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500 Kroner 1978, Norway

in Krause book Number: 39a
Years of issue: 1978
Edition: 8 400 000 (all years)
Signatures: Direksjonens Formann: Knut Getz Wold (in office 1970-1985), Hovedkasserer: Kare Sagård
Serie: Fifth Series
Specimen of: 1978
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 169 x 90
Printer: Norges Bank, Oslo (till 2008)

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

500 Kroner 1978

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Niels Henrik Abel. Security thread.

Avers:

500 Kroner 1978

Abel

The engraving on banknote is made after the only contemporary portrait of Niels Henrik Abel, painted by Johan Gørbitz in 1826. Copyright: Universitetet i Oslo.

Niels Henrik Abel (5 August 1802 – 6 April 1829) was a Norwegian mathematician who made pioneering contributions in a variety of fields. His most famous single result is the first complete proof demonstrating the impossibility of solving the general quintic equation in radicals. This question was one of the outstanding open problems of his day, and had been unresolved for over 350 years. He was also an innovator in the field of elliptic functions, discoverer of Abelian functions. Through the great works from Abel's hand he was known to the world's mathematicians; he made his discoveries while living in poverty and died at the age of 26 from tuberculosis.

Most of his work was done in six or seven years of his working life. Regarding Abel, the French mathematician Charles Hermite said: "Abel has left mathematicians enough to keep them busy for five hundred years." Another French mathematician, Adrien-Marie Legendre, said: "quelle tête celle du jeune Norvégien!" ("what a head the young Norwegian has!").

The Abel Prize in mathematics, originally proposed in 1899 to complement the Nobel Prizes, is named in his honour.

In the theory of series the name of Abel are several important theorems. Abel thoroughly investigated the convergence of the series, and at the highest level of rigor. His criteria for rigor were tougher than even Cauchy. He, for example, argued that the sum of the power number inside the circle of convergence is continuous, while Gauss and Cauchy considered this fact to be self-evident. Cauchy, however, published (1821) the proof of an even more general theorem: "The sum of any convergent series of continuous functions is continuous," but Abel in 1826 gave a counterexample to show that this theorem is incorrect:

{\displaystyle f(x)=\sin x-{\frac {1}{2}}\sin 2x+{\frac {1}{3}}\sin 3x-{\frac {1}{4}}\sin 4x\cdots } f(x)=\sin x-{\frac {1}{2}}\sin 2x+{\frac {1}{3}}\sin 3x-{\frac {1}{4}}\sin 4x\cdots

This function is periodic (with a period of {\ displaystyle 2 \ pi} 2 \ pi). In the interval {\ displaystyle - \ pi

In the theory of special, especially elliptic and abelian functions, Abel was a recognized founding leader along with Jacobi. He was the first to define elliptic functions as functions inverse to elliptic integrals, extended their definitions to the general complex case and deeply investigated their properties.

Abel's most important theorem on integrals of algebraic functions was published only posthumously. Legendre called this discovery "a monument to non-hands" for Abel.

coat Norway

In center is Norwegian coat of arms.

The coat of arms of Norway. A golden lion on a red shield was adopted in or before the early part of the XIII century. In the late part of the same century, a silver axe was added. In continuous use since then, the coat of arms is one of the oldest state coats of arms in the world.

The official blazon is: Gules, a lion rampant or, crowned or and bearing an axe with blade argent.

Among the state coats of arms that are still in use today, the Coat of Arms of Norway is among the oldest in Europe and even world-wide. It is known since the early 13th century, when it served as the coat of arms of the kings of the Sverre dynasty. It is told that Sverre, who was King between 1184 and 1202, had a lion in his coat of arms. This coat of arms appears in 1225, when it was used by Earl Skule Bårdsson, who had relations to the royal family. A coat of arms with a lion was also used by Haakon the Young Haakonson, who was King between 1240 and 1257. This was in 1250. Haakon the Young's father, King Haakon the Old Haakonson, had a lion in his seal. This lion, however, does not appear in a coat of arms, but in the shape of a small lion which lies between the King's feet. This might be the same lion that Earl Skule and Haakon the Young used in their seals. On the other hand, lions were a frequently used symbol of kings and royal power.

Snorre Sturlason claims that a golden lion on a red background was used already in 1103 by King Magnus III, the son of King Olav III. In 1894, historian Gustav Storm concluded that this is ahistorical. Storm explained that the claimed lion in King Magnus's coat of arms is unknown both in the older Saga literature and in other contemporary sources. It is possible that Snorre, who wrote under the instruction of the King, attributed King Sverre's coat of arms to earlier Kings of Norway.

Approximately in 1280, either King Magnus VI (dead in 1280) or the guardianship of his son Eric Magnuson let the lion be equipped with a crown of gold and in the foremost paws an axe of silver. The axe was a symbol of Saint Olaf, i.e. King Olaf II, and by inserting it into the coat of arms it was symbolized that the King was the rightful heir and descendant of the "Eternal King of Norway" (Latin: Rex Perpetuus Norvegiae).

Denomination in big words is centered. In numerals in lower right and top left corners. In the lower left corner are the monograms of the Norwegian bank - NB.

Revers:

500 Kroner 1978

Universitetet Universitetet Universitetet

The engraving on banknote is made after the painting by Norwegian painter Joachim Frich (24 July 1810 - 29 January 1858), made in 1854 - "University of Oslo (Universitetet Oslo) at Karl Johans gate".

King Frederik agreed to give Norway a very special university. The plans were ready to create an ideal university in Christiania: architectural, organizational and professional - without any other place in the world. But then came 1814 and bad economic times. The Norwegians had to pay close attention to a far less large-scale facility and academy. Illustrator of the University is a piece of hand-colored lithograph by Joachim Frich from Karl Johans gate in 1854.

Karl Johans gate is the main street of the city of Oslo, Norway. The street was named in honor of King Charles III John, who was also King of Sweden as Charles XIV John.

Frich

Joachim Christian Gilmuiden Gyldenkranz Fritsch (July 24, 1810 - January 29, 1858) was a Norwegian landscape painter. He was associated with the Düsseldorf School of Painting (Düsseldorf-Skolen).

Joachim Fritsch was from Bergen, Norway. He was the son of David Fritsch (1782-1859) and his wife Gertrude Barclay (1782-1838). He received his first training in Bergen with Leider Sagen and Karl Peter Lehmann (1794-1876). He studied at the Academy of Arts in Copenhagen under the direction of Christoffer Wilhelm Ekkersberg, Johann Ludwig Lund and Johann Frederick Möller from 1834 to 1836. He moved to Gipskolen, where he was a student from 1834 to 1835. He then went to the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts (Kunstakademie Düsseldorf) in 1836, where he was a student of Johan Christian Dahl from 1836 to 1837. From 1837 to 1839 he remained in Munich, where he influenced the landscape paintings of Karl Rottman.

Then he settled in Christiania (now Oslo), and in 1841 he became a teacher at the Royal School of Drawing. He also became a member of the board of the National Gallery in Christiania. In 1844, Fritsch was one of the founders of the Society for the Preservation of Monuments of Ancient Norway (Forensing til Norske Fortidsmindesmerkers Bevaring). In 1846 and 1855, he made study tours to Düsseldorf, whose school of painting influenced him artistically. He also made annual trips to Sweden, the Netherlands and Belgium.

In 1850, he completed a series of six large decorative landscape paintings for dining in the Oscarsall Palace in Bygdoi. He also completed the illustrations for the Norge fremstillet i tegninger, a series of books published by the Norwegian publisher and author, Christian Tønsberg.

In top left corner is the lion from coat of arms.

Denominations in numerals are in 2 corners and centered. In words - doubled, at the bottom.

Comments:

Invalid from 21.06.2002.

Designers: Knut Løkke-Sørensen (obverse side) and Henry Welde (reverse side).