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200 Pesos 2016, Argentina

no number in katalog -
Years of issue: 26.10.2016
Edition:
Signatures: Presidente del Banco Central de la República Argentina: Federico Sturzenegger, Presidente H.C. Diputados: Emilio Monzó
Serie: Argentina’s Fauna
Specimen of: 2016
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 155 х 65
Printer: Casa de Moneda de la Nación, Buenos Aires

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

200 Pesos 2016

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Southern right whale and electrotype 200.

About the Southern right whale, please read the description of the obverse.

Avers:

200 Pesos 2016

Eubalaena australis Eubalaena australis

In the foreground of the banknote is the Southern right whale, jumping out of the water.

Also, on top, on the banknote are tails of the Southern right whales and its profile.

The southern right whale (Eubalaena australis) is a baleen whale, one of three species classified as right whales belonging to the genus Eubalaena.

Approximately 10,000 southern right whales are spread throughout the southern part of the Southern Hemisphere.

Right whales were first classified in the genus Balaena in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus, who at the time considered all right whales (including the bowhead) to be a single species. Through the 1800s and 1900s, in fact, the family Balaenidae has been the subject of great taxonometric debate. Authorities have repeatedly recategorized the three populations of right whale plus the bowhead whale, as one, two, three or four species, either in a single genus or in two separate genera. In the early whaling days, they were all thought to be a single species, Balaena mysticetus.

The southern right whale was initially described as Balaena australis by Desmoulins in 1822. Eventually, it was recognized that bowheads and right whales were in fact different, and John Edward Gray proposed the genus Eubalaena for the right whale in 1864. Later, morphological factors such as differences in the skull shape of northern and southern right whales indicated at least two species of right whale—one in the Northern Hemisphere, the other in the Southern Ocean. As recently as 1998, Rice, in his comprehensive and otherwise authoritative classification, Marine mammals of the world: systematics and distribution, listed just two species: Balaena glacialis (all of the right whales) and Balaena mysticetus (the bowheads).

Good opportunities for observation are found near the peninsula of Valdez, in Argentina. Between June and December whales can be seen from the shore or, even better, from a boat. Southern whales with cubs in large numbers approach boats. Often you can see the whales jumping out of the water.

Eubalaena australis

The color of this type of whale varies from light brown to bluish-black, white spots are possible. Sometimes white cubs are born that are not albinos. In the area of ​​the head, especially in the lower jaw, as well as above the eyes, they have skin growths that are individually formed in each individual and can serve to identify the animal. Southern whales can reach a length of 18 meters and a weight of 80 tons. Females are usually somewhat larger than males. Like all smooth whales, the southern whales are distinguished by a large head, constituting about a third of the entire body length, and the absence of the dorsal fin.

The background of the banknote resembles the natural environment of Valdez peninsula, where the Southern right whales are most common for observation. In the upper quadrant: the sky and images of tails of the Southern right whales in several directions, as a symbol of multiplicity, and decorative seaweeds, on both edges. In the upper part, on the left, “CC” means the denomination of the banknote, in roman numeral.

Rhodóphyta

Since the Bank of Argentina does not give information on which particular plants are shown on the banknote, I dare to make my own assumptions. Thank so much to Olga, from Orenburg region, Russia, for help in search of the seaweeds.

On banknote are The red algae, or Rhodophyta (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον (rhodon), meaning 'rose', and φυτόν (phyton), meaning 'plant'), are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae. The Rhodophyta also comprises one of the largest phyla of algae, containing over 7,000 currently recognized species with taxonomic revisions ongoing. The majority of species (6,793) are found in the Florideophyceae (class), and mostly consist of multicellular, marine algae, including many notable seaweeds. Approximately 5% of the red algae occur in freshwater environments with greater concentrations found in the warmer area. There are no terrestrial species, which is assumed to be traced back to an evolutionary bottleneck where the last common ancestor lost about 25% of its core genes and much of its evolutionary plasticity.

The red algae form a distinct group characterized by having eukaryotic cells without flagella and centrioles, chloroplasts that lack external endoplasmic reticulum and contain unstacked (stoma) thylakoids, and use phycobiliproteins as accessory pigments, which give them their red color. Red algae store sugars as floridean starch, which is a type of starch that consists of highly branched amylopectin without amylose, as food reserves outside their plastids. Most red algae are also multicellular, macroscopic, marine, and reproduce sexually. The red algal life history is typically an alternation of generations that may have three generations rather than two.

Gelidium spinosum Gelidium spinosum

Chloroplasts evolved following an endosymbiotic event between an ancestral, photosynthetic cyanobacterium and an early eukarytoic phagotroph. This event (termed primary endosymbiosis) resulted in the origin of the red and green algae, and the glaucophytes, which make up the oldest evolutionary lineages of photosynthetic eukaryotes. A secondary endosymbiosis event involving an ancestral red alga and a heterotrophic eukaryote resulted in the evolution and diversification of several other photosynthetic lineages such as Cryptophyta, Haptophyta, Stramenopiles (or Heterokontophyta), Alveolata, Centrohelids, Katablepharids, and Telonemi.

The coralline algae, which secrete calcium carbonate and play a major role in building coral reefs, belong here. Red algae such as dulse (Palmaria palmata) and laver (nori/gim) are a traditional part of European and Asian cuisines and are used to make other products such as agar, carrageenans and other food additives.

Eucheuma

Unicellular members of the Cyanidiophyceae are thermoacidophiles and are found in sulphuric hot springs and other acidic environments. The remaining taxa are found in marine and freshwater environments. Most rhodophytes are marine with a worldwide distribution, and are often found at greater depths compared to other seaweeds because of dominance in certain pigments (i.e., phycoerythrin) within their chloroplasts. Some marine species are found on sandy shores, while most others can be found attached to rocky substrata. Freshwater species account for 5% of red algal diversity, but they also have a worldwide distribution in various habitats; they generally prefer clean, high-flow streams with clear waters and rocky bottoms, but with some exceptions. A few freshwater species are found in black waters with sandy bottoms and even fewer are found in more lentic waters. Both marine and freshwater taxa are represented by free-living macroalgal forms and smaller endo/epiphytic/zoic forms, meaning they live in or on other algae, plants, and animals. In addition, some marine species have adopted a parasitic lifestyle and may be found on closely or more distantly related red algal hosts.

Denomination in words is on top. In numerals are in three corners.

Revers:

200 Pesos 2016

On the right and at the bottom are again, seaweeds the Red algae and tails of the Southern right whales.

To the left of the coat of arms of Argentina is a wind rose, showing the direction — the South-East — as the habitat area of the Southern right whales on a map of Argentina.

ballena austral

In the center is a map of Argentina with tails of the Southern right whales in local waters, meaning areas of whales habitat, today - The Argentinian sea, Falklands and till Antarctica.

The map of Argentina shows, in addition to the continental part, the eastern part of the island of Tierra del Fuego (the western part belongs to Chile), the Falklands or the Malvinas Islands (which belong to Great Britain, but Argentina considers them its territory) and, in a rectangle, the Antarctic Peninsula and the Weddell Sea, in Antarctica, which Argentina also considers its territory.

Valdes Valdes

The main image of the banknote is a view of the Coast of Valdes Peninsula. In the coastal waters, on the left, you can see the southern right whale.

Peninsula Valdes: "Paradise for marine animals."

Peninsula Valdes - peninsulas on the Atlantic coast of Argentina with an area of ​​about 3.7 thousand km²; The mainland is connected to the mainland by the isthmus Carlos Ameghino. From the north its coast is washed by the Bay of San José, from the south - by Golfo Nuevo. The territory of the peninsula is part of the Argentine province of Chubut, which, in turn, is located in the center of the Patagonia region. Most of the peninsula is an uninhabited territory. The 400-kilometer coastline is very picturesque, it includes a series of bays and lagoons, fancy cliffs, sandy and rocky beaches, huge fantastic rocks. And coastal waters are rich in gorgeous coral reefs.

The nearest large city from the Peninsula is Puerto Madryn (Spanish: Puerto Madryn).

The climate in the peninsula is transitional between the temperate climate of the central part of the country (with abundant precipitation during the hot months) and the cold climate with winter rains, typical of Patagonia. Summer on Valdez is short and hot, and winter is long and mild.

Many people call the Valdes Peninsula a wonder of nature, because in this place is concentrated an incredible variety of marine fauna. P-s became famous as a place of concentration of a unique and diverse marine fauna, for which in 1999 this amazing corner of nature was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. In order to watch the huge whales, funny penguins and other animals, crowds of tourists come to this island, connected to the continent by a narrow strip of land.

The coastline of the peninsula is essential for the conservation of rare species of marine animals. There are numerous colonies of marine mammals, such as the southern elephant seals (lat. Mirounga leonina), eared seals (lat. Otariidae), orcas (lat. Orcinus orca), sea lions (lat. Otariinae), fur seals (lat. Callorhinus ursinus). ).

On land, there are ostriches Nanda (lat. Rheidae), lama guanaco (lat. Lama guanicoe), armadillos (lat. Cingulata) and maras (lat. Dolichotinae), also known as Patagonian hares or Patagon pigs. From September to March, penguins (lat. Spheniscidae) live on Valdesa - during this period these amazing flightless seabirds hatch chicks. The species diversity of seabirds inhabiting here is especially huge (at least 180 species), mainly seagulls, cormorants, and pink flamingos.

Valdes

The small village of Puerto Piramides is located on Valdes. With a population of about 250 people, the village is visited by more than 8,000 tourists every year: from here go sea excursions to watch the whales (from September to November) and the sea wolves (from December to March).

Punta Tombo, located on the Atlantic coast, is a narrow stony strip of land, which was chosen by Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus). About 2 million of these seabirds constantly swim here. They live here in the warm season, from September to April: mate, lay and hatch eggs. In 1979, Punta Tombo received the status of a provincial reserve.

In the places of Punta Norte and Punta Delgada, visitors observe bird colonies and some marine animals.

Along the coast in Caleta Valdes - a narrow cape separating the open sea from the lagoon - elephant seals can sometimes be seen, their weight sometimes reaching 3 tons.

To get to the Peninsula, you need to fly from Buenos Aires to Puerto Madryn, which is located 70 km. from Valdez.

It is possible to move around the territory of the peninsula only by car, or in the excursion bus. Therefore, in Puerto Madryn you need to purchase a tour or rent a car.

On the left, on the banknote, is a small whale, as a symbol of the survival of the species. Next to it are seaweeds - the red algae.

coat of arms of Argentina

In top right corner is the coat of arms of Argentina.

The coat of arms of the Argentine Republic (Escudo de la República Argentina) was established in its current form in 1944, but has its origins in the seal of the General Constituent Assembly of 1813.

It is unknown who designed the coat of arms. It is often mentioned that there were three men involved: Alvear, Monteagudo, and Vieytes, but it is known that a few years before, President Bernardino Rivadavia asked the Peruvian Antonio Isidoro Castro to create an Argentine coat of arms; however, the two schemes have never been found.

The coat of arms is a figure, in which at the top we find the gold-yellowed Sun of May, also found on the flag of Argentina. The rising sun symbolizes the rising of Argentina, as described in the first version of the Argentine National Anthem, se levanta a la faz de la tierra una nueva y gloriosa nación, meaning "a new and glorious nation rises to the surface of the Earth". It must be noticed how the verb "rise", and so in Spanish, can be used to describe the motion of the Sun.

In the center ellipse there are two shaking hands, connoting the unity of the provinces of Argentina. The hands come together to hold a pike, which represents power and willingness to defend freedom, epitomized by the Phrygian cap on the top of the spear.

The blue and white colors are symbols of the Argentine people and the same colors of the Argentine flag. The blue half of the ellipse symbolizes the sky and the white one denotes the Río de la Plata.

The hands are flesh coloured and stand for friendship, peace, unity, and brotherhood. The pike is brown (wooden), and the Phrygian cap is red, like the traditional French liberty cap. The proximity of the hands and the Phrygian cap, in addition to their individual meanings, represent the national motto of Argentina, en unión y libertad ("in unity and freedom"), and illustrate the idea that in unity (the hands) there is power (the pike), and in power there is freedom (the Phrygian cap).

The Phrygian cap was typically worn by the inhabitants of Phrygia, in the Anatolian peninsula, and is commonly mistaken for being a Pileus. The Pileus was a hat that in ancient Rome became a symbol of freed slaves, who were touched by their owners with a wooden pike before setting them free.

Laurel is another classical symbol. At the end of the ancient Olympic Games (and also the 2004 Summer Olympics), the winner was given a laurel crown, and since then it has symbolized triumph and glory.

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and top left corners.

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