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10 Dollars 2018, Canada

no number in katalog -
Years of issue: 18.11.2018
Edition:
Signatures: Deputy Governor: Mr. C. A. Wilkins, Governor: Mr. Stephen Poloz
Serie: 2018 Issue
Specimen of: 08.03.2018
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 152.4 х 69.85
Printer: Canadian Bank Note Company Limited, Ottawa

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** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Dollars 2018

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The main protective elements of the new banknote is a transparent window, in which there is the coat of arms and the flag of Canada, as well as The Library of Parliament’s vaulted dome ceiling, capped by arched windows.

Library of Parliament

The Library of Parliament’s vaulted dome ceiling, capped by arched windows that flood the library with natural light, is a stunning example of the Gothic Revival style of architecture. The laws of the land are shaped by the knowledge housed in this institution of democracy.

flag

The flag of Canada, often referred to as the Canadian flag, or unofficially as the Maple Leaf and l'Unifolié (French for "the one-leafed"), is a national flag consisting of a red field with a white square at its center in the ratio of 1:2:1, in the middle of which is featured a stylized, red, 11-pointed maple leaf charged in the center. It is the first specified by law for use as the country's national flag.

In 1964, Prime Minister Lester B. Pearson formed a committee to resolve the ongoing issue of the lack of an official Canadian flag, sparking a serious debate about a flag change to replace the Union Flag. Out of three choices, the maple leaf design by George Stanley, based on the flag of the Royal Military College of Canada, was selected. The flag made its first official appearance on February 15, 1965; the date is now celebrated annually as National Flag of Canada Day.

The Canadian Red Ensign was unofficially used since the 1890s and approved by a 1945 Order in Council for use "wherever place or occasion may make it desirable to fly a distinctive Canadian flag". Also, the Royal Union Flag remains an official flag in Canada. There is no law dictating how the national flag is to be treated. There are, however, conventions and protocols to guide how it is to be displayed and its place in the order of precedence of flags, which gives it primacy over the aforementioned and most other flags.

Many different flags created for use by Canadian officials, government bodies, and military forces contain the maple leaf motif in some fashion, either by having the Canadian flag charged in the canton, or by including maple leaves in the design.

coat

The Arms of Canada, also known as the Royal Coat of Arms of Canada or formally as the Arms of Her Majesty The Queen in Right of Canada is, since 1921, the official coat of arms of the Canadian monarch and thus also of Canada. It is closely modeled after the royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom with distinctive Canadian elements replacing or added to those derived from the British.

The maple leaves in the shield, blazoned "proper", were originally drawn vert (green) but were redrawn gules (red) in 1957 and a circlet of the Order of Canada was added to the arms for limited use in 1987. The shield design forms the monarch's royal standard and is also found on the Canadian Red Ensign. The Flag of the Governor General of Canada, which formerly used the shield over the Union Flag, now uses the crest of the arms on a blue field.

The heraldic blazon of Canada's coat of arms is:

Tierced in fesse the first and second divisions containing the quarterly coat following, namely, 1st, gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or, 2nd, Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory gules, 3rd, azure a harp Or stringed argent, 4th, azure, three fleurs-de-lis Or, and the third division argent three maple leaves conjoined on one stem proper. And upon a royal helmet mantled argent doubled gules the crest, that is to say, on a wreath of the colours argent and gules a lion passant guardant Or imperially crowned proper and holding in the dexter paw a maple leaf gules. And for supporters on the dexter a lion rampant Or holding a lance argent, point Or, flying therefrom to the dexter the Union Flag, and on the sinister a unicorn argent armed crined and unguled Or, gorged with a coronet composed of crosses-patée and fleurs-de-lis a chain affixed thereto reflexed of the last, and holding a like lance flying therefrom to the sinister a banner azure charged with three fleurs-de-lis Or; the whole ensigned with the Imperial Crown proper and below the shield upon a wreath composed of roses, thistles, shamrocks and lillies a scroll azure inscribed with the motto A mari usque ad mare.

Avers:

10 Dollars 2018

Desmond

Viola Irene Desmond (July 6, 1914 – February 7, 1965) was a Canadian businesswoman of Black Nova Scotian descent. In 1946 she challenged racial segregation at a cinema in New Glasgow, Nova Scotia by refusing to leave a whites-only area of the Roseland Theatre. For this she was convicted of a minor tax violation for the one-cent tax difference between the seat she had paid for and the seat she used, which was more expensive. Desmond's case is one of the most publicized incidents of racial discrimination in Canadian history and helped start the modern civil rights movement in Canada.

In 2010, Desmond was granted a posthumous pardon, the first to be granted in Canada. The government of Nova Scotia also apologized for prosecuting her for tax evasion and acknowledged she was rightfully resisting racial discrimination. In 2016, the Bank of Canada announced that Desmond would be the first Canadian woman (as compared to British born royalty) to be featured on the front of a Canadian banknote, but that honour went to Agnes Macphail, who appeared along with three men on a small print run commemorative note issued in 2017 to mark the 150th anniversary of Confederation.

In late 2018 Desmond became the first Canadian-born woman to appear alone on a Canadian bank note - a $10 bill which was unveiled by Finance Minister Bill Morneau and Bank of Canada governor Stephen Poloz during a ceremony at the Halifax Central Library on March 8, 2018. Desmond was also named a National Historic Person in 2018.

Viola Desmond (née Davis) was born on July 6, 1914, one of ten children of James Albert and Gwendolin Irene (née Johnson) Davis. Viola grew up with parents who were active in the black community in Halifax, Nova Scotia, despite the fact that her mother was white and her father black, unusual for the time.

Growing up, Desmond noted the absence of professional hair and skin-care products for black women and set her sights on addressing the need. Being of African descent, she was not allowed to train to become a beautician in Halifax, so she left and received beautician training in Montreal, Atlantic City and one of Madam C. J. Walker's beauty schools in New York. Upon finishing her training, Desmond returned to Halifax to start her own hair salon. Her clients included Portia White and a young Gwen Jenkins, later the first black nurse in Nova Scotia.

In addition to the salon, Desmond opened The Desmond School of Beauty Culture so that black women would not have to travel as far as she had to receive proper training. Catering to women from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Quebec, the school operated using a vertical integration framework. Students were provided with the skills required to open their own businesses and provide jobs for other black women within their communities. Each year as many as fifteen women graduated from the school, all of whom had been denied admission to whites-only training schools. Desmond also started her own line of beauty products, Vi's Beauty Products, which she marketed and sold herself.

Viola Desmond joined her husband Jack Desmond in a combined barbershop and hairdressing salon on Gottingen Street. On November 8, 1946 while on a business trip to Sydney to sell her beauty products, Viola Desmond's car broke down in New Glasgow. She was told that she would have to wait a day before the parts to fix it became available. To pass the time while waiting, she went to see The Dark Mirror[14] at the Roseland Film Theatre.

There were no formal laws enforcing segregation in movie theatres in New Glasgow, and the theatre had no sign telling its patrons about the policy, but actually main floor seats were reserved for white patrons. Ms. Desmond was sold a ticket to the balcony unaware of the segregation and, being nearsighted, went to sit in the floor section to be close to the screen. When she was asked to move, she realized what was happening, and refused to move because she had a better view from the main floor. Then she was forcibly removed from the theater causing injury to her hip and was arrested for 12 hours in jail, and paid a $20 fine. The tax on the balcony price of 20 cents was two cents; the tax on the floor price of 40 cents was three cents. She was convicted of depriving the government of one cent in tax. Desmond was kept in jail overnight and was never informed about her right to legal advice, a lawyer, or bail.

Upon returning to Halifax, Desmond discussed the matter with her husband, and his advice was to let it go. However, she then sought advice from the leaders of the Cornwallis Street Baptist Church where the Minister William Pearly Oliver and his wife Pearline encouraged her to take action. With their support, Desmond decided to fight the charge in court.

Following the decision to fight the charge, Carrie Best broke the story of Desmond in the first edition of The Clarion, the first black-owned and published Nova Scotia newspaper. Best had herself previously confronted the racial segregation of the Roseland Theatre.

With the help of her church and the Nova Scotia Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NSAACP), Desmond hired a lawyer, Frederick William Bissett, who represented her in the criminal trials and attempted, unsuccessfully, to file a lawsuit against the Roseland Theatre.

During subsequent trials the government insisted on arguing that this was a case of tax evasion. A provincial act regulating cinemas and movie theatres required the payment of an amusement tax based on the price of the theatre ticket. Since the theatre would only agree to sell Desmond a cheaper balcony ticket, but she had insisted upon sitting in the more expensive main floor seat, she was one cent short on tax. The statute used to convict Desmond contained no explicitly racist or discriminatory language.

Bissett's decision to opt for a judicial review rather than appeal the original conviction proved disastrous. Desmond's lawyer tried to appeal the decision on the basis of her being wrongfully accused of tax evasion, not on the basis of racial discrimination. When dismissing the case, Justice William Lorimer Hall said:

Had the matter reached the court by some other method than certiorari there might have been an opportunity to right the wrong done this unfortunate woman. One wonders if the manager of the theatre who laid the complaint was so zealous because of a bona fide belief that there had been an attempt to defraud the province of Nova Scotia of the sum of one cent, or was it a surreptitious endeavour to enforce a Jim Crow rule by misuse of a public statute. - Justice William Lorimer Hall, when dismissing Desmond's application.

Her lawyer, Bissett, refused to bill Desmond and the money was used to support Dr. William Pearly Oliver's newly established Nova Scotia Association for the Advancement of Coloured People (NSAACP).

After the trial, Desmond closed her business and moved to Montreal where she could enroll in a business college. She eventually settled in New York, US, where she died from a gastrointestinal hemorrhage on February 7, 1965, at the age of 50. She is buried at Camp Hill Cemetery in Halifax, Nova Scotia.

map map

Left of Violas portrait is the map of the Historic North End of Halifax.

This historic community in Halifax was where Viola Desmond lived and worked, and served as a source of invaluable support during her struggle for justice. This artistic rendering of a historic map shows the waterfront, Citadel and Gottingen Street, the thoroughfare where Vi’s Studio of Beauty Culture was located.

Denominations in numerals are in top left and lower right corners. In words - in lower right corner.

Revers:

10 Dollars 2018

CMHR CMHR

The Canadian Museum for Human Rights (CMHR) is a Canadian Crown Corporation and national museum located in Winnipeg, Manitoba, adjacent to The Forks. The purpose of the museum is to "explore the subject of human rights with a special but not exclusive reference to Canada, in order to enhance the public's understanding of human rights, to promote respect for others and to encourage reflection and dialogue." It held its opening ceremonies on 19 September 2014.

Established in 2008 through the enactment of Bill C-42, an amendment of the Canadian Museums Act, the Canadian Museum for Human Rights is the first new national museum created in Canada since 1967, and it is the first new national museum ever to be located outside the National Capital Region.

CMHR CMHR

Left of museums image are the series of criss-crossing ramps.

Connections of Strength and Hope.

A series of criss-crossing ramps connect the seven levels of the Canadian Museum for Human Rights. They symbolize the history of human rights in Canada and the world-one of setbacks and contradictions, but built on strength and hope.

From the very beginning it was realized that those who visited the museum need quiet spaces for reflection and restoration. The ramps that run from one gallery to the next are dressed in Spanish alabaster, a stone that is known to have healing properties. It is warm and translucent, centuries ago it was used for the manufacture of pharmacy cabinets and window glasses of Mediterranean monasteries.

eagle feather

On top is eagles feather.

Truth, Power, Freedom.

For many First Nations peoples in Canada, the eagle is believed to fly higher and see further than any other bird, and an eagle feather symbolizes ideals such as truth, power and freedom. It is intended to represent the ongoing journey toward recognizing rights and freedoms for Indigenous Peoples in Canada.

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms

The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, entrenched in the Constitution of Canada in 1982, guarantees the fundamental rights and freedoms of individuals in the highest law of the land.

supreme grand court

Defender of Rights.

The laurel leaf, an ancient symbol of justice, appears in the grand entrance hall of the Supreme Court of Canada, the nation’s final court of appeal and ultimate judicial defender of rights in the country. A laurel leaf pattern is found in the bottom right corner on the back of the bank note.

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners.

Comments:

10 dollars 2018

Finance Minister Bill Morneau and Bank of Canada Governor Stephen S. Poloz, together with the youngest sister of Viola Desmond - Wanda Robson, unveiled the new $10 bank note featuring Viola Desmond during a ceremony at the Halifax Central Library.

Once issued into circulation in late 2018, it will mark the first time that an iconic Canadian woman is portrayed on a regularly circulating Bank of Canada note.

Viola Desmond was selected for the new $10 bank note by Minister Morneau following an open call to Canadians to nominate an iconic Canadian woman for the next redesigned bank note. A successful Black Nova Scotian businesswoman, Viola Desmond defiantly refused to leave a whites-only area of a movie theatre in 1946 and was subsequently jailed, convicted and fined. Her court case is one of the first known legal challenges against racial segregation brought forth by a Black woman in Canada.

This new $10 note is the first vertically oriented bank note issued in Canada. This will allow for a more prominent image of Viola Desmond and differentiates this new $10 note from the current polymer notes. (www.bankofcanada.ca)

The banknotes are manufactured by Ottawa-based companies Canadian Bank Note Company and BA International. They are made from a single sheet of polymer substrate branded as "Guardian" manufactured by Innovia Films, which is the only supplier of the substrate for the Frontier Series, based on a polymer developed in Australia and used by Note Printing Australia to print the banknotes of the Australian dollar since 1988. The material is less likely to tear than cotton-based paper, and is more crumple resistant and water resistant. The polymer notes are made of recyclable biaxially-oriented polypropylene (BOPP).