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5 Kronur 1920. Remainder, Iceland

in Krause book Number: 15a
Years of issue: 1920
Edition:
Signatures: Sighvatur Bjarnason
Serie: 1920 Issue
Specimen of: 1920
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 122 х 70
Printer: Giesecke und Devrient GmbH, Leipzig

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Kronur 1920. Remainder

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Unclear pattern.

Avers:

5 Kronur 1920. Remainder

Geysir Geysir

On left side is The Great Geysir.

Geysir, sometimes known as The Great Geysir, is a geyser in southwestern Iceland. It was the first geyser described in a printed source and the first known to modern Europeans. The English word geyser (a periodically spouting hot spring) derives from Geysir. The name Geysir itself is derived from the Icelandic verb geysa ("to gush") the verb from Old Norse. Geysir lies in the Haukadalur valley on the slopes of Laugarfjall hill, which is also the home to Strokkur geyser about 50 meters (160 ft.) south.

Eruptions at Geysir can hurl boiling water up to 70 meters (230 ft.) in the air. However, eruptions may be infrequent, and have in the past stopped altogether for years at a time.

The research of sinter shows that Geysir has been active for approximately 10,000 years. The oldest accounts of hot springs at Haukadalur date back to 1294, when earthquakes in the area caused significant changes in local neighbouring landscape creating several new hot springs. Changes in the activity of Geysir and the surrounding geysers are strongly related to earthquake activity. In records dated 1630 the geysers erupted so violently that the valley around them trembled. The placename "Geysir" has been first mentioned in written sources in XVIII century and, as unusual natural phenomena were of high interest to the society during the Age of Enlightenment, the term became popular and has been used for similar hydrothermal features worldwide since then.

In 1845, it reached a height of 170 meters (560 ft.). In 1846, the research of Geysir by Robert Bunsen resulted with the explanation of the mechanism of geyser activity. Measurements of professor Bunsen in this year showed that Geysir was erupting 45-54 meters (148-177 ft.) high.

History of recent centuries shows that earthquakes have tended to revive the activity of Geysir which then subsides again in the following years. Before 1896, Geysir was almost dormant before an earthquake that year caused eruptions to begin again, occurring several times a day, lasting up to an hour and causing spouts of up to 60 meters (200 ft.) in height. In 1910, it was active every 30 minutes; five years later the time between the eruptions was as much as six hours, and in 1916, the eruptions all but ceased. In 1935, a man-made channel was dug through the silica rim around the edge of the geyser vent. This ditch caused a lowering of the water table and a revival in activity. Gradually this channel became too clogged with silica and eruptions again became rare.

In 1981 the ditch was cleared again and eruptions could be stimulated, on special occasions, by the addition of soap. Following environmental concerns the practice of adding soap was seldom employed during the 1990s. During that time Geysir seldom erupted. When it did erupt, it was spectacular, sending boiling water sometimes up to 70 meters (230 ft.) into the air. On the Icelandic National Day authorized government geologists would force an eruption. A further earthquake in 2000 revived the geyser again and it reached 122 meters for two days, thus becoming one of the highest known geysers in history (Waimangu Geyser in New Zealand erupted up to 460 meters (1,510 ft.) high, but stopped erupting around 1900). Initially eruptions were taking place on average eight times a day. By July 2003 this activity had again decreased to around three times per day.

Geysir Geysir Geysir

The nearby geyser Strokkur erupts much more frequently than Geysir, erupting to heights of up to 30 meters (98 ft.) every few minutes. Strokkur's activity has also been affected by earthquakes, although to a lesser extent than the Great Geysir. Due to its eruption frequency, online photos and videos of Strokkur are regularly mislabelled as depicting Geysir. There are around thirty much smaller geysers and hot pools in the area, including one called Litli Geysir ('Little Geysir').

Geysir Geysir

Descriptions of the Great Geysir and Strokkur have been given in many travel guides to Iceland published from the XVIII century onwards. Together with Þingvellir and the Gullfoss waterfall, they are part of the Golden Circle that make up the most famous tourist route in the country.

Until 1894, the Geysir area was owned by a local farmer. In that year the area was sold to James Craig (later Lord Craigavon), a whiskey distiller from Ulster and a future Prime Minister of Northern Ireland. Initially he erected large fences around the site and an entrance fee was charged for visitors wishing to view the geysers. The following year, however, Craig appeared to tire of his project and gave the area as a present to a friend, E. Craig, who dropped the entrance fees. Later Craig's nephew Hugh Rogers inherited the site. In 1935, he sold the site to film director Sigurður Jónasson who subsequently donated it to the Icelandic people in perpetuity.

Revers:

5 Kronur 1920. Remainder

coat of arms

On left side is the White Icelandic Gyrfalcon (Falco islandicus) as the coat of arms.

By the decree of the King of Denmark of October 3, 1903, it was prescribed that the White Icelandic Gyrfalcon on a blue field was to be the coat of arms of Iceland. Many Icelanders have seen in this strong, hardy and noble bird a more suitable symbol for their country than cod. For centuries, Iceland has been known in the Scandinavian world for its poets and falcons. Even when the aristocracy in the neighboring countries ceased to understand and appreciate the Icelandic poets, the falcon continued to be considered a valuable gift for several more centuries. Falconry was the favorite amusement of the European and Asian aristocracies and has been known since ancient times. In the Scandinavian countries, this type of hunting has been known since pagan times, and distant Iceland was considered the birthplace of the best falcons.

In 1920, a special Royal flag of Iceland was adopted, which also depicted the Icelandic gyrfalcon. The king of Denmark used this flag during his visit to Iceland in 1921. At the same time, the Order of the Icelandic Falcon was established, which has since been the highest state award of Iceland.

The coat of arms existed until February 12, 1919.

coat of arms

The White Icelandic Gyrfalcon (Falco islandicus) - this is a large falcon, with a wingspan of 120 to 135 cm., the bird's body length is from 55 to 60 cm. Males weigh about 1 kg, while females exceed their size and reach 1.5-2 kg. in weight. The body of the bird is massive, the wings are sharp, long, the tail is also long.

The plumage of the gyrfalcons of the northern range is light, on the back from brownish-gray to almost white; tummy whitish with a dark pattern. Near the mouth is a dark stripe in the form of "whiskers". A falcon prong is visible on the upper mandible. Legs yellow. The southern subspecies is colored in darker, saturated brown tones.

The gyrfalcon flies very quickly, it does not soar in the air, and after a few strokes of its wings, it swiftly starts ahead. Sits gyrfalcon straight. (o-prirode.ru .rus)

Comments:

Never issued in circulation.

As I suppose, the banknotes of this series did not go into circulation due to the replacement of the national emblem of the country in 1919.

A remainder banknote is a banknote that has been prepared for issue, but not issued for one reason or another, such as the failure of the banknote issuer, or the merging of one banknote issuer into another.

article

An article in an Icelandic newspaper, dated November 3, 1972, about old Icelandic banknotes.