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1 Lempira 1989, Honduras

in Krause book Number: 89c
Years of issue: 30.03.1989
Edition: 27 790 918
Signatures: Presidente: Edwin Araque Bonilla (in office June 1980 - June 2009), Gerente: , Ministro de hacienda y Credito Publico:
Serie: 1980 Issue
Specimen of: 29.05.1980
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 155 x 67
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Lempira 1989

Description

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1 Lempira 1989

On left side is the coat of arms of Honduras.

coat

The coat of arms of Honduras features the text "Republic of Honduras free sovereign and independent", topped with a cornucopia, a quiver of arrows, flanked by deciduous trees and limestone cliffs, with a Masonic eye at the center. The coat of arms of Honduras was accepted in 1825 and is valid today. It was slightly modified in 1935. It is similar to the coat of arms of Guatemala of 1843. The coat of arms shows the triangle coat of arms of the Federal Republic of Central America with a volcano between two golden towers in an oval. The towers stand for the defense readiness and the independence of the country. The triangle symbolizes equality and freedom. Behind it are a sun and a rainbow. Around the oval is the text Republica de Honduras Libre Soberana E Independiente, thus free, sovereign, independent Republic of Honduras. On the oval are two cornucopia and a bundle of arrows. The arrows remind of the native inhabitants of the country. Under the oval a landscape with oaks, Pine, tillage implements and devices for the mining industry is shown - symbols of the natural wealth of the country.

On right side is Lempira.

Lempira was a war chieftain of the Lencas of western Honduras in Central America during the 1530s, when he led resistance to Francisco de Montejo's attempts to conquer and incorporate the region into the province of Honduras. Mentioned as Lempira in documents written during the Spanish conquest, he is still regarded as a warrior who offered resistance against the Spanish conquistadors.

Inscription on the top: "REPUBLICA DE HONDURAS. C.A. / BANCO CENTRAL DE HONDURAS".

Lower is denomination 1 / UNA LEMPIRA in 2 lines.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners.

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1 Lempira 1989

Copan ballcourt

On banknote - The ruins of ancient Copan. More exactly - Mesoamerican ballcourt in Copan. This ballcourt is the second largest to be found in Central America.

A Mesoamerican ballcourt is a large masonry structure of a type, used in Mesoamerica for over 2,700 years, to play the Mesoamerican ballgame, particularly the hip-ball version of the ballgame. More than 1,300 ballcourts have been identified, 60% in the last 20 years alone. Although there is a tremendous variation in size, in general all ballcourts are the same shape: a long narrow alley flanked by two walls with horizontal, vertical, and sloping faces. Although the alleys in early ballcourts were open-ended, later ballcourts had enclosed end-zones, giving the structure an I, heavily serifed.png-shape when viewed from above.

Ballcourts were also used for functions other than, or in addition to, ballgames. Ceramics from western Mexico show ballcourts being used for other sporting endeavours, including what appears to be a wrestling match. It is also known from archaeological excavations that ballcourts were the sites of sumptuous feasts, although whether these were conducted in the context of the ballgame or as another event entirely is not as yet known. The siting of the most prominent ballcourts within the sacred precincts of cities and towns, as well as the votive deposits found buried there, demonstrates that the ballcourt were places of spectacle and ritual.

Although ballcourts are found within most Mesoamerican sites, they are not equally distributed across time or geography. For example, the Late Classic site of El Tajin, the largest city of the ballgame-obsessed Classic Veracruz culture, has at least 18 ballcourts while Cantona, a nearby contemporaneous site, sets the record with 24. In contrast, Northern Chiapas and the northern Maya Lowlands have relatively few, and ballcourts are conspicuously absent at some major sites, including Teotihuacan, Bonampak, and Tortuguero.

Copan ballcourt

Ballcourts vary considerably in size. One of the smallest, at Tikal site, is only one-sixth the size of the Great Ballcourt at Chichen Itza. Despite the variation in size, ballcourts' playing alleys are generally the same shape, with an average length-to-width ratio of 4-to-1, although some regional variation is found: Central Mexico, for example, has slightly longer playing alleys, and the Maya Northern Lowlands slightly wider.

Unlike the compacted earth of the playing alley, the side walls of the formal ballcourts were lined with stone blocks. These walls featured 3 or more horizontal and sloping surfaces. Vertical surfaces are less common, but they begin to replace the sloping apron during the Classic era, and are a feature of several of the largest and best-known ballcourts, including the Great Ballcourt at Chichen Itza and the North and South Ballcourts at El Tajin. There the vertical surfaces were covered with elaborate reliefs showing scenes, particularly sacrificial scenes, related to the ballgame.

Many - or even most - Maya depictions of ballgame play are shown against a backdrop of stairs. Conversely, Maya staircases will occasionally feature reliefs of ballgame scenes or ballgame-related glyphs on their risers. The most famous of these are the Hieroglyphic Stairs at Structure 33 in Yaxchilan, where 11 of the 13 risers feature ballgame-related scenes. In these scenes, it appears as if the players were actually playing the ball against the stairs in what would seem to be a Maya version of stoop ball.

The association of stairs and the ballgame is not well understood. Linda Schele and Mary Miller propose that the depictions record historic events and in particular record a "form of play ... distinct from the game conducted on the courts", one that "probably followed immediately after[ward] on steps adjacent to the ballcourts". Other researchers are skeptical. Marvin Cohodas, for example, proposes that the "stairs" are instead stepped platforms associated with human sacrifice, while Carolyn Tate views the Yaxchilan stair scenes as "the Underworld segment of a cosmogram".

The Copan Ruins are located in the western part of Honduras, about 60 kilometers from the border with Guatemala. Copan - known as Xukpi to the Maya - was the dominant Mayan city in the south of their territory. Its rich stone sculptures and intricate hieroglyphs make Copan a feature attraction along "La Ruta Maya".

The Principal Group of attractions in Copan consists of five basic areas of interest:

The Acropolis - Divided in two big plazas: the west court and east court. The west court houses temple 11 and temple 16 with altar Q set at its base. Temple 11 was built as a portal to the other world. Temple 16 sits in between the east and west court; it was built on top of a previous temple without damaging it. Altar Q depicts the 16 members of the Copan Dynasty.

The Tunnels - Archeologists have dug 4 km. of tunnels under the acropolis to view earlier stages of Copan civilization.

The Hieroglyphic Stairway - The most famous of Copan's monuments, 63 steps and several thousand glyphs tell the history of the royal house of Copan and is the longest known text of ancient Mayan civilization. Unfortunately, the steps have fallen out of place leaving the exact meaning undecipherable.

The Great Plaza - The immense plaza is famous for its stelae and altars that are found scattered around a well groomed lawn. In addition to the park, two museums contain more artifacts and information about the Mayan civilization. One museum is housed at the archaeological site, the other in the town of Copan.

Copan ballcourt stella

On right site is Famous carved stone stella in Copan (on Mesoamerican ballcourt), a Mayan archaeological site in Honduras and a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Various sculptures, stelae, and other stonework were also important components of the ballcourt. At the ballcourt at Tonina, for example, 6 sculptures of prone captives overhang the apron, a pair at mid-court and a pair at each of the ends of the cornice. Unfortunately, rings, markers and sculptures are more portable and more prone to removal or destruction than the permanent ballcourt infrastructure, and at some ballcourts these features have been lost forever.

Located at the south end of the Mesoamerican region, Copan was the capital of a large area from 400 AD to 800 AD. The site is famous for its ornate carvings, including stela, which are uncommon in the Mayan world.

In the 9th century overpopulation and subsequent disease led to the rapid decline of Copan and its collapse as a major political power, though historians believe its reduced population continued to exist until around 900 AD. By the time the Spanish conquistadors reached the site in 1576 it had long laid in ruin, and excavation did not occur until the 1890s.

Top - Inscription: "BANCO CENTRAL DE HONDURAS".

Denomination in words is in right lower corner - UNA LEMPIRA.

Denominations "1" are in left and right top corners.

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Security strip.