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100 Pesos 2017. 100 Years since the adoption of the Mexican Constitution, Mexico

in Krause book Number: 130
Years of issue: 05.02.2017
Edition:
Signatures: Junta de Gobierno: Roberto del Cueto Legaspi, Cajero Principal: Alejandro Alegre Rabiela
Serie: Commemorative issue
Specimen of: 25.01.2016
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 127 x 66
Printer: Banco de México, Mexico

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Pesos 2017. 100 Years since the adoption of the Mexican Constitution

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Caracara with a snake on a cactus, from the coat of arms of Mexico. Denomination 100.

The Mexican eagle on the coat of arms and flag, which is a symbol of freedom and independence of the country, the victory of the forces of good and creation over the forces of evil and destruction, in reality is not an eagle at all. It is a bird of the falcon family living in the Mexican prairies - an ordinary (or crested) Caracara. Its local name is Qurancho. Caracara is a rather large, up to 65 centimeters long, bird, in its external structure and way of life, more reminiscent of vultures than falcons, and willingly feeding on reptiles.

The snake on the coat of arms is a green rattle, widespread in Mexico.

A blooming cactus, often incorrectly referred to as prickly pear, is an anti-cochlea-napalea, growing in Mexico. This plant is famous for the fact that aphid cochineal breeds in a huge amount on it, from dried individuals of which they get an excellent scarlet dye for fabrics and food coloring.

Lake Texcoco with the island is depicted on the coat of arms in the traditional, very conventional, Aztec artistic style. The branch of evergreen stone oak symbolizes the republic, and the branch of laurel - the glory and immortality of its heroes. The branches are tied with a ribbon of national colors. As for flowers, now it is believed that green symbolizes hope and independence, white - peace and purity of thoughts, red - the unity of the Mexican people.

Avers:

100 Pesos 2017. 100 Years since the adoption of the Mexican Constitution

constitution

On banknote is - The solemn act in which Venustiano Carranza (on the right, near the table), Mexico’s president at the time, next to the chairman of Congress at the time, Luis Manuel Rojas (on the left, near the table), is sworn in before the Constituent Assembly after amending the Constitution, 1917.

The engraving is made after this photo, supplied by the National Institute of Anthropology and History/Casasola Cuarta Generación, S.A. de C.V.

Venustiano Carranza Garza (29 December 1859 – 21 May 1920) was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta (February 1913 - July 1914) and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster. He secured power in Mexico, serving as head of state from 1915-1917. With the promulgation of a new revolutionary Mexican Constitution of 1917, he was elected president, serving from 1917 to 1920.

Known as the "Primer Jefe" or "First Chief" of the Constitutionalists, Carranza was a shrewd politician rather than a military man. He supported Francisco I. Madero's challenge to the Díaz regime in the 1910 elections and Madero's Plan de San Luis Potosí to nullify the elections and overthrow Díaz by force. He was appointed the governor of his home state of Coahuila by Madero. When Madero was murdered in February 1913, Carranza drew up the Plan de Guadalupe, a purely political plan to oust Huerta. Carranza became the leader of northern forces opposed to Huerta. He went on to lead the Constitutionalist faction to victory and become president of Mexico.

Carranza was from a rich, northern landowning family; despite his position as head of the northern revolutionary movement, he was concerned that Mexico's land tenure not be fundamentally restructured by the Revolution. He was far more conservative than either Southern peasant leader Emiliano Zapata or Northern revolutionary general Pancho Villa. Once firmly in power in Mexico, Carranza sought to eliminate his political rivals. Carranza won recognition from the United States but took strongly nationalist positions. During his administration, the current constitution of Mexico was drafted and adopted. Carranza did not implement its most radical elements, such as empowerment of labor, use of the state to expropriate foreign enterprises, land reform in Mexico, or suppression of the Roman Catholic Church in Mexico.

In the 1920 election, in which he could not succeed himself, he attempted to impose a virtually unknown, civilian politician, Ignacio Bonillas, as president of Mexico. Northern generals, who held real power, rose up against Carranza under the Plan of Agua Prieta, and Carranza was assassinated fleeing Mexico City.

In the upper left corner there is an open Mexican constitution, adopted on February 5, 1917 (the day the banknotes went into circulation in 2017).

Inscription nearby: "1917-2017. Cien Anos de la Constitucion Politica de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos."

In English: "1917-2017. One Hundred Years of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States."

The text in lower left corner: "Venustiano Karranza y Luis Manuel Rojas, presidente del Congreso Constituyente, durante la sesion solemne de clausura de este."

In English: "Venustiano Carranza and Luis Manuel Rojas, president of the Constituent Congress, during the solemn closing session of this session".

Denomination in numeral is in top right corner. Centered, at the bottom, in words.

Revers:

100 Pesos 2017. 100 Years since the adoption of the Mexican Constitution

constitution

On banknote - Deputies, in the assembly hall of the city of Queretaro, vote against the preservation of the old constitution of Mexico, 1917.

The engraving is made after this photo, supplied by the National Institute of Anthropology and History/Casasola Cuarta Generación, S.A. de C.V.

In December 1916, in the city of Queretaro, a constituent assembly was convened, which on February 5, 1917 adopted a new constitution of the country (still in effect).

Mexico at the beginning of the 20th century represented the state in which one of the most brutal dictatorships on the continent was established — Porfiro Dias, who ruled the country for more than 30 years (this period was called Porfiriato). However, the Mexican people managed not only to put an end to the bloody regime, but also to create a constitution that is still in effect.

During the reign of Diaz, the Mexican economy began to rise: railways and telegraph lines were built, new enterprises were created, and the inflow of foreign investments increased. However, these results were obtained, including through the exploitation of peasants and the indigenous population, as well as a decline in the standard of living of the masses. The flip side of the economic successes of the Dias dictatorship was increased dependence on the United States and high social tensions. The government of P. Diaz sold out the country's national resources. The ruling political group proceeded from the fact that the development of Mexico should go not through internal reforms, but as a result of attracting foreign capital. On this basis, land surveying companies confiscated peasant lands, which then passed into the hands of landowners and foreign oil companies.

In 1910, a revolution began in Mexico, during which the dictatorship of P. Diaz was overthrown. The revolution, which began as a summit, as an ordinary protest of liberals against the authoritarian regime, but to the extent of its development resulted in a broad movement against the North American expansion.

In 1917, a new Constitution of Mexico was adopted, developed by representatives of the national bourgeoisie. At the time of its adoption, it was the most radical of all the constitutional documents existing at that time in the world. The most innovative were the articles of the constitution devoted to the basic principles of the state. The constitution reflected the desire of the Mexican national bourgeoisie to restore state control over the plundered foreign national resources. All minerals, as well as territorial waters, were declared state property.

It was established that only Mexicans and Mexican companies have the right to acquire ownership of land and water, to receive concessions for mines, for the extraction of mineral fuels, etc. The state could grant the same right to foreigners, provided that they express their consent to consider them with respect to the relevant property as Mexicans. In this way, Mexico defended itself against US military intervention, since the argument justifying military interventions under the pretext of "protecting the lives and property of American citizens" became untenable.

For the first time in Latin America, the Mexican constitution provided for agrarian reform. The confiscations of peasant lands made under P. Diaz were declared invalid. In order to "equitably distribute social wealth", it was prescribed to take the necessary legislative measures, but to break up latifundia, develop small-scale land ownership, and form new agricultural communities. The federal congress and state legislatures were required by the constitution to determine the maximum rate of private land ownership.

The Constitution of Mexico, for the first time in the practice of world constitutionalism, banned monopolies in the economic sphere, and also earlier than it happened even in the developed countries of the West, recognized important social rights of working people. She provided for: an eight-hour working day, special working conditions for women and adolescents, a weekly rest day and annual leave, post-natal leave for women, etc. For the first time, the list of rights proclaimed by constitutions included the right of workers to strike.

The constitution refused traditional economic liberalism and determined the degree of state intervention in various spheres of public life.

According to the constitution, the Mexican model of the state proceeds from federalism, which was at one time generated by the deep economic and political decentralization of the country. In the XX century. due to the rapid development of capitalism in the economic and political life of Mexico, the tendency towards unitarism is dominant. However, federalism has traditionally entered the state and legal practice of the country. The constitution recognizes the sovereignty of the states and their right to an independent constitution, but the priority of the federation in the political life of the country is indisputable.

The supreme power in the state is organized according to the principle of separation of powers. The Mexican Constitution defines the structure and competence of the Federal Congress, the organization and special powers of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, the procedure for the development and approval of laws, etc.

The Parliament of Mexico is elected by proportional representation system and consists of two chambers: the Senate (128 senators elected for six years, with half of them elected every three years) and the Chamber of Deputies (500 deputies elected for three years). The core of the constitutional mechanism of Mexico is a president elected for six years without the right to re-election, whose special place in the system of federal bodies is determined by the fact that Mexico is a typical presidential republic by form of government. In the hands of the president, the functions of the head of state and the head of the executive. In this capacity, the president carries out representative functions, leads the entire state apparatus, heads the Armed Forces, has a real political opportunity to fully control the legislative process.

The constitution in an enlarged form presents the traditional set of political and personal rights of citizens along with the specific Mexican judicial procedure for applying the order to protect the rights violated by acts or actions of state bodies.

The Mexican Constitution of 1917 is "tough", i.e. provides for a complex procedure for the adoption of amendments, but due to the peculiarities of the development of the political system, it is often subject to revision. Beginning with the first reform of 1921 and until 1984, the constitution underwent many changes that affected most of its articles. These changes indicate that the ruling circles of Mexico have mastered the art of promptly activating the mechanism of social concessions and political maneuvering.

The Mexican constitution promoted the formation of a relatively stable and at the same time sufficiently adapted to the changing conditions of the political system. One of the features of this Latin American republic is that since the late 1920s. XX century. The army ceased to have a direct impact on the political life of the state, which allowed the country to avoid military insurgencies and state coups so common for the continent. (studme.org .rus)

To the right and to the left is the interior of the assembly hall of the city of Queretaro (Mexico), where on February 5, 1917 the constitution of the country was adopted.

In lower left corner is the text: "Los diputados protestan guardar y hacer guardar la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos, en el Salon de Sesiones del Congresp Constituyente en Queretaro, Queretaro."

In English: "The deputies protest to keep the old Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, in the Assembly Hall of the Constituent Assembly in Queretaro"

Emblem of Bank of Mexico is in top right corner.

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and top left corners. Above, centered, in words.

Comments:

Banknote Serie AY.