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1000 Kuna 1943, Croatia

in Krause book Number: 12a
Years of issue: 01.09.1943
Edition:
Signatures: Podpredsjednik: Dr. Junus Mehmedagić, Predsjednik: Dr. Dragutin Toth
Serie: Hrvatska Državna Banka
Specimen of: 1943
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 176 x 80
Printer: Giesecke und Devrient GmbH, Leipzig

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1000 Kuna 1943

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Tuning fork pattern.

Avers:

1000 Kuna 1943

Zgošćanski stećak Zgošćanski stećak Zgošćanski stećak

Zgošćanski stećak (monumental medieval tombstone). Approx. 1353, Museum of Bosnia And Herzegovina, Sarajevo.

The city of Kakanj, in Bosnia, is mentioned, for the first time, in 1392, and it is a very important administrative center of Turkish rule in the region.

The period of medieval Bosnian history is marked by a large number of historical monuments that have survived to the present day, such as, for example, stone gravestones. Of particular interest are tombstones found in the foothills, on the outskirts of Kakanj.

It is indisputable that the Zgošćanski stećak belongs to the period when Bosnia was the most powerful.

Zgošćanski stećak Zgošćanski stećak

Who was buried under the Zgošćanski stećak?

The historian Georg Stratimirovich answers in the Bulletin of the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina (XXXVIII, 1926), claiming that this is the grave of Stephen II, who died in 1353, but he notes: "We only assume who the four figures show, This is a man (Stephen II) and two women - his wife and his daughter, whom married later Hungarian King Lajos I. The man who is visible near the tower is the nephew and heir of Banov, Tvrtko. " (www.zedoturizam.ba .bsn)

Also, on banknote, are the patterns from Zgošćanski stećak.

Stećak (Cyrillic: Стећак; plural: Stećci, Стећци) is the name for monumental medieval tombstones that lie scattered across Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the border parts of Croatia, Montenegro and Serbia. An estimated 60,000 are found within the borders of modern Bosnia and Herzegovina and the rest of 10,000 are found in what are today Croatia (4,400), Montenegro (3,500), and Serbia (2,100), at more than 3,300 odd sites with over 90% in poor condition.

Appearing in the mid 12th century, with the first phase in the 13th century, the tombstones reached their peak in the XIV and XV century, before disappearing during the Ottoman occupation in the very early XVI century. They were a common tradition amongst Bosnian, Catholic and Orthodox Church followers alike, and are often related to the autochthonous Vlach population, however the original ethnic and religious affiliation is still undetermined. The epitaphs on them are mostly written in extinct Bosnian Cyrillic alphabet. The one of largest collection of these tombstones is named Radimlja, west of Stolac in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Stećci were inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2016. It includes a selection of 4,000 stećci at 28 necropolises – of which 22 from Bosnia and Herzegovina, two from Croatia, three from Montenegro, and three from Serbia.

Revers:

1000 Kuna 1943

dalmatia nosnja

Women in Croatian folk dress.

In the cities of Croatia, European clothes were worn already in the XIX century. From the first decades of the 20th century, and especially after the Second World War, urban costume spread in the Croatian village. The full set of the old Croatian folk costume is now rarely worn, but some of its elements are still quite widespread. Folk clothes are better preserved by women: during holidays or staying in the city, peasant women, especially the elderly, wear folk costumes.

For the manufacture of clothing used mainly homespun linen (Pannonian lowland), cloth (Dinar Highlands) and silk (Primorye) fabric.

The main element of the women's national costume is a tunic shirt (kosulja, rubina, etc.). In Primorye, white shirts decorated with lace were worn, similar to the tunic of the early Middle Ages with sleeves that existed here before the Balkans settled in Croatia. Tunic from Dalmatia in I century. n e. spread through the then cultural world. Nowadays, this type of shirt is kept on the island of Pag. The shirts of the women of the Dinaric highland are similar in style to those worn in Primorye, but they are always decorated with multi-colored embroideries and fringe. In the Pannonian lowland, both long and short shirts were worn. A short shirt (oplece, oplecak) is a type of jacket with very long and wide sleeves, as a result of which it is sometimes called simply “sleeves” (rukavi or rukavci). Similar shirts are also common among Slovaks and Ukrainians. The collar, chest and sleeves of such a shirt are richly decorated with embroidery or patterned cloth.

A figured homespun apron in the form of an unstitched quadrangular piece of cloth served as hip clothing. Later, they began to wear sewn skirts made of cloth of various colors, gathered at the waist. Now Croatian peasant women wear aprons over their skirts.

Over the shirt they wear long (up to the knees) or short cotton, woolen, and also leather with fur, sleeveless (zobun, zubun, koret, mdak) with a wide neck on the chest - decorated with rich appliqué. Sleeveless girl puts on when she becomes a bride. The same sleeveless are worn by married women. At the waist they are girded with wide woolen (formerly - leather) belts. Both for women and men, belts were decorated with metal sparkles. In the north of Dalmatia, women wear belts molded from metal chains (litar).

In winter, women wear white or navy blue kaftans made of cloth, as well as various capes. These capes, lined with sheepskin or fox fur, and marten before, may have switched to folk costume from the costume of the feudal lords. They wear monochrome or multi-colored stockings and socks, hairdrops, shoes, high boots, and boots. Headdresses are very diverse. Girls usually go bare-headed in the summer, braiding their hair in one or two braids, and wearing a wreath on top. Married women wear various kerchiefs, scarves, shawls, caps, hats, and tattoos.

Decorations are coral beads, necklaces of ducats, silver coins and beads. From the coins that make their way, make a kind of aprons (derdari). Jerdan - an integral part of the costume of the girl on the issue. The custom of wearing Djerdan has been preserved to this day in the area of ​​the Cetinje, Vrlitsa rivers and in other places.

This kind of costume has been preserved in some areas to the present day. It ranges from a simple, unadorned work costume (prostina) to a festive one. In a festive costume, clothes embroidered in gold stand out (so are men's suits). In the female costume the age and social status of its owner was clearly reflected. The clothes of the girl, the bride, the young and elderly married woman, the widow differed. Their costumes differed mainly in color and number of decorations, as well as in some details (for example, the head covering of a married woman). In some villages of Croatia, widows are still wearing white unadorned clothes, similar to a work suit. In some places, in the Adriatic Primorye, in days of mourning, both women and men wear white clothes. (lib7.com .rus)

Comments:

Designed by Vladimir Kirin.

Many thanks to the banknote collector, a very responsive and simply beautiful woman - Kate Gibson, from Great Britain, for helping to locate the bas-relief from the obverse of the banknote.