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200 Piso 2015, Philippines

in Krause book Number: 209
Years of issue: 2015
Edition:
Signatures: Pangulo NG Pilipinas (President of the Philippines): Benigno Simeon Cojuangco Aquino III, Tagapangasiwa NG Bangko Sentral (Governor of the Central Bank): Amando Maglalang Tetangco Jr. (in office from 4 July 2005 until 3 July 2017)
Serie: New Generation Currency series
Specimen of: 17.10.2010
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 160 х 66
Printer: BSP - Security Plant Complex, Diliman, Quezon City

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

200 Piso 2015

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Diosdado P. Macapagal. Denomination 200.

Avers:

200 Piso 2015

Diosdado Pangan Macapagal

Diosdado Pangan Macapagal (September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was the ninth President of the Philippines, serving from 1961 to 1965, and the sixth Vice-President, serving from 1957 to 1961. He also served as a member of the House of Representatives, and headed the Constitutional Convention of 1970. He is the father of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, who was the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010.

A native of Lubao, Pampanga, Macapagal graduated from the University of the Philippines and University of Santo Tomas, both in Manila, after which he worked as a lawyer for the government. He first won election in 1949 to the House of Representatives, representing a district in his home province of Pampanga. In 1957, he became Vice-President under the rule of President Carlos P. Garcia, whom he defeated in the 1961 polls.

Diosdado Macapagal was also a reputed poet in the Chinese and Spanish language, though his poetic oeuvre was eclipsed by his political biography.

As President, Macapagal worked to suppress graft and corruption and to stimulate the Philippine economy. He introduced the country's first land reform law, placed the peso on the free currency exchange market, and liberalized foreign exchange and import controls. Many of his reforms, however, were crippled by a Congress dominated by the rival Nacionalista Party. He is also known for shifting the country's observance of Independence Day from July 4 to June 12, commemorating the day President Emilio Aguinaldo unilaterally declared the independence of the First Philippine Republic from the Spanish Empire in 1898. He stood for re-election in 1965, and was defeated by Ferdinand Marcos, who subsequently ruled for 21 years.

Under Marcos, Macapagal was elected president of the Constitutional Convention which would later draft what became the 1973 Constitution, though the manner in which the charter was ratified and modified led him to later question its legitimacy. He died of heart failure, pneumonia, and renal complications, in 1997, at the age of 86.

The seal of National Bank is right of center.

coat

The coat of arms of Philippines is centered.

The Coat of arms of the Philippines (Filipino: Sagisag ng Pilipinas) or sometimes in (Spanish: Escudo de Filipinas) features the eight-rayed sun of the Philippines with each ray representing the eight provinces (Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Manila, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga and Tarlac) which were placed under martial law by Governor-General Ramón Blanco during the Philippine Revolution, and the three five-pointed stars representing the three primary geographic regions of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao.

On the blue field on the dexter side is the North American bald eagle of the United States, and on the red field on the sinister side is the lion rampant of the coat of arms of the Kingdom of León of Spain, both representing the country's colonial past. The current arms, which shares many features of the national flag, was designed by Filipino artist and heraldist Captain Galo B. Ocampo.

The blazon of the coat of arms from Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines (Republic Act 8491) is as follows:

“...Paleways of two (2) pieces, azure and gules; a chief argent studded with three (3) mullets equidistant from each other; and, in point of honor, ovoid argent over all the sun rayonnant with eight minor and lesser rays. Beneath shall be the scroll with the words "REPUBLIKA NG PILIPINAS", inscribed thereon.”

Its original blazoning according to Commonwealth Act No. 731 is:

“Pale ways of two pieces, azure and gules; a chief argent studded with three golden stars equidistant from each other; in point of honor, ovoid argent over all the sun rayonnant with eight minor and lesser rays; in sinister base gules, the Lion Rampant of Spain; in dexter base azure, the American eagle displayed proper. Beneath, a scroll with the words 'Republic of the Philippines' inscribed thereon.”

Taking the oath by Gloria Arroyo, in January 2001, during The Second EDSA Revolution (EDSA II)

In lower left corner, on foreground - Taking the oath by Gloria Arroyo, in January 2001, during the second people's revolution in the Philippines (The Second EDSA Revolution (EDSA II)).

The Second EDSA Revolution (EDSA II) was a four-day political protest from January 17–20, 2001 that peacefully overthrew the government of Joseph Estrada, the thirteenth President of the Philippines. Estrada was succeeded by his Vice-President, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who was sworn into office by then-Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. at around noon on January 20, 2001, several hours before Estrada fled Malacañang Palace. EDSA is an acronym derived from Epifanio de los Santos Avenue, the major thoroughfare connecting five cities in Metro Manila, namely Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City, and Caloocan, with the revolution's epicentre at the EDSA Shrine church at the northern tip of Ortigas Center, a business district.

Advocates described EDSA II as "popular" but critics view the uprising as a conspiracy among political and business elites, military top brass and Catholic Cardinal Jaime Sin. International reaction to the revolt was mixed, with some foreign nations including the United States immediately recognising the legitimacy of Arroyo's presidency, and foreign commentators describing it as "a defeat for due process of law", "mob rule", and a "de facto coup".

The only means of legitimizing the event was the last-minute Supreme Court ruling that "the welfare of the people is the supreme law." But by then, the Armed Forces of the Philippines had already withdrawn support for the president, which some analysts called unconstitutional, and most foreign political analysts agreeing with this assessment. William Overholt, a Hong Kong-based political economist said that "It is either being called mob rule or mob rule as a cover for a well-planned coup, ... but either way, it's not democracy." It should also be noted that opinion was divided during EDSA II about whether Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo as the incumbent Vice President should be President if Joseph Estrada was ousted; many groups who participated in EDSA II expressly stated that they did not want Arroyo for president either, and some of them would later participate in EDSA III. The prevailing Constitution of the Philippines calls for the Vice President of the Philippines, Arroyo at the time, to act as interim president only when the sitting President dies, resigns, or becomes incapacitated, none of which occurred during EDSA II.

On October 4, 2000, Ilocos Sur Governor Luis "Chavit" Singson, a longtime friend of President Joseph Estrada, went public with accusations that Estrada, his family and friends received millions of pesos from operations of the illegal numbers game, jueteng.

The exposé immediately ignited reactions of rage. The next day, Senate Minority Leader Teofisto Guingona, Jr. delivered a fiery privilege speech accusing Estrada of receiving P220 million in jueteng money from Governor Singson from November 1998 to August 2000, as well as taking P70 million on excise tax on cigarettes intended for Ilocos Sur. The privilege speech was referred by Senate President Franklin Drilon, to the Blue Ribbon Committee and the Committee on Justice for joint investigation. Another committee in the House of Representatives decided to investigate the exposé, while other house members spearheaded a move to impeach the president.

More calls for resignation came from Manila Cardinal Archbishop Jaime Sin, the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines, former Presidents Corazon Aquino and Fidel Ramos, and Vice President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (who had resigned her cabinet position of Secretary of the Department of Social Welfare and Development). Cardinal Sin stated in a statement "In the light of the scandals that besmirched the image of presidency, in the last two years, we stand by our conviction that he has lost the moral authority to govern." More resignations came from Estrada's cabinet and economic advisers, and other members of congress defected from his ruling party.

On November 13, 2000, the House of Representatives led by Speaker Manuel Villar transmitted the Articles of Impeachment, signed by 115 representatives, to the Senate. This caused shakeups in the leadership of both houses of congress. The impeachment trial was formally opened on November 20, with twenty-one senators taking their oaths as judges, and Supreme Court Chief Justice Hilario Davide, Jr. presiding. The trial began on December 7.

The day-to-day trial was covered on live Philippine television and received the highest viewing rating at the time. Among the highlights of the trial was the testimony of Clarissa Ocampo, senior vice president of Equitable PCI Bank, who testified that she was one foot away from Estrada when he signed the name "Jose Velarde" documents involving a P500 million investment agreement with their bank in February 2000.

Aguinaldo Shrine

In lower left corner, on background, is The Emilio F. Aguinaldo Shrine.

The Emilio F. Aguinaldo Shrine is a national shrine located in Kawit, Cavite in the Philippines, where the Philippine Declaration of Independence from Spain was declared on June 12, 1898. To commemorate the event, now known as Araw ng Kalayaan or Independence Day, a national holiday, the Philippine flag is raised here by top government officials on June 12 each year. The house is now a museum.

The shrine is the ancestral home of Emilio Aguinaldo, officially the first President of the Philippines, the only president of the First Philippine Republic. The house was built in 1845 made from wood and thatch and reconstructed in 1849. Here Aguinaldo was born on March 22, 1869.

On June 12, 1898, the independence from Spain was proclaimed from the window of the grand hall. The Declaration of Philippine Independence was read by its author, Ambrosio Rianzares Bautista The Declaration of Independence was ratified by the Malolos Congress on September 21, 1898.

President Aguinaldo greatly enlarged his home from 1919-1921, transforming it into a monument to flag and country. He constructed an elaborate "Independence balcony", which Aguinaldo and top Philippine officials used during independence day celebrations. Many visitors today assume the balcony to be the actual location of the Independence Proclamation. Aguinaldo donated his home to the Philippine government on June 12, 1963, "to perpetuate the spirit of the Philippine Revolution of 1896 that put an end to Spanish colonization of the country".

During the independence celebration, the Philippine flag designed by Emilio Aguinaldo was formally unfurled from the front window. It was first flown during the Battle of Alapan in Imus City two weeks earlier on May 28, 1898 (now celebrated as Philippine National Flag Day each year). The Philippine national anthem was also first played on the grounds by the marching band of San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias, Cavite) but as an instrumental music; the lyrics were not written until 1899 by José Palma.

Emilio F. Aguinaldo died on February 6, 1964, at the age of 94 at the Veterans Memorial Medical Center in Quezon City. The same year, the government declared the mansion as a National Shrine on June 18 through Republic Act of 4039 signed by President Diosdado Macapagal.

Aguinaldo Park.

The property which is adjacent to a river, was expanded to include Aguinaldo Park, a park in front of the house created for the Philippine Centennial celebration of 1998. The park with a long promenade and two long pools. Previously the house was fronted by a busy street. In the park is a bronze statue of Aguinaldo on horseback.

Main house.

Aguinaldo's mansion.

Aguinaldo's house is a mansion over 14,000 square feet (1,300 m2) in floor area designed by Aguinaldo himself. The house features secret passages and hiding places for documents and weapons and is filled with antique furniture and decorated throughout with motifs of the Philippine flag and other national symbols. The building is divided into three sections: the main house on the west side of the building, the family wing on the east, and the tower located in between. The middle section is a five-story tower with a spire at the very top. The mezzanine level on the second floor is sometimes counted as an extra floor. The ground floor of the house was previously unwalled which is typical of the houses during the era. Today, it houses a museum of Aguinaldo's memorabilia and other historical artifacts. A hologram depicting Aguinaldo during the eve of June 12, 1898, is one of the exhibits.

Located on the second floor is the grand hall, a large meeting room with the historic front window from where the Declaration of Independence was read. The front Independence balcony was added by Aguinaldo during the 1919 renovations. The dining room located on the same floor is highlighted by a raised-relief map of the Philippines on its ceiling. Also on this level is the bedroom of Aguinaldo, the kitchen, a conference room, and a partially covered terrace on the western end of the building. On the east wing are three bedrooms for the general's three daughter's. A covered balcony (azotea) at the end of the wing was christened by Aguinaldo as Galeria de los Pecadores (Hall of the Sinners) as military plots against the Spanish authorities were planned there.

The next level is a mezzanine library which overlooks the grand hall below. A plight of stairs takes the visitor to the Ambassador Room used as a study by the general's son-in-law, Ambassador Jose Melencio. The next floor is the other bedroom of Aguinaldo which he used during the latter part of his life. A tiled terrace on this level gives a commanding view of the town to as far as Manila. A very narrow ladder takes one to the top of the tower which is allegedly the favorite spot of Aguinaldo.

Garden.

The grounds of the house is lush with greenery bordered by a river on the east and backed by a fish pond to the south. On display outside the house is Aguinaldo's personal car, a 1924 Packard limousine restored in November 2009.

In the middle of the garden behind the house is a marble tomb where the first president is interred.

The Aguinaldo Shrine museum on the ground floor is maintained by the National Historical Institute of the Philippines.

Barasoain Church

At the bottom, centered is The Barasoain Church.

Barasoain Church (officially as the Our Lady of Mount Carmel Parish) is a Roman Catholic church built in 1888 in Malolos, Bulacan. It is about 42 kilometers away from Manila. Having earned the title as the "Cradle of Democracy in the East, the most important religious building in the Philippines", and the site of the First Philippine Republic, the church is proverbial for its historical importance among Filipinos.

The term "Barasoain" was derived from Barásoain in Navarre, Spain to which the missionaries found the place in Malolos in striking similarity. When the Filipino revolution broke out, the Spanish authorities coined the term "baras ng suwail," which means "dungeon of the defiant" because the church was a meeting place for anti-Spanish and anti-colonial illustrados.

Barasoain also known as the place of adoption of the Malossi constitution.

Malossos constitution, the basic law of the Philippine Republic of 1898-1901. Adopted by the Revolutionary Congress in October - November 1898 in the village of Barasoain, near the town of Malolos; Enacted on January 21, 1899. The Constitution vested the legislature, the unicameral national assembly, with the right of full control over the activities of the executive (president elected by the national assembly) and the judiciary. This constitution provided for general direct elections, separation of church and state, compulsory and free education, and equal language rights for all Filipino peoples. In the constitution were clearly recorded the rights of citizens. Of particular importance was the article on nationalization without the purchase of real property of religious corporations - the country's largest landowners. Due to the war launched by the United States in February 1899 against the Philippine Republic, and the subsequent seizure of the United States Philippines, the Malossi constitution was not enforced, but it left a deep imprint on the minds of the people, and the United States, having introduced the Philippines Governance Act in 1902, was forced to include some provisions of this constitution (on civil rights).

Barasoain was known before as "Bangkal" a part of Encomienda of Malolos integrated by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi with the town of Calumpit in April 5, 1572. When the Augustinian friars founded the Town of Malolos in 1580 as an independent town, Bangkal became one of the villages of Malolos under the jurisdiction of the town church. A hermitage made of nipa and bamboo was constructed near the river between Maluslos (Malolos poblacion) and Barasoain for the people of Bangkal. In that same year, Malolos Friar Curate and Vicario Foraneo Fray Agustin Carreno, OSA established the first chapel at the old Ermita of the old Cemetery of Malolos. Abandoned in 1680, it served as the temporary visita of Barasoain, located in front of the Casa Tribunal (Presidencia), which is now commonly called "Casa Real de Malolos." A big fire in the XVII century destroyed the new church.

Another church building was commissioned and constructed on a new site, its present location - corner of Paseo del Congreso and Antonio Bautista streets. Under the supervision of Rev. Fr. Francisco Royo, O.S.A., the new church was built, made of light materials. In 1884, during the celebration of the Flores de Mayo (Nuestra Señora del Carmen), Patroness of the Parish, the temporary church was burned.

From 1630 to 1859, priests serving in Barasoain were from the nearby church, the mother church of the town which is Parroquia dela Inmaculada Concepcion of Malolos. Since the formal establishment of Barasoain as an independent parish to Malolos Church in 1859, several priests were assigned by the Augustinian Order, and later by the Archdiocese of Manila and Diocese of Malolos.

In 1859, Barasoain was separated from Malolos. As a new town and parish, the Our Lady of Mt. Carmel was deemed to be its patroness. Fr. Francisco Arriola, was appointed first parish priest on June 1, 1859, built the convent. A small ermita, constructed by Fr. Melchor Fernandez in 1816 while he was parish priest of Malolos (1816-1840), served as temporary parish church. One of the existing bells bears the year 1870. It was installed by Fr. Emterio Ruperez, and it was donated by the “principalia (sic) of Malolos.” The bell was also dedicated to the Our Lady of Mt. Carmel of Barasoain. Fr. Francisco Royo replaced the temporary chapel with a hewn stone church built between 1871 and 1878. This was soon destroyed by fire. The only remnant of this church is one of its bells, installed by Fr. Royo on February 30, 1873 and dedicated to St. Francis Xavier. Fr. Juan Giron who succeeded him, used the chapel of the cemetery until this one, too, was destroyed by the earthquakes of 1880. Fr. Giron then built temporary chapel of nipa and bamboo which was burned down in 1884, during the solemn celebrations of the feast of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel.

In 1885, Fr. Giron hired the services of contractor by the name of Miguel Magpayo and started the construction of a massive church made of masonry and bricks. The church was completed under Fr. Giron’s supervision. Jorde does not specify the year of its completion; he says only that, “at the time it was completed the pockets of Fr. Giron were drained.” In 1889, Fr. Martin Arconada started the construction of the tower and the restoration of the convent. Three bells were installed in 1897. One of them is dedicated to St. Martin, Bishop, and was donated by Fr. Martin Arconada. In 1894, Fr. Miguel de Vera undertook another restoration of the convent.

Denominations in numerals are in top left and lower right corners. In words lower, centered.

Revers:

200 Piso 2015

On banknote are:

1) Chocolate Hills in Bohol.

2) Tarsius syrichta (Philippine tarsier).

3) Visayas weave design.

4) Map of the Philippines with a marked province of Bohol.

Chocolate Hills

The Chocolate Hills (Cebuano: Mga Bungtod sa Tsokolate) are a geological formation in the Bohol province of the Philippines. There are at least 1,260 hills but there may be as many as 1,776 hills spread over an area of more than 50 square kilometers (20 sq mi.). They are covered in green grass that turns brown (like chocolate) during the dry season, hence the name.

The Chocolate Hills is a famous tourist attraction of Bohol. They are featured in the provincial flag and seal to symbolize the abundance of natural attractions in the province. They are in the Philippine Tourism Authority's list of tourist destinations in the Philippines; they have been declared the country's third National Geological Monument and proposed for inclusion in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

The Chocolate Hills form a rolling terrain of haycock hills – mounds of a generally conical and almost symmetrical shape. Estimated to be from 1,268 to about 1,776 individual mounds, these cone-shaped or dome-shaped hills are actually made of grass-covered limestone. The domes vary in sizes from 30 to 50 meters (98 to 164 ft.) high with the largest being 120 meters (390 ft.) in height. Bohol's "main attraction", these unique mound-shaped hills are scattered by the hundreds throughout the towns of Carmen, Batuan and Sagbayan in Bohol.

During the dry season, the grass-covered hills dry up and turn chocolate brown. This transforms the area into seemingly endless rows of "chocolate kisses". The branded confection is the inspiration behind the name, Chocolate Hills.

Carlito syrichta

The Philippine tarsier (Carlito syrichta), known locally as mawumag in Cebuano and other Visayan languages, magô in Winaray and mamag in Tagalog, is a species of tarsier endemic to the Philippines. It is found in the southeastern part of the archipelago, particularly on the islands of Bohol, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao. It is a member of the approximately 45-million-year-old family Tarsiidae, whose name is derived from its elongated "tarsus" or ankle bone. Formerly a member of the genus Tarsius, it is now listed as the only member of the genus Carlito, a new genus named after the conservationist Carlito Pizarras.

Its geographic range also includes Maripipi Island, Siargao Island, Basilan Island and Dinagat Island. Tarsiers have also been reported in Sarangani, although they may be different subspecies.

It was introduced to Western biologists during the XX century.

The Philippine tarsier measures only about 85 to 160 mm. (3.35 to 6.30 in.) in height, making it one of the smallest primates. The small size makes it difficult to spot. The mass for males is between 80–160 g. (2.8–5.6 oz.), usually lighter for females, somewhat heavier than other tarsiers such as the pygmy tarsier. The average adult is about the size of an adult human fist.

The female tarsier has multiple sets of breasts, but the only functional set is at the pectoralis. The other breasts are used as anchor points for the newborn tarsiers. The gestation period lasts 180 days, or 6 months, after which only one tarsier is born. The newborn tarsier is born with much fur and eyes open. Its body and head length is about 70 mm., and its tail is around 115 mm long.

Like all tarsiers, the Philippine tarsier's eyes are fixed in its skull; they cannot move in their sockets. Instead, a special adaptation in the neck allows its round head to be rotated 180°. Their eyes are disproportionately large, having the largest eye-to-body size ratio of all mammals. These huge eyes provide this nocturnal animal with excellent night vision. In bright light, the tarsier's eyes can constrict until the pupil appears to be only a thin spot. In low light or darkness, the pupil can dilate and fill up almost the entire eye. The large membranous ears are mobile, appearing to be almost constantly moving, allowing the tarsier to hear any movement.

The Philippine tarsier has thin, rough fur which is colored gray to dark brown. The narrow tail, usually used for balance, is bald except for a tuft of hair at the end, and is about twice the body length. Its elongated "tarsus", or ankle bone, which gives the tarsier its name, allows it to jump at least 3 m from tree to tree. Its long digits are tipped with rounded pads that allow C. syrichta to cling easily to trees and to grip almost any surface. The thumb is not truly opposable, but the first toe is. All of the digits have flattened nails, except for the second and third toes, which have sharp claws specialized for grooming.

The dental formula is

2:1:3:3

1:1:3:3, with relatively small upper canines.

The Philippine tarsier, as its name suggests, is endemic to the Philippine archipelago. C. syrichta populations are generally found in the southeastern part of the archipelago. Established populations are present primarily on the islands of Bohol, Samar, Leyte and Mindanao. It has also been found on various isolated islands within its known range, such as Maripipi Island, Siargao Island, Basilan Island and Dinagat Island.

On right side is Visayas weave design.

Visayan weavers produce cloth from a variety of fibers - abaca, cotton and pineapple piña, mostly grown and cultivated in the province of Aklan Except for cotton, the fiber extraction piña is similar to abaca but adds a few more steps to get the finest fiber from the leaves of the red Spanish variety. Although pineapple is not native to the Philippines, the process of creating textile has remained the same from precolonial times. Piña cloth enjoyed an esteemed status in both pre-World War II Manila and Europe and competed with their finest fashions especially if the piña was embellished with intricate embroidery performed by skilled workers in the towns of Laguna and Batangas, in southern Luzon. Abaca textile, though not as fine as piña also earned the reputation as durable textile known as sinamay, and a favorite milliners. Early Visayans grew cotton and were known for its quality but the introduction of sugar crops and cheap cotton imports from India during the 19th century ended Iloilo's weaving prominence. A quiet resurgence of Visayan weaving has emerged especially of Hablon, a Iloilo-inspired multicolored tube cloth that was its former signature weave. (www.thehinabiproject.org)

Denominations in numerals are in top corners. In words centered, at bottom.

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