header Notes Collection
Top

5 Afghani 1939, Afghanistan

in Krause book Number: 22a
Years of issue: 1939
Edition:
Signatures: Unknown signature
Serie: 1939 Issue
Specimen of: 1939
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 149 x 73
Printer: Bradbury, Wilkinson & Company Limited, New Malden

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

5 Afghani 1939

Description

Watermark:

watermark

The last King of Afghanistan - Mohammed Zahir Shah.

Avers:

5 Afghani 1939

محمد ظاهر شاه‎

On banknote is the last King of Afghanistan Mohammed Zahir Shah (محمد ظاهر شاه‎) in the uniform of the commander in chief.

Mohammed Zahir Shah (Pashto: محمد ظاهرشاه‎, Persian: محمد ظاهر شاه‎; 16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973. He established friendly relations with many countries, including with both Cold War sides, and modernized the country from the 1950s. His long reign was marked by peace and stability that was lost afterwards.

While staying in Italy for medical treatment, Zahir Shah was overthrown in a surprise coup in 1973 by his cousin and former prime minister, Mohammed Daoud Khan, who established a republic. He remained in exile near Rome until 2002, returning to Afghanistan after the end of the Taliban regime. He was given the title Father of the Nation, which he held until his death in 2007.

Mohammed Zahir Shah (Pashto: محمد ظاهرشاه‎, Persian: محمد ظاهر شاه‎; 16 October 1914 – 23 July 2007) was the last King of Afghanistan, reigning from 8 November 1933 until he was deposed on 17 July 1973. He established friendly relations with many countries, including with both Cold War sides, and modernized the country from the 1950s. His long reign was marked by peace and stability that was lost afterwards.

While staying in Italy for medical treatment, Zahir Shah was overthrown in a surprise coup in 1973 by his cousin and former prime minister, Mohammed Daoud Khan, who established a republic. He remained in exile near Rome until 2002, returning to Afghanistan after the end of the Taliban regime. He was given the title Father of the Nation, which he held until his death in 2007.

Zahir Shah was born on 15 October 1914, in Kabul, Afghanistan. He was the son of Mohammed Nadir Shah, a senior member of the Muhamadzai Royal family and commander in chief of the Afghan army for former king Amanullah Khan. Nadir Shah assumed the throne after the execution of Habibullah Kalakani on 10 October 1929. Mohammed Zahir's father, son of Sardar Mohammad Yusuf Khan, was born in Dehradun, British India, his family having been exiled after the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Nadir Shah was a descendant of Sardar Sultan Mohammed Khan Telai, half-brother of Amir Dost Mohammad Khan. His grandfather Mohammad Yahya Khan (father in law of Amir Yaqub Khan) was in charge of the negotiations with the British resulting in the Treaty of Gandamak. After the British invasion after the killing of Sir Louis Cavagnari during 1879, Yaqub Khan, Yahya Khan and his sons, Princes Mohammad Yusuf Khan and Mohammad Asef Khan, were seized by the British and transferred to the British Raj, where they remained forcibly until the two princes were invited back to Afghanistan by Emir Abdur Rahman Khan during the last year of his reign (1901). During the reign of Amir Habibullah they received the title of Companions of the King (Musahiban).

Zahir Shah was educated in a special class for princes at Habibia High School in Kabul. He continued his education in France where his father had served as a diplomatic envoy, studying at the Pasteur Institute and the University of Montpellier. When he returned to Afghanistan he helped his father and uncles restore order and reassert government control during a period of lawlessness in the country. He was later enrolled at an Infantry School and appointed a privy counsellor. Zahir Shah served in the government positions of deputy war minister and minister of education. Zahir Shah was fluent in Pashto, Persian, and French.

Zahir Khan was proclaimed King (Shah) on 8 November 1933 at the age of 19, after the assassination of his father Mohammed Nadir Shah. After his ascension to the throne he was given the regnal title "He who puts his trust in God, follower of the firm religion of Islam". For the first thirty years he did not effectively rule, ceding power to his paternal uncles, Mohammad Hashim Khan and Shah Mahmud Khan. This period fostered a growth in Afghanistan's relations with the international community as during 1934, Afghanistan joined the League of Nations while also receiving formal recognition from the United States. By the end of the 1930s, agreements on foreign assistance and trade had been reached with many countries, most notably with the 'Axis powers'; Germany, Italy, and Japan.

Zahir Shah provided aid, weapons and Afghan fighters to the Uighur and Kirghiz Muslim rebels who had established the First East Turkestan Republic. The aid was not capable of saving the First East Turkestan Republic, as the Afghan, Uighur and Kirghiz forces were defeated during 1934 by the Chinese Muslim 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) commanded by General Ma Zhancang at the Battle of Kashgar and Battle of Yarkand. All the Afghan volunteers were killed by the Chinese Muslim troops, who then abolished the First East Turkestan Republic, and reestablished Chinese government control over the area.

Despite close relations to the Axis powers, Zahir Shah refused to take sides during World War II and Afghanistan remained one of the few countries in the world to remain neutral. After the end of the Second World War, Zahir Shah recognised the need for the modernisation of Afghanistan and recruited a number of foreign advisers to assist with the process. During this period Afghanistan's first modern university was founded. During his reign a number of potential advances and reforms were derailed as a result of factionalism and political infighting. He also requested financial aid from both the United States and the Soviet Union.

Zahir Shah was able to govern on his own during 1963 and despite the factionalism and political infighting a new constitution was introduced during 1964 which made Afghanistan a modern democratic state by introducing free elections, a parliament, civil rights, women's rights and universal suffrage.

At least 5 of Afghani little Pul coins during his reign bore the Arabic title: المتوكل على الله محمد ظاهر شاه "AlMutawakkil 'ala Allah Muhammad Zhahir Shah" which means "The leaner on Allah, Muhammad Zhahir Shah". The title "AlMutawakkil 'ala Allah", "The leaner on Allah" is taken from the Quran, Sura 8, verse 61.

By the time he returned to Afghanistan in 2002, his rule was characterized by a lengthy span of peace.

In 1973, while Zahir Shah was in Italy, undergoing eye surgery and therapy for lumbago, his cousin and former Prime Minister Mohammed Daoud Khan staged a coup d'état and established a republican government. As a former prime minister, Daoud Khan had been forced to resign by Zahir Shah a decade earlier. During August 1973, Zahir Shah abdicated rather than risk a civil war, ending over 200 years of royal rule in Afghanistan.

Zahir Shah lived in exile in Italy for twenty-nine years in a villa in the affluent community of Olgiata on Via Cassia, north of Rome where he spent his time playing golf and chess, as well as tending to his garden. He was prohibited from returning to Afghanistan during the late 1970s by the Soviet-assisted Communist government. In 1983 during the Soviet–Afghan War, Zahir Shah was cautiously involved with plans to develop a government in exile. Ultimately these plans failed because he could not reach a consensus with the powerful Islamist factions. It has also been reported that Afghanistan, the Soviet Union and India had all tried to persuade Zahir Shah to return as chief of a neutral, possibly interim, administration in Kabul.

In 1991, Zahir Shah survived an attempt on his life by a knife-wielding assassin masquerading as a Portuguese journalist. After the fall of the pro-Soviet government, Zahir Shah was favored by many to return and restore the monarchy to unify the country and as he was acceptable to most factions. However these efforts were blocked mostly by Pakistan's ISI, who feared his stance on the Durand Line issue. In June 1995, Zahir Shah's former envoy Sardar Wali announced at talks in Islamabad, Pakistan that Zahir Shah was willing to participate in peace talks to end the Afghan Civil War, but no consensus was ever reached.

In April 2002, four months after the end of Taliban rule, Zahir Shah returned to Afghanistan to initiate the Loya Jirga, which met during June 2002. After the end of the Taliban, there were proposals for a return to the monarchy. Zahir Shah himself let it be known that he would accept whatever responsibility was given him by the Loya Jirga.[20] However he was obliged to publicly renounce monarchical leadership at the behest of the United States as many of the delegates to the Loya Jirga were prepared to vote for Zahir Shah and block the U.S.-backed Hamid Karzai. While he was prepared to become chief of state he made it known that it would not necessarily be as monarch: "I will accept the responsibility of head of state if that is what the Loya Jirga demands of me, but I have no intention to restore the monarchy. I do not care about the title of king. The people call me Baba and I prefer this title."

Hamid Karzai, who was favored by Zahir Shah, became president of Afghanistan after the Loya Jirga. Karzai, from the Pashtun Popalzai clan, provided Zahir Shah's relatives with major jobs in the transitional government. Following the Loya Jirga he was given the title "Father of the Nation" by Karzai, symbolizing his role in Afghanistan's history as a symbol of national unity. This title ended with his death. In August 2002 he relocated back to his old palace after 29 years.

In an October 2002 visit to France, he slipped in a bathroom, bruising his ribs, and on 21 June 2003, while in France for a medical check-up, he broke his femur.

On 3 February 2004, Zahir was flown from Kabul to New Delhi, India, for medical treatment after complaining of an intestinal problem. He was hospitalized for two weeks and remained in New Delhi under observation. On 18 May 2004, he was brought to a hospital in the United Arab Emirates because of nose bleeding caused by heat.

Zahir Shah attended the 7 December 2004 swearing-in of Hamid Karzai as President of Afghanistan. During his final years, he was frail and required a microphone pinned to his collar so that his faint voice could be heard. During January 2007, Zahir was reported to be seriously ill and bedridden.

On 23 July 2007, Zahir Shah passed away in the compound of the presidential palace in Kabul after prolonged illness. His death was announced on national television by President Karzai, who said "He was the servant of his people, the friend of his people, he was a very kind person, kind hearted. He believed in the rule of the people and in human rights." His funeral was held on 24 July. It began on the premises of the presidential palace, where politicians and dignitaries paid their respects; his coffin was then taken to a mosque before being moved to the royal mausoleum on Maranjan Hill in eastern Kabul.

coat

On top is The emblem of the kingdom of Afghanistan from 1931 to 1973.

At the bottom - the date of 1298, which according to the Afghan calendar corresponds to 1919 - the year of the declaration of independence of the country and the victory over the British colonialists, and the word Afghanistan.

Below are the rays of the rising sun. Below - the words Allah is great (Allah akbar).

In the center - a symbolic image of a mosque with an arched niche (mihrab), facing, as it should be in Islam, in the direction of Mecca. The pulpit (minbar) is also depicted.

On the sides of the mosque are two Afghan black-red-green flags.

Framing - two rows of wheat ears, intertwined with ribbon.

Revers:

5 Afghani 1939

band e-amir

Band-e-Amir dam with Six Lakes, Bamiyan Province.

Consist of 6 lakes. The smallest - Band-e Panir (Lake of cheese) - with a diameter of about 100 meters, the largest - Band-e Zulfiqar (Lake of the sword of Ali), has a length of about 6.5 kilometers, the deepest - Band-e Haibat (Lake of grandiose) - with an average depth of 150 meters.

Almost in the very center of Afghanistan, nature has left Lake Bande Amir unrealistic in its beauty. They stand out significantly in the surrounding landscape with their incredible color.

Afghanistan. The first thing that comes to mind is the desert, inhabited mainly by citizens who are well acquainted with the Kalashnikov machine gun. All residents have either a thick beard or a black hijab (and both are required with Kalashnikovs in their hands). And the environment does not cause any feelings, except despair. But all this, of course, is far from true. Nature has not bypassed this long-suffering country and presented it with the miracle of Lake Band-e-Amir.

This unique complex of lakes is located in the Hindu Kush mountains, almost in the center of the country, closer to its northern part.

band e-amir

The rich turquoise color of the lakes seems unreal against the background of the surrounding area. Its color Bande Amir is obliged to a high content of carbon dioxide in water. Also its purity and a large amount of minerals greatly affect the color. Water, entering the lake through limestone, dissolves calcium carbonate in the rock. Gradually, deposits of minerals and chemical compounds created dam-barriers. As a result, water began to accumulate. As a result, these amazing reservoirs formed. The thickness of the dams is about 3 meters, and the height reaches 10 meters.

Cascades water flows from one lake to another, creating large fancy pools.

The most accessible and attractive for a few tourists is Lake Bande-Haibat (translated as Dam of Fear). Tourists are not very pampered by their attention to Afghanistan in general and Lake Bande-Amir in particular, so the places here are kept almost intact. Bande Amir has been known to travelers since the 1950s. But only in 2009, the lakes were granted the status of a National Park. I must say that this is the first and so far the only national park in the country that is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. (cattur.ru .rus)

Band-e-Amir, 1975.

Comments: