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50 Kroner 2018, Norway

no number in katalog -
Years of issue: 18.10.2018
Edition:
Signatures: Norges sentralbanksjef: Øystein Olsen, Hovedkasserer: Leif Veggum
Serie: Eighth series
Specimen of: 2014
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 126 х 70
Printer: F. C. Oberthur, Chantepie

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

50 Kroner 2018

Description

Watermark:

puffin puffin

The Atlantic puffin and denomination 50. Watermark is made after photo by Tom Schandy.

About Atlantic puffin, please, read obverse description.

Avers:

50 Kroner 2018

The motive for all banknotes of the new series was the theme "The Sea".

A banknote of 500 Kroner displays the theme "The sea that binds us together".

Utvær fyr Utvær fyr

The Utvær Lighthouse (Utvær fyr).

If you approach the Norwegian coast at night at about 61 degrees north, the flash of Utvær Lighthouse will probably be your first sight of land. A flash of white light every 30 seconds is Utvær's identification signal or phase characteristic. The lighthouse is located on one of the Utvær Islands, Norway's westernmost outpost, eight kilometers out to sea from the island Ytre Sula outside Sognefjord.

Based on a text by Jo van der Eynden.

The Utvær Lighthouse was built in 1900 as one of the larger coastal lighthouses to provide both fishing and merchant fleets with reliable land sighting on the westernmost portion of the coastal islands. A 31-metre-high cast-iron tower was constructed to give the beacon the longest range possible. A first order Fresnel lens, ie the most powerful available at the time, was installed in the lantern room at the top of the tower. To enable it to rotate, the entire lens assembly, constructed of glass prisms, brass and cast iron and weighing several tonnes, floated in a bath of liquid mercury. The rotation speed, together with the design of the lens, determined the lighthouse's phase characteristic. At the same time as the lighthouse was constructed, a separate dwelling comprising three apartments was also built for the lighthouse keepers.

The tower itself is made of pre-fabricated components from the S.H. Lundh & Co iron foundry in Kristiania (now Oslo). Even though the components were heavy, once the foundations had been laid, the tower rose quickly. This design was ideal for the numerous remote and stormy locations where lighthouses were needed and was the reason cast-iron lighthouses became practically a Norwegian speciality. While it is true that the first iron tower was built in England in 1842, as early as 1853, the Bærums Verk foundry was commissioned to cast a 33-metre high lighthouse for Eigerøya. In the course of a century, Norwegian foundries delivered and erected 40 iron towers.

During the Second World War, German troops occupied the majority of the larger coastal lighthouses. The lighthouses were to be lit only when needed by German ships and convoys. In spring 1945, the Utvær Lighthouse was fired upon by Allied aircraft. The lantern room and the lighthouse lens were destroyed, and the lighthouse keeper's quarters and adjacent outbuildings burned to the ground. It was not until 1948 that reconstruction was started, and a new lantern room with a third-order Fresnel lens and flashing beacon were put in place.

In 1954, a radio beacon was installed on Utvær. The beacon transmitted sound waves that could be detected and located by ships in the surrounding waters, in the same way that individual lighthouses could be recognised by their specific phase characteristics. On the north side of the tower, a secondary lighthouse was erected. This sector light was intended to secure the fairway outside the foul waters on the north side of Utvær.

In 1997, Norway was one of the first countries in the world to implement a national preservation plan for lighthouses. In 1999, Utvær Lighthouse received listed status as a national cultural monument. In spring 2004, the lighthouse was automated and became unmanned. The lighthouse station is still owned by the government and run by the Norwegian Coastal Administration, but Solund Municipality is permitted to use the lighthouse buildings. The municipality cooperates with the non-profit organisation Vener av Utvær fyr (Friends of Utvær Lighthouse), which works to preserve the buildings and other cultural monuments on Utvær. (www.norges-bank.no)

puffin puffin puffin

On the banknote are shown The Atlantic puffin (three times) - in profile (in the upper right corner), flying - on left side and 1 puffin with spreaded wings (on right isde) - on reverse.

The Atlantic puffin (Fratercula arctica), also known as the common puffin, is a species of seabird in the auk family. It is the only puffin native to the Atlantic Ocean; two related species, the tufted puffin and the horned puffin, are found in the northeastern Pacific. The Atlantic puffin breeds in Iceland, Norway, Greenland, Newfoundland and many North Atlantic islands, and as far south as Maine in the west and the British Isles in the east. Although it has a large population and a wide range, the species has declined rapidly, at least in parts of its range, resulting in it being rated as vulnerable by the IUCN. On land, it has the typical upright stance of an auk. At sea, it swims on the surface and feeds mainly on small fish, which it catches by diving underwater, using its wings for propulsion.

This puffin has a black crown and back, pale grey cheek patches and white underparts. Its broad, boldly marked red and black beak and orange legs contrast with its plumage. It moults while at sea in the winter and some of the bright-coloured facial characteristics are lost. The external appearance of the adult male and female are identical except that the male is usually slightly larger. The juvenile has similar plumage but its cheek patches are dark grey. The juvenile does not have brightly coloured head ornamentation, its bill is less broad and is dark-grey with a yellowish-brown tip, and its legs and feet are also dark. Puffins from northern populations are typically larger than their counterparts in southern parts of the range. It is generally considered that these populations are different subspecies.

Spending the autumn and winter in the open ocean of the cold northern seas, the Atlantic puffin returns to coastal areas at the start of the breeding season in late spring. It nests in clifftop colonies, digging a burrow in which a single white egg is laid. The chick mostly feeds on whole fish and grows rapidly. After about six weeks it is fully fledged and makes its way at night to the sea. It swims away from the shore and does not return to land for several years.

Colonies are mostly on islands where there are no terrestrial predators but adult birds and newly fledged chicks are at risk of attacks from the air by gulls and skuas. Sometimes a bird such as an Arctic skua will harass a puffin arriving with a beakful of fish, causing it to drop its catch. The striking appearance, large colourful bill, waddling gait and behaviour of this bird have given rise to nicknames such as "clown of the sea" and "sea parrot". It is the official bird symbol for the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

flag

Also - right of center, on side strip is stylized signal flag: Letter R (Romeo). No ICS meaning as single flag. Meaning when used with numeric complements: Distance (range) in nautical miles.

Denominations in numerals are in top left corner and lower right. In words on top.

Revers:

50 Kroner 2018

Utvær fyr Ursa Major

The designs are by The Metric System and Snøhetta and use an abstract geometric design influenced by the Beaufort scale.

Pixel motif on the horizon: Light of Utvær Lighthouse. Right (top) of light is the is the constellation Ursa Major.

The Plough is located relatively close to the north celestial pole, where the North Star (Polaris) is located. Polaris always remains fixed, with the other stars revolving around it. This means that at Norway's latitudes, the Plough never sets and is visible in the sky every starlit night.

In Norwegian, the Plough is called Karlsvogna which can be understood as "Charles' chariot" or "Man's chariot". The first part of the name, Karl (Old Norse for "man"), may refer to Thor's byname, Torekarl. This name contrasts with the name of a similar asterism in the constellation Ursa Minor (Little Bear), which in Old Norse was called Kvennavagn, or "Woman's chariot". The Plough is referred to as a "chariot" or "wagon" in many of the world's languages.

Ursa Major (also known as the Great Bear) is a constellation in the northern sky, whose associated mythology likely dates back into prehistory. Its Latin name means "greater (or larger) she-bear", standing as a reference to and in direct contrast with nearby Ursa Minor, the lesser bear. In antiquity, it was one of the original 48 constellations listed by Ptolemy (2nd century AD), and is now the third largest constellation of the 88 modern constellations.

Ursa Major is primarily known from the asterism of its main seven relatively bright stars comprising the "Big Dipper", "the Wagon", "Charles's Wain" or "the Plough" (among others), with its stellar configuration mimicking the shape of the "Little Dipper".

The general constellation outline often significantly features in numerous world cultures, and frequently is used as a symbol of the north. e.g. as the flag of Alaska. Also the asterism's two brightest stars, named Dubhe and Merak (α Ursae Majoris and β Ursae Majoris), can be used as the navigational pointer towards the place of the current northern pole star, Polaris in Ursa Minor.

Ursa Major is visible throughout the year from most of the northern hemisphere, and appears circumpolar above the mid-northern latitudes. From southern temperate latitudes, the main asterism is invisible, but the southern parts of the constellation can still be viewed.

Beaufort scale

Cubic pattern: 1.6 m/s (flag and waves are on background). Organic pattern: Wind felt on face; leaves rustle; wind vane moved by wind. (Beaufort scale - level 2).

symbol nautical chart symbol nautical chart

In right lower corner and a little top left of it are the classification symbol of the phase characteristics of beacons on the marine navigation map (nautical chart).

On lighthouses and sector lights

Based on text by Jo van der Eynden

Lighthouses – Illuminating the way into our land

From isle to isle, from cape to cape

And beyond- A legion of will-o'-the-wisps

Guarding the narrow passages

Leading to our homes

Terje Stigen: "De faste lys" (en norsk reise) ["Abiding lights" (a Norwegian journey)] 1975

Lighthouses are usually divided into three categories based on their function in navigable waters: landfall lights or shore lights, leading lights and harbour lights. Large shore lights are primarily intended to give mariners a sure means of sighting land, ie a warning of approaching landfall, and an indication of their position relative to the shoreline. Leading lights are intended to facilitate nighttime passage through inland fairways along the coast, where channels are often narrow and foul. Harbour lights are intended to safely guide ships through narrow breakwater openings in rough weather and in the dark of night.

From the mid-1800s, a number of smaller, manned leading lights were erected along the coast. But they could not help ships to navigate through foul waters at night by merely flashing a white light. To guide them safely through narrow straights and between islets, reefs and skerries, varying the light signal, called the "phase characteristic" was necessary.

symbol nautical chart symbol nautical chart

Light in different sectors were assigned various colours: red, green or white, in order to provide more detailed and delimited guidance in fairways. It is the interplay between an individual light's phase characteristics and the sector colour and positioning on nautical charts relative to other lights that make nighttime navigation by sector light possible.

The need for sectored lights varies according to the complexity of the coastal landscape. In order to achieve a precise and accurate delimitation of the light, bearing and distance measurements and angle calculations must be made, in the same way as for land surveys and cartography. This is painstaking work, requiring detailed knowledge of local waters.

Today, all lighthouses along the Norwegian coast are automated and have been renovated to run on cost-efficient and environmentally friendly solar power. Digital charts have virtually absolute precision. The signals from global positioning satellites that orbit the earth make it possible to digitally track both one's own and other vessels, without the need for lighthouses or visual observation. Nevertheless, traditional navigational aids are maintained. The growing number of recreational boats is increasing the importance of seamarks, which serve as an important back-up system in the event that technology fails.

The Norwegian Coastal Administration (NCA), which is a specialised government agency under the Ministry of Transport and Communications, is responsible for administering maritime infrastructure along the Norwegian coast. Several vessel traffic centres have been established to monitor shipping traffic, while a number of light signals remain operational as navigation aids: approximately 2 000 lighthouses, 4 000 lanterns, of which approximately 700 use indirect lighting, and 2 000 buoys, of which 100 are lighted. (www.norges-bank.no)

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners. In words at the bottom.

Comments:

The motifs on all of the new banknote series denominations show the importance of the sea for the prosperity and welfare of the people of Norway. The primary motif on the front side of the 100-krone banknote is a Viking ship, while on the 200-krone note, a cod is portrayed facing left. On the back sides, abstract representations of a cargo ship (100-krone note) and a fishing boat (200-krone note) can be seen on the horizon.

The banknotes were designed by Norges Bank's banknote designers Arild Yttri and Morten Johansen. The designs on the front sides of the banknotes are based on the proposal from Metric Design and Terje Tønnessen. The proposals for the back of the notes were submitted by Snøhetta Design. The primary motifs were drawn by the artist Sverre Morken. The Atlantic puffin watermark motif is based on a photo taken by photographer Tom Schandy.

The new 100-krone and 200-krone banknotes were printed by Oberthur Fiduciare in France.

The official launch of the new banknotes will take place in Svolvær on 30 May 2017 at 2.00 p.m. From that time, the new 100- and 200-krone banknotes will be made available to banks at Norges Bank's central bank depots in Tromsø, Trondheim, Bergen, Stavanger and Oslo.

"There are very few places that reflect the primary motifs of the 100-krone and 200-krone bank notes better than Lofoten. Abundant cod from the Lofoten fisheries has sustained people in Norway and abroad for centuries, and Lofoten has a history as a seat of power in the Viking Age. We are therefore delighted that the launch of the new banknotes will be marked in Lofoten," Governor Olsen said. (Norges Bank)