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500000 Lei 2000, Romania

in Krause book Number: 115a
Years of issue: 2000
Edition:
Signatures: Guvernator: Prof. univ. Dr. Mugur Constantin Isarescu, Casier Central: Ionel Nitu
Serie: 2000 Issue
Specimen of: 2000
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 165 х 76
Printer: Imprimeria Bancii Nationale a Romaniei, Bucuresti

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

500000 Lei 2000

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Plastic window: Denomination 500000.

Aurel Vlaicu. Logo of the Bank of Romania.

Avers:

500000 Lei 2000

Coat of arms of Romania is in top right corner.

coat

The coat of arms of Romania was adopted in the Romanian Parliament on 10 September 1992 as a representative coat of arms for Romania. It is based on the Lesser Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Romania (used between 1922 and 1947), redesigned by Victor Dima. As a central element it shows a golden aquila holding a cross in its beak and a mace and a sword in its claws. It also consists of the three colors: red, yellow, and blue, which represent the colors of the national flag.

Azure, an eagle displayed Or beaked and taloned Gules holding in its beak an Orthodox Cross Or, in its dexter talon a sword, and in its sinister talon a mace Argent. An inescutcheon Quarterly:

I, Azure, an eagle displayed Or beaked and taloned Gules holding in its beak an Orthodox Cross Or, between in dexter chief a bezant and in sinister chief an increscent Or (for Wallachia)

II, gules, a bull's head caboshed Argent, between in dexter base a rose and in sinister base a decrescent Argent; between the Bull's horns, a mullet Or (for Moldavia)

III, Gules, issuant from water Azure in base a bridge of two arches embattled from which is issuant a lion rampant Or brandishing a sabre proper (for Oltenia and Banat)

IV, Per fess Azure and Or, a bar Gules issuant therefrom an eagle displayed between in sinster chief a decrescent Argent and in dexter chief a bezant; in base seven castles Gules (for Transylvania)

Entree en point, Gules, two dolphins urinant respectant Or (for Dobrogea).

Centered is a seal of Romanian Bank.

Aurel VlaicuThe engraving on banknote is made after this photo of Aurel Vlaicu.

Aurel Vlaicu (1882-1913). Romanian engineer, inventor, pilot, airplane builder, and winner of international flight awards. In 1913, he finished "Vlaicu III", the first all-metal aeroplane in the world. He died in the same year, flying his own aeroplane "Vlaicu II" over the Carpathian mountains.

On November 1, 1909 he began the construction of his first powered airplane, the A. Vlaicu Nr. I at the Army Arsenal in Bucharest with funding from the Romanian Ministry of War and on a 300 lei monthly stipend from the Minister of Public Education. A. Vlaicu Nr. I flew for the first time on June 17, 1910 over Cotroceni airfield.

On September 28, 1910, as a part of the fall military exercises, Vlaicu flew his airplane from Slatina to Piatra Olt carrying a message, an early instance of an airplane being used for military purposes.

The construction of A. Vlaicu Nr. II was started in December 1910 on a budget of 16,000 lei and first flew in April 1911. Between 23 and 30 June 1912 Vlaicu competed with it at the International Flight Week in Aspern-Vienna (Die internationale Flugwoche in Wien), against 42 other aviators, including Roland Garros. Vlaicu won prizes totaling 7,500 Austro-Hungarian krone for precision landing, projectile throwing and tight flying around a pole. On this occasion, he was issued the FAI pilot license number 52. On return from Aspern he flew demonstration flights throughout Transylvania.

A. Vlaicu Nr. III was a two-seat monoplane having a fully cowled 80 hp (60 kW) Gnome Gamma engine. Built on contract for the Marconi Company for experiments with aerial radio, at the time of Vlaicu's death it was only partially finished. It was completed by his friends and several short test flights were made during 1914 by military pilot Petre Macavei. Further tests were hindered by the unusual controls. In 1916, during the German occupation of Bucharest, the aircraft was seized and shipped to Germany, and it was last seen in 1942 at an aviation exhibition in Berlin by Romanian military officers, though no mention of it is made in references on the Berlin exhibition.

During his short career, Aurel Vlaicu designed and built one glider[citation needed] and three airplanes of his own design.

He perfected his design on rubber band powered models he began experimenting with while a student in Munich.

Vlaicu's three powered airplanes had one central aluminum tubing, the flight controls in front, two propellers, one mounted ahead of the nacelle, and the other to the rear of the wing up high, partially counteracting each other's torque. They employ tricycle-landing gears with independent trailing arm suspension, had brakes on the rear wheel, and were equipped with Gnome rotary engines.

His airplanes lacked ailerons, relying on just rudder and elevators for control, via a steering wheel mounted on a tiller. The wheel controlled the elevators while sideways motion of the tiller controlled the rudder. The wheel could be temporarily locked with the help of two dowels. The low center of gravity provided by the parasol wing allowed for the lateral stability that this type of control system requires.

Aurel Vlaicu died on September 13, 1913 near Câmpina, on the outskirts of Bănești commune while attempting to be the first to fly across the Carpathian Mountains in his now aged A. Vlaicu Nr. II. He was expected to participate in the ASTRA festivities in Orăștie, near Binţinţi.

He was buried in Bellu cemetery, in Bucharest and was posthumously elected to the Romanian Academy in 1948.

The cause of Vlaicu's crash remains unsolved. Vlacu's friends Giovanni Magnani and Constantin Silisteanu dismissed claims of sabotage, the two being among the first to inspect the wreckage as they were following him in an automobile. The most plausible cause of Vlaicu's death was that the airplane stalled while landing with the engine off - as was common practice at the time, landings were made with the engine off, however this made it difficult for the pilot to abort a misjudged landing.

A mountain flower edelweiss and an airplane propeller are centered. A TIDE (Transparent Intaglio Disappearing Effect) security feature, visible when the note is tilted, is on the right side.

Leontopodium alpinum

Edelweiss (Leontopodium alpinum) is a well-known mountain flower, belonging to the sunflower family.

The plant is unequally distributed and prefers rocky limestone places at about 1800-3000 m altitude. It is non toxic, and has been used traditionally in folk medicine as a remedy against abdominal and respiratory diseases. The dense hair appears to be an adaptation to high altitudes, protecting the plant from cold, aridity and ultraviolet radiation. As a scarce short-lived flower found in remote mountain areas, the plant has been used as a symbol for alpinism, for rugged beauty and purity associated with the Alps.

Head of mountain eagle is on the right side.

Denomination in numeral is in top right corner. In words in lower right corner. In numeral and words are in lower left corner.

Revers:

500000 Lei 2000

Logos of the Romanian bank are in lower left and top right corners.

Mountain eagle head, again, centered - as personification of a proud, high soaring bird in the air.

Aurel Vlaicu

"Vlaicu II" airplane design.

On November 1, 1909, Aurel set about building his first aircraft model, "A Vlaicu I", in Bucharest (Bucharest), using funds provided by the Ministry of National Defense of Romania. In addition, the aircraft designer received a monthly salary of 300 lei from the Ministry of Public Education. The aircraft "A Vlaicu I" made its first flight on June 17, 1910, over the Cotroceni airfield.

As part of the fall exercises, on September 28, 1910, Vlyku flew his plane from Slatina to Piatra Olt to deliver the message. It was one of the first flights used for military purposes.

Aurel began working on the creation of the “A. Vlaicu Nr. II” model in December 1910, with 16 thousand lei in his hands. The first flight of the new aircraft flew in April 1911. Between June 23 and 30, 1912, Vlaicu competed with 42 other aviators in the International Summer Week, including the French Roland Garros.

According to the results of the contest, Romanians received a cash prize of 7,500 Austro-Hungarian crowns - for an accurate landing, maneuvering and flying around a pillar. Thanks to the excellent performance, Vlaicu received the pilot certificate number 52 from the International Aviation Federation.

The new model, "A. Vlaicu Nr. III", was a two-seat monoplane powered by a Gnome based on the Gnome series with a power of 80 hp. (60 kW). The plane was built by order of the company "Marconi" - for experiments with the reception of electromagnetic waves. At the time of death, Vlayka, working on 'A. Vlaicu nr. III 'were only partially completed. The project was completed by friends of the aircraft designer; several short test flights in 1914 were made by military pilot Petre Macavei.

Further tests were hampered by the unusual controls "A. Vlaicu Nr. III". In 1916, when the Germans occupied Bucharest, the monoplane was captured and sent to Germany. The last time the aircraft was seen in 1942, at the aviation exhibition in Berlin (Berlin). This was reported by several Romanian officers, but in the documentation of the exhibition there is not a single mention of the model.

During his career, Aurel designed and built one glider and three aircraft. His planes with a three-piston engine had one aluminum tube, a control system, two propellers — one in front of the cabin, the other at the rear of the wing. The design used a three-wheeled chassis with independent suspension and rear-wheel brakes. The models were equipped with a rotary machine "Gnome".

Gnome

The sketch of "Vlaicu II" engine - "Gnome Omega" is on background.

Denomination in numeral in in top left corner. In words and in numeral are in lower right corner.

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