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50 Piasters 2017, Egypt

in Krause book Number: B336b
Years of issue: 05.07.2017
Edition:
Signatures: Governor of the Central Bank of Egypt: Tarek Hassan Nour El Din Amer (from 27.11.2015)
Serie: 2014-2015 Issue
Specimen of: 2014
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 135 x 70
Printer: The Printing House of the Central Bank of Egypt

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

50 Piasters 2017

Description

Watermark:

masque watermark

The funerary mask of Tutankhamun. Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt.

In the 31st century BC, when Pharaoh Men managed to conquer northern Africa near the Nile Delta, a kingdom emerged that included two components - Upper Egypt and Lower Egypt, whose art history can be divided into periods: the ancient kingdom (31-22 centuries BC.), the Middle Kingdom (21-16 cc. BC.), the new kingdom (16-11 cc. BC.) and the late period (11 c. BC. - 6 century BC.).

During the first dynasties, pyramids began to be erected - “houses after life”. In the land part of the pyramids, chapels and auxiliary premises were created, and in the underground part there were burial chambers. Since death was considered an underground continuation of life, burials were decorated with jewels, everything necessary for another world, and decorated with scenes from this and that life.

A golden mask located on the mummy was found during the examination of the tomb of Tutankhamun - the pharaoh from the 18th dynasty of the New Kingdom, who ruled Egypt in 1332-1323 BC. er His tomb miraculously turned out to be unoffrained and everyday objects telling about the life of one of the pharaohs survived to us. He was a young man who ruled the country for 9 years and died suddenly, probably from an illness, who did not live to be 20 years old.

The masks were created so that the pharaohs would not lose their faces in the new life and would look appropriately worthy of their dignity, despite the processes of corruption. The art of making burial objects was perfected over thousands of years, each element was proportionally verified and involved in the overall compositional structure, and also endowed with a symbolic meaning.

The golden mask of Tutankhamen, considered to be one of the great monuments of art, was made of 9 kilograms of pure gold and depicts Tutankhamun in a headdress - a scarf, one of the symbols of royal power, called "Kraft-usherbi". The two sides of the klaft, which are evenly lowered onto the necklace collar, testified that the power of the pharaoh extended into two kingdoms. On top of the scarf was fastened another symbol of power - Urey - a diadem with images of the head of a hawk and a cobra. The hawk Nekhbet and the cobra Uadzhet are symbols of two deities protecting Upper and Lower Egypt. The blue stripes on the yellow claft and on the collar - a necklace (a sign of the sun, a popular ornament in ancient Egypt) were the privilege of the pharaohs. The third symbol - a symbol of land ownership, was a patch beard. Wide-open eyes testified to the continuation of life and in the next world, and auricles - to the eternal perception of the surrounding world. (salman-spektor.livejournal.com .rus)

The burial mask of Tutankhamen made of gold was not intended for this ancient Egyptian pharaoh, but for Queen Nefertiti. This conclusion, as reported by The Independent, came the former curator of the department of Ancient Egypt in the British Museum, archaeologist Nicholas Reeves.

The scientist came to his conclusions for two reasons. First, in September 2015, a retouched stamp with the name of Queen Nefertiti was found on a gold mask. Secondly, the ears on the mask were punctured, which is typical for masks designed for women and children.

Scientists came to such discoveries after Tutankhamun’s funeral mask restoration work: her beard fell away as a result of an accident, which had to be hurriedly returned to its original place (glued) in January 2015.

In 2015, the archaeologist Reeves surprises the scientific community for the second time. The first time this happened was when he reported on the discovery of the door hidden in and supposedly leading to the tomb of Nefertiti in Tutankhamun’s tomb, as well as retouched images illustrating the life of the young Pharaoh.

Pharaoh Tutankhamen from Ancient Egypt from the XVIII dynasty of the New Kingdom ruled the country around 1332-1323 BC. He died at the age of 19. His stepmother was Nefertiti, and her father was her husband Akhenaten. The causes of Nefertiti's death and the place of her burial are still unknown.

Avers:

50 Piasters 2017

مسجد الرفاعي‎‎

The Al-Azhar Mosque (الجامع الأزهر‎).

Al-Azhar Mosque (Arabic: الجامع الأزهر‎, translit. el-Gām3` el-Azhar (Egyptian), "The Most Resplendent Congregational Mosque"), also simply in Egypt Al-Azhar (Egyptian Arabic: الازهر‎), is an Egyptian mosque in Islamic Cairo. Al-Mu'izz li-Din Allah of the Fatimid dynasty commissioned its construction for the newly established capital city in 970. Its name is usually thought to allude to the Islamic prophet Muhammad's daughter Fatimah, a revered figure in Islam who was given the title az-Zahrā′ ("the shining or resplendent one"). It was the first mosque established in Cairo, a city that has since gained the nickname "the City of a Thousand Minarets."

After its dedication in 972, and with the hiring by mosque authorities of 35 scholars in 989, the mosque slowly developed into what is today the second oldest continuously run university in the world after Al Karaouine in Idrisid Fes. Al-Azhar University has long been regarded as the foremost institution in the Islamic world for the study of Sunni theology and sharia, or Islamic law. The university, integrated within the mosque as part of a mosque school since its inception, was nationalized and officially designated an independent university in 1961, following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952.

Over the course of its over a millennium-long history, the mosque has been alternately neglected and highly regarded. Because it was founded as a Shiite Ismaili institution, Saladin and the Sunni Ayyubid dynasty that he founded shunned al-Azhar, removing its status as a congregational mosque and denying stipends to students and teachers at its school. These moves were reversed under the Mamluk Sultanate, under whose rule numerous expansions and renovations took place. Later rulers of Egypt showed differing degrees of deference to the mosque and provided widely varying levels of financial assistance, both to the school and to the upkeep of the mosque. Today, al-Azhar remains a deeply influential institution in Egyptian society that is highly revered in the Sunni Muslim world and a symbol of Islamic Egypt.

Above is a strip with stylized lotus flowers.

Denominations is numerals are in top right and lower left corners, in words - top, centered.

Revers:

50 Piasters 2017

Ramses II Ramses II

The engraving on banknote is made after the ancient Egyptian statue of Pharaoh Ramses II, in the Egyptian Museum, Turin, Italy.

Ramesses II or Ramses (Ancient Egyptian: rꜥ-ms-sw "Ra is the one who bore him" > Koine Greek: Ῥαμέσσης Rhaméssēs); born c. 1303 BC; died July or August 1213; reigned 1279–1213), also known as Ramesses the Great, was the third pharaoh of the Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt. He is often regarded as the greatest, most celebrated, and most powerful pharaoh of the New Kingdom. His successors and later Egyptians called him the "Great Ancestor".

He is known as Ozymandias in Greek sources (Koine Greek: Οσυμανδύας Osymandýas), from the first part of Ramesses' regnal name, Usermaatre Setepenre, "The Maat of Ra is powerful, Chosen of Ra".

Ramesses II led several military expeditions into the Levant, reasserting Egyptian control over Canaan. He also led expeditions to the south, into Nubia, commemorated in inscriptions at Beit el-Wali and Gerf Hussein. The early part of his reign was focused on building cities, temples, and monuments. He established the city of Pi-Ramesses in the Nile Delta as his new capital and used it as the main base for his campaigns in Syria. At fourteen, he was appointed prince regent by his father, Seti I. He is believed to have taken the throne in his late teens and is known to have ruled Egypt from 1279 to 1213 BC. Manetho attributes Ramesses II a reign of 66 years and 2 months; most Egyptologists today believe he assumed the throne on May 31, 1279 BC, based on his known accession date of III Season of the Harvest, day 27. Estimates of his age at death vary; 90 or 91 is considered most likely. Ramesses II celebrated an unprecedented fourteen Sed festivals (the first held after 30 years of a pharaoh's reign, and then, every three years) during his reign—more than any other pharaoh. On his death, he was buried in a tomb in the Valley of the Kings; his body was later moved to a royal cache where it was discovered in 1881, and is now on display in the Egyptian Museum.

About Pharaoh you can read a lot of interesting things, please read further on the link.

Ramses II

In lower right corner is the Cartouche of Ramesses II.

French word Cartouche, designating a group of symbols enclosed in a round-cornered rectangle, and representing the name of an important personage.

Seti I Ramses II

In the background of banknote showing images of an ancient Egyptian vessel and a fresco. Nowhere, on the web, is it exactly indicated - where these images come from. Written only - objects of ancient Egyptian art!

I tried to find the ends by myself ..

In my personal opinion, the ship is a ship, that carries the Pharaoh into the realm of the dead. Such murals are present in all the tombs of the Pharaohs, including Ramses's II.

The fresco in the background, to the left of the statue of the pharaoh is Seti I, the pharaoh, the father of Ramses II, on a battle chariot.

Most likely, this is an image from the Temple of Karnak, finished after the death of Seti I, by Ramses II.

In Thebes, at Karnak, Seti I continued to build a grand hypostyle hall between the third pylon of the Amenhotep III era and the second one erected under Horemheb. The beginning of construction was laid under Ramses I, but the brevity of his rule prevented the implementation of a colossal project. The hall is 103 meters wide and 52 meters deep and has one hundred forty-four columns.

The twelve pillars of the middle passage with a height of 19.5 meters (without an abacus), with capitals in the form of opened colors of papyrus, shake the imagination. The lower columns of the side aisles are made in the form of bundles of uncompleted stems of this plant. The columns were covered with sheets of gold and covered with magnificent reliefs with a total area of ​​24,282 m². The names of the architects who built this temple are known to us - they were Maya, Iupa and Hatiai. The decoration works on the columns of the hypostille were supervised by an outstanding artist of this time, Didia. The final decoration and finishing of the hypostille was completed only under Ramses II.

Menmaatre Seti I (or Sethos I as in Greek) was a pharaoh of the New Kingdom Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt, the son of Ramesses I and Sitre, and the father of Ramesses II. As with all dates in Ancient Egypt, the actual dates of his reign are unclear, and various historians claim different dates, with 1294 BC to 1279 BC and 1290 BC to 1279 BC[5] being the most commonly used by scholars today.

The name 'Seti' means "of Set", which indicates that he was consecrated to the god Set (also termed "Sutekh" or "Seth"). As with most pharaohs, Seti had several names. Upon his ascension, he took the prenomen "mn-m3‘t-r‘ ", usually vocalized as Menmaatre, in Egyptian, which means "Established is the Justice of Re." His better known nomen, or birth name, is transliterated as "sty mry-n-ptḥ" or Sety Merenptah, meaning "Man of Set, beloved of Ptah". Manetho incorrectly considered him to be the founder of the 19th dynasty, and gave him a reign length of 55 years, though no evidence has ever been found for so long a reign.

It is possible that in the 9th year of the Network, which, apparently, considered his position on the throne to be insufficiently reliable, decided to proclaim his son and the heir of Ramses as his co-ruler. In the great historical inscription of Abydos, Ramses II tells about this event:

"I was solemnly elevated to the rank of heir to the throne, as the eldest son ... Then my father appeared publicly to the people, and I was like a boy on his knees, and he said this:" I will be crowned king, because I want to see his glory while I'm still alive. " And the dignitaries of the court began to lay my head on a double crown. ”

Already in the 1st year of his reign, he took up the difficult task of recovering the Asian possessions of Egypt, lost by Pharaoh Akhenaten. About the wars of Seti I is known mainly due to the reliefs covering the outer side of the northern wall of the great hypostyle hall of the temple of Amon in Karnak. Six pictures of battles give an idea of ​​the main events of this war. Only this picture gallery of his wars, with a brief text, has reached our days.

Images tell about campaigns, battles, sieges, triumph, sacrifice of prisoners. The "topographic list" of conquered lands is also preserved here. Each name, framed by an oval, is topped with the head of a captive, a representative of this people.

The reason for these wars was the constant advance of the eastern neighboring peoples of Egypt to the Delta. The previous period of Egypt’s weakness gave the courage to the Bedouins Shas to cross the eastern border of the kingdom of Pharaoh, “in order to gain food for themselves and their livestock in the dominion of Pharaoh”. The king gathered his army, ordered the manufacture of military chariots and himself, standing on the same steamy chariot, moved at the head of his soldiers against the outraged Bedouins. Seti captured the road along the northern coast of the Sinai Peninsula. Along this road wells were put in proper condition, with military posts arranged for their protection. Many of these posts were named on the web.

The battles took place on a large territory, starting from the border fortress of Jaru, both in the desert and in the mountainous, wooded areas of Palestine. The war was complicated by the fact that nomads occupied the heights dominating the valleys (“they became on the Syrian ridges,” as the Egyptian inscription says). A number of enemy fortresses were taken, including Rapuh (Raffia). The king took possession of all the land of Shas to its eastern borders. The last fallen mountain stronghold, the “City of Canaan” (Pa-Canaan, perhaps, Gaza), fell. In the battle of the “City of Canaan”, the main enemy forces were destroyed. This first victory is so praised by the inscription:

“In the year 1 of the king of Seti, the destruction of the enemy’s shasu from the fortress Hetam in the land of Tsala (that is, in the Tanis nome) even before Canaan took place with a strong hand. The king was against them like a fierce lion. In a mountainous country, they turned into a pile of corpses. They lay there in their blood. Not one escaped his hand to tell the distant nations about his strength. ”

Pharaoh himself, apparently, revel in battle, for the inscription reads:

“His joy is to accept the battle, and his pleasure will be thrown into it. The pleasure of his heart is delivered only by the flow of blood when he cuts down the heads of the enemies. A minute of battle with men is more kind to him than a day of pleasure. He kills them at once and does not spare anyone between them. And who among them remains alive is in his hand and is taken away alive, as a prisoner, to Egypt. ”

The easy victory of Seti I over the Bedouins of Palestine was facilitated by the confusion and turmoil in the region, which were once conniving with Amenhotep III and Akhenaten. Enemies not only plotted "revolt" against Pharaoh and neglected the "laws of the palace", but also brought disorder into the country and exterminated each other. It is possible that the Egyptians themselves contributed to civil strife between the princes and the leaders of Syria and Palestine to weaken the power of enemies.

The significance of the personality of Seti I itself was largely hidden by the subsequent reign of his famous son, Ramses II, whose duration and abundance of monuments are well known. However, the significance of the reign and activity of Seti I was primarily that the Egyptian traditional civilization, shaken by the Amarna reform, was partially revived during its reign. In many ways, this revival turned out to be artificial and conditional, however, the Network managed to temporarily suspend the coming decline and create prerequisites for the country's further flourishing.

In the lower left corner - lotuses and the sun.

Denominations in numerals are in top right and lower left corners, in words - left, at the top.

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