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20 Dollars 2012, Fiji

in Krause book Number: 117
Years of issue: 12.12.2012
Edition:
Signatures: Governor Reserve Bank of Fiji: Mr. Barry Whiteside
Serie: 2012 Issue
Specimen of: 2012
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 141 х 67
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

20 Dollars 2012

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Native Fijian and the cornerstones. Denomination 20.

Avers:

20 Dollars 2012

Pseudobulweria macgillivrayi Pseudobulweria macgillivrayi

Centered is The Fiji petrel (Kacau Ni Gau) - endemic of Fiji (Gau island area).

The Fiji petrel (Pseudobulweria macgillivrayi), also known as MacGillivray's petrel, is a small, dark gadfly petrel.

The Fiji petrel was originally known from one immature specimen found in 1855 on Gau Island, Fiji by naturalist John MacGillivray on board HMS Herald who took the carcass to the British Museum in London. It was rediscovered in 1983, since when there have been a further 21 records, which included the capture and photographing of one adult in April 1984. This species is classified as critically endangered as it is inferred from the number of records that there is only a tiny population of less than 50 confined to a very small breeding area.

This bird is described as being 30 cm. (12 in.) long dark with chocolate-coloured feathers, a dark eye and bill and pale blue foot patches. It may be seen in waters around Gau Island but is believed to disperse to pelagic waters far from the island.

The rarity and significance of this species is known to local residents of Gau and it is featured on a Fijian bank note, as well as featuring in the logo for now-defunct Air Fiji. It is protected under Fijian law. In 1989, research on the ridge around possible nesting areas was terminated since it was felt that such activities, without complementary conservation action, could encourage cats to follow paths into the area.

In August 2007, a recent skin of an injured Fiji petrel, that subsequently died was made available for study in Fiji.

In May 2009, the first photographs of the bird at sea were taken approximately 25 nautical miles (46 km.) south of Gau Island.

Foa

In the lower left corner is Rotuman Coconut Grater or scraper Foa.

coat domodomo

Domodomo (canoe masthead) as registration device.

The larger, massive domodomo (horned masthead) comes from the last ocean going double hulled canoe, called the Ramarama, a final link in a chain of great drua of the same name, built for the Tui Cakau by his mataitoga, the descendants of a clan of Samoan canoe builders (the Lemaki) who were brought to Fiji from Tonga in the late 1700s. The final Ramarama was built between 1872 and 1877, drua of her size and quality generally being under construction for 5-7 years. On completion she was presented by the Tui Cakau to Ratu Seru Cakobau, Vunivalu of Bau. After Ratu Cakobau’s death in 1883 she was returned to Somosomo where she finally decayed and was broken up in 1892. The main hull of the Ramarama was 30.2 meters long, the total length of the mast 19.8 meters and this domodomo is 4.3 meters long.

The smaller domodomo is about 2 meters long and would have come from a drua or camakau about 15 meters long. The hardwood Intsia bijuga (vesi) masthead was lashed to a mast made of a much springier wood. (virtual.fijimuseum.org.fj)

coat

In the top right corner is the coat of arms.

Was granted by Royal Letters Patent on 4 July 1908. It was featured on the colonial ensign and its shield remains on the current flag of Fiji.

The colours and objects on the coat of arms carry cultural, political, and regional meanings. The Cross of St. George-which divides the shield quarterly-and the golden lion at the top represent the United Kingdom, the former colonial power that ruled over Fiji. The cacao pod held in the lion's paw, along with the sugarcane, coconut palm and bananas occupying three of the four quadrants, represent the country's natural resources, since these are key agricultural crops in Fiji. The bottom left quadrant contains a dove that symbolizes peace - this was utilized on the country's flag during the reign of King Cakobau, whose government was the last before the commencement of British rule.

The crest at the top depicts a takia - a traditional Fijian canoe - while the supporters grasping the shield on both sides are Fijian warriors. According to legend, they are twins - the older brother is clutching a spear, while the younger one holds a war club. At the bottom is the country's motto - Fear God and honour the Queen (Rerevaka na kalou ka doka na Tui).

Denominations in numerals are in top left and lower right corners. Serial numbers are in top left corner horizontally and on the right side vertically.

Revers:

20 Dollars 2012

Types of industry Fiji:

Fish processing (on the banknote - on the conveyor) (top, left).

The Republic of Fiji, rich in forests, minerals and fish resources, is one of the most developed island economies of the Pacific.

timber

Forestry and woodworking industry (worker at the Makhagoni wood harvesting).

Fiji mahogany is considered to be a unique resource today. All plantations of this species belong to local tribes in Fiji, which are actively involved in the care of forests, the cutting of trees and the production of lumber. The government declared the forests to be national wealth and obliged themselves to ensure that the plantations were used for the benefit of the entire population of Fiji.

No log can be sold abroad - all primary processing should be done in Fiji, and in the near future, SFI plans to develop wood processing programs to create more added value in order to achieve the joint benefit of both customers and the people of Fiji.

The first trees were first planted by the British immediately after the Second World War. The seeds of this broad-leaved mahogany were brought from Belize. There are more than 40,000 hectares of land under the plantations, and almost half of the plants are mature trees.

The first small cuttings were continuous, in order to plant everything anew and determine the growth rate. However, it soon became apparent that it was necessary to carry out selective cutting. Selective logging not only provided an opportunity to get a higher quality yield of finished products, but it also had a positive effect on afforestation. The foresters discovered that the forest was recovering faster than anyone could have imagined.

The ideal cutting cycle has not yet been determined, however, it is believed that it should be at least 10 years. In order to reduce forest damage during logging, SFI builds a network of permanent gravel roads.

For the delivery of logs to the collection centers, small branches of roads are laid, which may not be used during the next logging, so they are not prevented from overgrowing. These small roads do not cover with gravel, and they quickly grow overgrown with mahogany. Such a road is almost impossible to detect within one or two months after cutting.

Trees of the appropriate size and quality should be logged. This helps produce lumber that meets customer requirements. It also allows you to have at least two generations of undergrowth in the forest (in some cases, three) guaranteeing the cyclic cutting down of mature trees in a constantly viable forest.

In 1998, the state-owned company Fiji Hardwood Corporation (FHC) was organized, which was granted the right to exploit the mahogany plantations for the benefit of Fiji. FHC has the rights of concession on land leased from the tribes by the government.

gold

The miners in the mine.

Fiji is rich in minerals. There are deposits of gold, silver, manganese, copper, lead, zinc, iron, uranium, bauxite, coal (mainly on Viti Levu and Vanua Levu), phosphorites (on the islands of Vatoa, Ono, Ongea Dryki, Vanu Vatu, Tuvuka). In the coastal zone explored oil deposits. Surface sediments such as limestone, sand, gravel, are mined everywhere and used in construction.

locomotive

About 600 km. Narrow-gauge railways are used to transport sugarcane. Approximately 50% of the economically active population is employed in sugar production.

Uluinabukelevu

On top, centered, is the volcano Uluinabukelevu, on Kadavu island.

Nabukelevu is a volcano located on the southwest portion of Kadavu Island in Fiji. It is 805 meters (2,641 ft.) tall, and last erupted around 1660. It has formed lava domes

Nabukelevu is the only area in west Kadavu Island that retains extensive old-growth forest. A 2,900 hectares (7,200 acres) area centred on Nabukelevu is the Nabukelevu Important Bird Area. It supports populations of vulnerable Collared Petrel and Crimson shining parrot, and near threatened Whistling fruit dove and Kadavu fantail. The Collared Petrel breeding site and unique landscape of the mountain contribute to its national significance as outlined in Fiji's Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.

Lower is denomination, in words. Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners.

In lower right corner and right, lower, from center are, again, Domodomo (as registration device).

Comments:

Hidden and combining images, security thread with microprinted letters RBF, foil with the image of the Fiji petrel and denomination 20, embossed print.