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100 Mark 1970, Germany

in Krause book Number: 34a
Years of issue: 02.01.1970
Edition:
Signatures: Bundesbank Präsident: Dr. jur. Karl Klasen (01.01.1970 - 31.05.1977), Vizepräsident: Dr. Otmar Emminger
Serie: Serie 1960
Specimen of: 26.02.1962
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 160 х 80
Printer: Bundesdruckerei GmbH, Berlin

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Mark 1970

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The Portrait of Sebastian Münster by Christoph Amberger, c. 1550.

Avers:

100 Mark 1970

Sebastian Münster

The engraving on banknote is made after this portrait of Sebastian Münster by Christoph Amberger, c. 1550. Art gallery in Berlin (Gemäldegalerie in Berlin).

Sebastian Münster (20 January 1488, Ingelheim am Rhein, Rheinland-Pfalz – 26 May 1552, Basel, Switzerland) was a German cartographer, cosmographer, and a Christian Hebraist scholar. His work, the Cosmographia from 1544, was the earliest German description of the world.

He was born in Ingelheim, near Mainz, the son of Andreas Münster. His parents and other ancestors were farmers. In 1505, he entered the Franciscan order. Four years later, he entered a monastery where he became a student of Konrad Pelikan for five years. Münster completed his studies at the University of Tübingen in 1518. His graduate adviser was Johannes Stöffler.

He left the Franciscans for the Lutheran Church in order to accept an appointment at the Reformed Church-dominated University of Basel in 1529. He had long harbored an interest in the Lutherans, and during the German Peasants' War, as a monk, he had been repeatedly attacked. A professor of Hebrew, and a disciple of Elias Levita, he edited the Hebrew Bible (2 vols. fol., Basel, 1534-1535), accompanied by a Latin translation and a large number of annotations. He was the first German to produce an edition of the Hebrew Bible.

He published more than one Hebrew grammar, and was the first to prepare a Grammatica Chaldaica (Basel, 1527). His lexicographical labours included a Dictionarium Chaldaicum (1527), and a Dictionarium trilingue for Latin, Greek, and Hebrew in 1530.

He released a Mappa Europae (map of Europe) in 1536. In 1537 he published a Hebrew Gospel of Matthew which he had obtained from Spanish Jews he had converted. In 1540 he published a Latin edition of Ptolemy's Geographia with illustrations. The 1550 edition contains cities, portraits, and costumes. These editions, printed in Germany, are the most valued of this work. Other writings that followed are Horologiographia (a treatise on dialling – constructing sundials, Basel, 1531), and Organum Uranicum (a treatise on the planetary motions, 1536).

His Cosmographia of 1544 was the earliest German-language description of the world. It had numerous editions in different languages including Latin, French, Italian, English, and even Czech. The Cosmographia was one of the most successful and popular works of the 16th century. It passed through 24 editions in 100 years. This success was due to the fascinating woodcuts (some by Hans Holbein the Younger, Urs Graf, Hans Rudolph Manuel Deutsch, and David Kandel), in addition to including the first to introduce "separate maps for each of the four continents known then--America, Africa, Asia and Europe." It was most important in reviving geography in 16th century Europe. The last German edition was published in 1628, long after his death.

Münster was also known as translator of the Hebrew Bible (Hebraica Biblia). His edition was published in two volumes (1546) in Basel. The first volume contains Genesis-2 Kings, following the order of the Masoretic codices. The second volume contains The Prophets (Major and Minor), The Psalms, Job, Proverb, Daniel, Chronicles, and the Five Scrolls (The Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes and Esther).

His Rudimenta Mathematica was published in Basel in 1551.

He died at Basel of the plague in 1552. His tombstone described him as the Ezra and the Strabo of the Germans.

Christoph Amberger (c. 1505 – 1562) was a painter of Augsburg in the XVI century, a disciple of Hans Holbein, his principal work being the history of Joseph in twelve pictures.

Amberger used to visit Augsburg every year where men of power gathered and opportunities for commissions presented themselves. Among those whose portraits he painted were Jakob Fugger, Konrad Peutinger, Georg von Frundsberg and the Emperor Charles V. He travelled to Northern Italy and Venice between 1525 and 1527. He died in Augsburg.

Revers:

100 Mark 1970

The eagle with outstretched wings (German eagle) symbolizes the state consciousness of the Germans (Staatsbewusstsein der Deutschen).

The seal of German Bundesbank is nearby.

The inscription on the right top: "Wer Banknoten nachmacht oder verfälscht oder nachgemachte oder verfälschte sich verschafft und in Verkehr bringt, wird mit Freiheitsstrafe nicht unter zwei Jahren bestraft".

Translation reads: "Those who forge bank notes or runs the counterfeit into circulation will be subject to imprisonment for at least two years."

DM printed until 1963 (then have been changed the interpretation of this article in the German law) instead of the word "Freiheitsstrafe" (deprivation of freedom) have the word "Zuchthaus" (penitentiary). At that time, the notion of a house of correction has become obsolete, so it was replaced.

Among the collectors the third series of banknotes (Series 1960) with the word "Zuchthaus" valued much higher then releases of the same series in 1970, 1977 and 1980. Although, in general, all notes in this series are valued higher then exchange rate, according to which, by the way, the Bundesbank still takes them for exchange to Euro.

Comments:

The signatures on banknote belongs to:

Karl Klasen

Karl Klasen (23.04.1909 - 22.04.1991).

Otmar Emminger

Otmar Emminger (02.03.1911 - 03.08.1986).

Hermann Eidenbenz

Graphic artist: Hermann Eidenbenz.

Hermann Eidenbenz (September 4, 1902 - 25 February 1993) was a Swiss graphic artist and stamp artist.

The time of his birth his father managed several companies in India, his mother came from Germany (Schwaben). But he received his education in Switzerland.

His training as a graphic artist took place in Switzerland, first at "Orell Füssli" in Zurich and then in the School of Applied Arts in Zurich. 1923 was followed by a stay abroad at "Deffke and Hadank" in Berlin. As early as 1926 he became a teacher of writing and graphics at the arts and crafts school in Magdeburg. He practiced six years of this profession before he opened his own graphic studio in Basel with his brothers - Reinhold and Willi. In 1937 he was involved in the Pavilion of Switzerland for the World Exhibition in Paris from 1940 to 1943 he taught at the general trade school in Basel.

For Haas'sche type foundry he designed in 1945 the Graphique Font, in 1950 was followed by the Clarendon Font. Today these fonts are available from Linotype Library.

In 1953 he returned to Germany and became head of the department of commercial art at Werkkunstschule, in Braunschweig. In 1955 he joined the company "Fa.Reemtsma", in Hamburg, there to act as artistic collaborator.

He created numerous logos and posters. This also includes the logo of "Basler Verkehrsbetriebe" (BVB). The supported by two arms of Basilisk in Basel graced so many BVB vehicles than any other Signet before or since. In 1947 thus drove the first motor car. In addition Eidenbenz took over even the graphic design of the car numbers used from 1947 until today.

He created for Switzerland and for Germany In addition, banknotes and stamps. So he designed the first series of the D-Mark banknotes, issued by the Deutsche Bundesbank and the fifth series of banknotes of the Swiss franc, which came into circulation from 1956. The stamp of the German Post Office for the 100th anniversary of Carl Friedrich Gauss from 1955 was designed by him.