Boie in 1826.

There are 14 recognized subspecies, differing according to the exact hue of blue of the shoulder patch versus the rest of the plumage; they may be greyish, greenish or purplish-blue, with a lavender, dark blue or whitish shoulder patch. For example, T. e. berlepschi (endemic to Tobago) is a brighter and darker blue on the rump and shoulder, T. e. neosophilus with a violet shoulder patch occurs in northern Venezuela, Trinidad, eastern Colombia and the far north of Brazil, T. e. mediana of the southern Amazon basin has a white wing patch, and T. e. cana in the northern Amazon has blue shoulders.

The blue-gray tanager is 16-18 cm. (6.3-7.1 in.) long and weighs 30-40 g. (1.1-1.4 oz.). Adults have a light bluish head and underparts, with darker blue upperparts and a shoulder patch colored a different hue of blue. The bill is short and quite thick. Sexes are similar, but the immature is much duller in plumage.

The song is a squeaky twittering, interspersed with tseee and tsuup call notes.

Caryocar nuciferum

In my opinion, The blue-gray tanager sit on the braach of Caryocar nuciferum tree (as bird loves its fruits so much).

Caryocar nuciferum, the butter-nut of Guiana, is also known as pekea-nut, or like all other species of Caryocar with edible nuts - "souari-nut" or "sawarri-nut". It is a fruit tree native to northern Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guyana, Panama, and Venezuela.

This colourful tree grows up to 35 meters, in humid forests. Flowers are hermaphroditic and in small clusters. The large coconut-sized fruit, weighs about 3 kg, is round or pear-shaped some 10-15 cm. in diameter, and greyish-brown in colour. The outer skin is leathery, about 1 mm. thick, and covered in rust-coloured lenticels. It has been called "perhaps the finest of all the fruits called nuts. The kernel is large, soft, and even sweeter than the almond, which it somewhat resembles in taste."

Pulp of the mesocarp is oily and sticky, holding 1-4 hard, woody, warty stones, with tasty, reniform endocarp, which is eaten raw or roasted, and produces a nondrying edible oil. The wood is durable and used for boat-building. The correctly expressed oil of its nuts produces an effective healing balm.

This species is illustrated and discussed in detail in Curtis's Botanical Magazine volume 54 published in 1827, and figured on plates 2727 and 2728 using material sent from the island of Saint Vincent by the Revd. Lansdown Guilding.

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2,5 Gulden 1985

Afobaka Dam

The Afobaka Dam is an embankment dam with a main gravity dam section on the Suriname River near Afobaka in Brokopondo District of Suriname. The primary purpose of the dam is to generate hydroelectric power and it supports a 180 MW power station. In 1958, Suriname Aluminum Company LLC (Suralco), a subsidiary of Alcoa, gained an agreement with the Suriname government to build the dam to power an aluminium smelter. Construction began in 1961 and it was completed in 1964. About 75% of power generated is used for processing aluminum, the rest is used in Paramaribo downstream. The power station was operational in 1965 but the very large reservoir, Brokopondo Reservoir, was not completely filled until 1971. Greenhouse gases emitted from the reservoir resulted in poor water quality for decades. Highly acidic water also damaged the power station's turbines.

Iguana iguana

In my opinion, on top of banknote is the green iguana.

The green iguana (Iguana iguana), also known as the American iguana, is a large, arboreal, mostly herbivorous species of lizard of the genus Iguana. It is native to Central America, South America, and the Caribbean. Usually, this animal is simply called the iguana. The green iguana ranges over a large geographic area, from southern Brazil and Paraguay as far north as Mexico and the Caribbean islands. They have been introduced from South America to Puerto Rico and are very common throughout the island, where they are colloquially known as gallina de palo and considered an invasive species.

A herbivore, it has adapted significantly with regard to locomotion and osmoregulation as a result of its diet. It grows to 1.5 meters (4.9 ft.) in length from head to tail, although a few specimens have grown more than 2 meters (6.6 ft.) with bodyweights upward of 20 pounds (9.1 kg.).

Commonly found in captivity as a pet due to its calm disposition and bright colors, it can be very demanding to care for properly. Space requirements and the need for special lighting and heat can prove challenging to an amateur hobbyist.

On right side is micro-text in Dutch: "Surinaams wetboek van Strafrecht. Artikel 260. Hij die muntspeciën of munt- of bankbiljetten namaakt of vervalst, met het oogmerk om die muntspeciën of munt- of bankbiljetten als echt en onvervalst uit te geven of de doen uitgeven, wordt. Gestraft met gevangenisstraf van ten hoogste Negen Jaren. Artikel 519. Hij die drukwerken of stukken metaal in een vorm die ze op munt, of bankbiljetten, op muntspeciën, op van rijksmerken voorziene gouden of zilveren werken of op postzegels doet geluken, vervaardigt, verspreidt, of ter verspreiding in voorraad heeft, woordt gestraft met geldboete van ten hoogste Driehonderd Gulden".

In English: "Penal Code of Suriname. Article 260. Anyone who forges coins or banknotes shall be punished with imprisonment for a term not exceeding nine years.

Article 519. Anyone who produces or distributes or keeps in stock stampings or pieces of metal in a form that can be used to manufacture, distribute coins or banknotes shall be punished with a fine of not more than three hundred guilders.".

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