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100 Pesos 2010. Centennial of the Mexican Revolution, Mexico

in Krause book Number: 128
Years of issue: 2010
Edition:
Signatures: Junta de Gobierno: Everardo Elizondo Almaguer. Cajero Principal: Raúl Valdés Ramons
Serie: Commemorative issue
Specimen of: 20.11.2007
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 134 х 66
Printer: Banco de México, Mexico

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Pesos 2010.  Centennial of the Mexican Revolution

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Cornstalk.

Avers:

100 Pesos 2010.  Centennial of the Mexican Revolution

railway locomotive

As the main motif, the banknote displays a locomotive (Locomotora de Vapor 279) transporting revolutionary troops, representing the armed movement which started in 1910.

Locomotive №279 (today is in museum of Cuautla (Morelos)).

The Narrow Gauge Steam Machine No. 279 was built by the Baldwin Locomotive Works of Philadelphia for National Railroads of Mexico, and put into service in 1904. The line was originally called "Ferrocarril de Morelos" and was later incorporated into the Interoceanic Railroad of Mexico - Veracruz. It is the only steam engine that still works in the country.

Cuautla Morelos is called the Heroic and Historical, because in this place two important events occurred in the History of Our Country: The Cuautla Site of 1812 and the Mexican Revolution in 1910.

Cuautla was the scene of one of the fiercest battles of the War of Independence, the Sitio de Cuautla that began on February 19 and ended on May 2, 1812. The city was taken by the forces of the priest and General José María Morelos and Pavón, who defended the city against the Spanish General Félix María Calleja. The insurgents resisted the siege imposed by the royalists for 72 days, and on more than one occasion they tried to break the siege. Early on the morning of May 2, a certain troop of royalists was advancing towards a trench where there was an abandoned canyon; Suddenly, a 12-year-old boy, Narciso Mendoza, ran to the gun and fired it. The royalist troop retreated amid the smoke, and several soldiers fell dead or wounded as a result of the discharge. The "artillery boy" was wounded with care, but thanks to his courage the insurgent troops took control of the situation again. After eight hours of battle, the royalists withdrew, defeated.

Going through the historic streets of Cuautla is remembering the bravery of the Insurgents who fought alongside General José María Morelos y Pavón to prevent the Realists from entering Cuautla and stopping the movement undertaken by the Cura Miguel hidalgo y rib, the Mexican Independence.

As a young man, Emiliano Zapata was concerned about land seizures in Anenecuilco, his hometown. In May 1911 he answered Francisco I. Madero's call to arms against President Porfirio Díaz. After minor battles in Chietla, Izúcar, Metepec and Atlixco, Puebla, and Yautepec and Jonacatepec in Morelos, he arrived at Cuautla on May 11, 1911. With 4,000 or 5,000 troops he surrounded the city, and the week-long Battle of Cuautla (1911) began. The battle was a major turning point in the Mexican Revolution, as Porfirio Diaz said the battle convinced him to sign the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez and resign.

Adelita

Near the locomotive is the image of Adelita.

The most notable cropped photograph of a soldadera is commonly referred to as Adelita and depicts a woman standing on the steps of a train car, leaning out and looking urgently away from the camera down the tracks. This image captures the “ideal” representation of the soldadera: an individual woman with worry etched on her face, perhaps looking out for danger or looking for her lover to return safely from battle. She carries neither a food basket nor laundry; her work is merely suffering for and emotionally supporting her soldier. This image became the face of the soldaderas and encapsulates the archetype of the soldadera provided by the folk song of the same name.

Adelita

The original version of this photograph, however, complicates that understanding of soldaderas. The other women in the photo look quite calmly into the camera; the baskets which some of them hold suggest that they are waiting for soldiers, not necessarily to lock them in a loving embrace, but to feed them. Photohistorian John Mraz notes that the location of these women inside the car rather than above or below it suggests that they are not rank and file soldaderas, but either privileged followers of federal officers or Mexican City food vendors serving the soldiers while the train was stationed there; in any case, the reasons behind their presence were more complicated than that of the subject of the “Adelita” folk song. Depicting a whole group of women conflicts with the idea of the unique, individual camp follower motivated by love and reminds the audience that these women likely had a variety of reasons for becoming soldaderas. (soldaderas.omeka.net .исп)

"La Adelita", one of the most famous "corridos" of the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917). It is about the brave young beauty "soldier", faithful fighting friend of the revolutionary sergeant, who followed along with him.

Text of "La Adelita" song in Spanish:

"En lo alto de la abrupta serranía

Acampado se encontraba un regimiento

Y una moza que valiente los seguía

Locamente enamorada del sargento.

Popular entre la tropa era Adelita

La mujer que el sargento idolatraba

Y además de ser valiente era bonita

Que hasta el mismo Coronel la respetaba.

Y se oía, que decía, aquel que tanto la quería:

Y si Adelita quisiera ser mi novia

Y si Adelita fuera mi mujer

Le compraría un vestido de seda

Para llevarla a bailar al cuartel.

Y si Adelita se fuera con otro

La seguiría por tierra y por mar

Si por mar en un buque de guerra

Si por tierra en un tren militar

Y después que terminó la cruel batalla

Y la tropa regresó a su campamento

Por la voz de una mujer que sollozaba

La plegaria se oyó en el campamento.

Y al oírla el sargento temeroso

De perder para siempre su adorada

Escondiendo su dolor bajo el rebozo

A su amada le cantó de esta manera…

Y se oía que decía aquel que tanto se moría…

Y si acaso yo muero en la guerra,

Y mi cadáver lo van a sepultar,

Adelita, por Dios te lo ruego,

Que por mí no vayas a llorar."

In English:

"In the height of the steep mountain

Could be found a camping regiment

And a brave girl who was following them,

Madly in love with the sergeant.

Adelita was popular among the troop,

The woman that the sergeant idolized,

And besides being brave, she was pretty

And even the colonel respected her.

And it was heard that the one who loved her so would say:

And if Adelita wanted to be my fiancée,

And if Adelita were my wife,

I'd buy her a silk dress

To take her to the barracks dance.

And if Adelita would leave with another man

I'd follow her by land and by sea,

If by sea on a war ship

If by land on a military train.

And after the cruel battle was over

And the troop went back to its camp,

Through the voice of a sobbing woman,

The prayer could be heard in the camp.

And when he heard her, the sergeant fearing

Losing his beloved forever,

Hiding his pain under his cape,

To his beloved he sung like this…

And it was heard that he who was dying was saying…

And if I happen to die at war

And they go to bury my body,

Adelita, by God, I beseech you,

Don't cry for me".

Text on banknote, on top (part of the "La Adelita" song): "Centenario de la Revolución Mexicana. Si Adelita se fuera con otro, la seguiría por tierra y por mar, si por mar en un buque de guerra, si por tierra en un tren militar. Corrido Popular Revolucionario".

In English: "Centennial of the Mexican Revolution. If Adelita left with another, he would follow her by land and by sea, if by sea in a warship, if by land in a military train. Corrido Popular Revolucionario".

Lower, right and left of Locomotive 279, is text: "Sufragio efectivo y no reelección. Libertad Justicia y Ley".

In English: "Effective suffrage and no reelection. Freedom Justice and Law.."

Right and left on banknote are the Cornstalks.

Revers:

100 Pesos 2010.  Centennial of the Mexican Revolution

David Alfaro Siqueiros

The main element is a fragment of the mural entitled “From the Porfirio Regime to the Revolution”, also known as “The Revolution against Porfirio’s Dictatorship”, by Mexican Painter and Muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros. It displays armed people surrounding the Leader of the triumphant Revolution. This mural can be found in the Revolution Room, in the National History Museum located inside the Chapultepec Castle.

Whole mural is big - width 7689 сm. Made in 1957.

On the right side of the first part we can see General Porfirio Diaz surrounded by his cabinet that with attitude of contempt and unconcern treads the Constitution of 1857. This section also illustrates the decadence of Porfirismo: can-can dancers entertain the bourgeois and aristocrats while the people live in slavery and ignorance. In the middle part of this section is represented the Cananea strike, which marks the beginning of the revolutionary struggle. Three famous revolutionaries carry a dead worker, victim of repression. The mural continues with some of the main elements of the armed struggle. As a closing of the mural, Siqueiros reproduced phrases alluding to the Revolution, pronounced by Francisco I. Madero and Ricardo Flores Magón.

Left of is text: "La Revolución contra la dictadura porfiriana. D.A. Siqueiros".

In English: "The Revolution against the Porfirian dictatorship. D.A. Siqueiros"

Emblem of bank of Mexico is right of center.

Comments:

watermark watermark watermark

My memorable booklet with two jubilee banknotes of Mexico.

Commemorative banknote - Centennial of the Mexican Revolution.

The Mexican Revolution (Spanish: Revolución mexicana), also known as the Mexican Civil War (Spanish: guerra civil mexicana), was a major armed struggle, lasting roughly from 1910 to 1920, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government. Although recent research has focused on local and regional aspects of the Revolution, it was a genuinely national revolution. Its outbreak in 1910 resulted from the failure of the 35-year-long regime of Porfirio Díaz to find a managed solution to the presidential succession. This meant there was a political crisis among competing elites and the opportunity for agrarian insurrection. Wealthy landowner Francisco I. Madero challenged Díaz in the 1910 presidential election, and following the rigged results, revolted under the Plan of San Luis Potosí. Armed conflict ousted Díaz from power; a new election was held in 1911, bringing Madero to the presidency.

The origins of the conflict were broadly based in opposition to the Díaz regime, with the 1910 election becoming the catalyst for the outbreak of political rebellion. The revolution was begun by elements of the Mexican elite hostile to Díaz, led by Madero and Pancho Villa; it expanded to the middle class, the peasantry in some regions, and organized labor. In October 1911, Madero was overwhelmingly elected in a free and fair election. Opposition to his regime then grew from both the conservatives, who saw him as too weak and too liberal, and from former revolutionary fighters and the dispossessed, who saw him as too conservative.

Madero and his vice president Pino Suárez were forced to resign in February 1913, and were assassinated. The counter-revolutionary regime of General Victoriano Huerta came to power, backed by business interests and other supporters of the old order. Huerta remained in power from February 1913 until July 1914, when he was forced out by a coalition of different regional revolutionary forces. When the revolutionaries' attempt to reach political agreement failed, Mexico plunged into a civil war (1914-1915). The Constitutionalist faction under wealthy landowner Venustiano Carranza emerged as the victor in 1915, defeating the revolutionary forces of former Constitutionalist Pancho Villa and forcing revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata back to guerrilla warfare. Zapata was assassinated in 1919 by agents of President Carranza.

The armed conflict lasted for the most of a decade, until around 1920, and had several distinct phases. Over time the Revolution changed from a revolt against the established order under Díaz to a multi-sided civil war in particular regions, with frequently shifting power struggles among factions in the Mexican Revolution. One major result of the revolution was the dissolution of the Federal Army in 1914, which Francisco Madero had kept intact when he was elected in 1911 and General Huerta used to oust Madero. Revolutionary forces unified against Huerta's reactionary regime defeated the Federal forces. Although the conflict was primarily a civil war, foreign powers that had important economic and strategic interests in Mexico figured in the outcome of Mexico's power struggles. The United States played an especially significant role. Out of Mexico's population of 15 million, the losses were high, but numerical estimates vary a great deal. Perhaps 1.5 million people died; nearly 200,000 refugees fled abroad, especially to the United States.

Many scholars consider the promulgation of the Mexican Constitution of 1917 as the end point of the armed conflict. "Economic and social conditions improved in accordance with revolutionary policies, so that the new society took shape within a framework of official revolutionary institutions", with the constitution providing that framework. The period 1920–1940 is often considered to be a phase of the Revolution, as government power was consolidated, the Catholic clergy and institutions were attacked in the 1920s, and the revolutionary constitution of 1917 was implemented.

This armed conflict is often characterized as the most important sociopolitical event in Mexico and one of the greatest upheavals of the XX century; it resulted in an important program of experimentation and reform in social organization. The revolution committed the resulting political regime with "social justice", until Mexico underwent a neoliberal reform process that started in the 1980s.