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50 Sum 1994, Uzbekistan

in Krause book Number: 78a
Years of issue: 01.07.1994
Edition: --
Signatures: no signature
Serie: 1994 Serie
Specimen of: 01.07.1994
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 142 x 69
Printer: Harrison ans Sons Limited, UK (after 1997 Thomas De La Rue security), Hayes and High Wycombe

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

50 Sum 1994

Description

Watermark:

watermark

On wide white space on right side of the note there is a local watermark with picture of the Coat of Arms of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

Avers:

50 Sum 1994

On the left side of the note through its width a security thread consisting of repeated white colour text “ЎЗБЕКИСТОН” (Uzbekistan) with interchanging direct and inclined letters is pressed.

Bukhara gold embroidery weaving

Centered is an ornament, made in Bukhara gold embroidery weaving style.

Gold embroidery was spread throughout the world and has very ancient roots, as evidenced by archaeological finds from excavations and historical facts.

Gold seals of Bukhara create their masterpieces in various techniques:

"Zarduzi-zaminduzi" - continuous background embroidery with gold and "zarduzi-gulduzi" - patterned (floral) stitching, "zarduzi-gulduzi-zaminduzi" - combined gold embroidery, "zarduzi-bishimiduzi" - stitching, where silk motifs alternate with gold ornaments , zarduzi-bulakchaduzi, where gold embroidery is combined with sewn sequins.

Golden embroidery in Bukhara originated many centuries ago. In some writings of the fourteenth century there is a mention of gold embroidery, and the ornaments of wall paintings of the sixth - seventh centuries prove that gold embroidery art was already in the early Middle Ages.

Emir and his retinue generously dressed in gold clothes, coming out into the light, considering gold as a talisman and a symbol of greatness. (vostochniy-magazin.ru .rus)

coat of arms

Above the tower, on white round background, is the Coat of Arms of the Republic of Uzbekistan, made in blue colour.

The state emblem of Uzbekistan was adopted on July 2, 1992. It is similar to the emblem of the previous Uzbek SSR. Like other post-Soviet republics whose symbols do not predate the October Revolution, the current emblem retains some components of the Soviet one. Prior to 1992, Uzbekistan had an emblem similar to all other Soviet Republics.

The emblem is in the form of a circle and mainly bears the national colors blue, white, and green. On the left there is a cotton plant and to the right wheat borders the coat of arms, cotton and wheat are the two major agricultural products of the country.

It is surmounted by the star of Rub El Hizb (۞), a symbol of Islam, which a majority of Uzbek profess.

In the middle, a Khumo, symbol of happiness and love of freedom, beats its wings. In the background a birds eye view of Uzbekistan is painted. The rising sun over the mountains with its sun rays rounds off the image.

The two rivers behind the bird, leading to the mountains, symbolize the Amu Darya and Syr Darya.

Under the Coat of Arms on the background of architectural detail a decorative number "50" in white colour with dark blue shade is pictured, and under it there is the text "ЭЛЛИК СЎМ" (50 Sum). The medium frame, there is the text "ЎЗБЕКИСТОН СЎМИ РЕСПУБЛИКА ҲУДУДИДА ҲАММА ТЎЛОВЛАР УЧУН ЎЗ ҚИЙМАТИ БЎЙИЧА ҚАБУЛ ҚИ-ЛИНИШИ ШАРТ" ("Sum payments in the republic of Uzbekistan should be recognized for its value"), which written in 2 lines.

Revers:

50 Sum 1994

Registan

Centered is The Registan and its three madrasahs. From left to right: Ulugh Beg Madrasah, Tilya-Kori Madrasah and Sher-Dor Madrasah.

The three madrasahs of the Registan are: the Ulugh Beg Madrasah (1417–1420), the Tilya-Kori Madrasah (1646–1660) and the Sher-Dor Madrasah (1619–1636). Madrasah is an Arabic term meaning school.

The Registan was the heart of the ancient city of Samarkand of the Timurid dynasty, now in Uzbekistan. The name Rēgistan (ریگستان) means "Sandy place" or "desert" in Persian.

The Registan was a public square, where people gathered to hear royal proclamations, heralded by blasts on enormous copper pipes called dzharchis - and a place of public executions. It is framed by three madrasahs (Islamic schools) of distinctive Islamic architecture. The ensemble of three madrasahs is a unique example of the art of urban planning and a remarkable example of the architectural design of the main square of the city. It is one of the clearest examples of Persian architecture. In 2001, this ensemble, along with other ancient historical buildings of Samarkand, was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Tillya-Kari

Tilya-Kori Madrasah (Uzbek Tilla Qori madrasasi - Gilded madrasa) is a religious, educational and educational building of the XVII century in Samarkand on Registan Square. It is the latest structure on the square and together with the Ulugbek Madrasa and Sherdor Madrasa forms a complete architectural ensemble. In 2001, among other sights of Samarkand included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

The construction of the Tilya-Kori madrasah began in 1646, by order of the specific ruler (hakim) of Samarkand Yalangtush Bahadur, descended from the Uzbek family of alchyna on the site built in the XV century and heavily dilapidated Mirzoi caravanserai with partial use of its foundations and walls. By the time construction began, Samarkand’s mosques (Bibi-Khanym and Alike Kukeltash) lay in ruins, and when designing, it was decided to combine a high spiritual school and a juma mosque in the building of a madrasa. Construction and finishing works lasted 14 years and were completed in 1660, after the death of Yalangtush Bahadur. Probably for this reason, the decoration of some elements of the madrasa was done with noticeable carelessness, and the outer dome of the Tilya-Kori mosque was never completed. The construction of the Tilya-Kori madrasah completed the design of the Registan Square and gave the architectural ensemble located here a finished look. In the XIX century the building of the madrasa was damaged by a strong earthquake. The entrance portal was particularly affected. Its upper part collapsed along with the tympanum. By order of Amir Haidar, the portal was restored, but without a tiled finish. By the beginning of the 20th century, most of the facing of the madrasa was lost. Restoration work began in the 20s of the 20th century, when efforts were made to save the surviving fragments of the decor. In the early 1930s, work was carried out to restore the cladding of external facades. In 1950-1958, the courtyards of madrasahs and the drum of the dome of the mosque were restored. In the first half of the 70s, the decor of the tympanum of the main portal was restored and the outer dome of the mosque was erected. In 1979, the restoration of the interior painting of the mosque was completed. Currently, the Tilya-Kori madrasah houses the exposition of the museum of restoration of Registan Square.

The Tilya-Kori madrasah is located in the northern part of Registan Square and completes the architectural ensemble of three madrasahs facing south. It is a square in construction plan with a total area of ​​75x75 meters. The architect, who apparently belonged to the Bukhara architectural school, did not blindly copy the proportions of the other two madrasahs located on the square, but solved the task of composition by stretching the wings of the main facade, which gave the area a closed look. Changing the proportions of the main facade had another consequence: being a central element of the composition, the Tilya-Kori madrasa at the same time does not look as massive and does not attract too much attention to itself, as if being the background for two other more monumental madrasas.

The main facade of the madrasah is made in Bukhara style. It consists of a central portal and two-tier frontal wings with arched niches facing the area of ​​16 hujras (eight on each side and four in a tier). The symmetry of the facade is underlined by corner guldasta towers that can simultaneously perform the functions of minarets. The main entrance portal is cut by a deep pentahedral niche with three passes. The spacious four-backyard courtyard is surrounded by hujras along the perimeter, located on two floors along the main facade and one along the other sides. On the western side of the courtyard there is a portal-domed building of the Tilya-Kori mosque. To preserve the symmetry of the yard, additional courtyards were built on its central axes. The mosque consists of three parts. In the center there is a cross-shaped room covered with a double dome, in which there is a marble mihrab and an eleven-step marble minbar. On both sides of the central hall, adjacent to the central hall are galleries on poles.

Exterior and courtyard facades of the madrasah are lined with brick and inlaid mosaic and majolica with geometric, plant and epigraphic ornaments. Especially richly decorated room of the mosque. Its walls and the dome are completely covered with kundal painting with rich gilding.

Ulugbek

Ulugh Beg Madrasah (Uzbek. Ulug`bek maadrasasi) is a Muslim spiritual, educational, educational and religious building of the XV century in Samarkand. The oldest madrasah of the architectural ensemble of Registan Square, built by the ruler of the Timurid state and the astronomer Ulugh bek. Together with the Sherdor and Tilya-Kori madrasas, it forms a complete architectural ensemble. In 2001, among other sights of Samarkand included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Since the time of Amir Timur, Registan has been the main market square and social center of medieval Samarkand. There were numerous trading shops, caravanserais and covered shopping arcades (tims), the largest of which was Tim Tilpak-Furushon. During the reign of the grandson of Timur Ulugh bek, the appearance of the square began to change gradually. Reorganization of the Registan Ulugh bek begins with the construction of the largest Islamic University in Central Asia.

The date of commencement of construction of the madrasah on Registan Square is unknown for sure. The inscription in the entrance portal niche literally reads: "Year 820 (1417). Let it be known: this building is the finest and highest of places in the world, the most perfect of buildings for art and work ...". This allows us to conclude that in 1417 the building of the madrasah was already under construction. At the highest rates of construction, the construction of such structures in Maverannahr took at least 5-6 years. Given that the main work was completed in 1420, it can be assumed that construction began no later than 1415. The court architect of the emir of Shah Rukh Kawamaddin Sherazi is usually considered the author of the madrasah project, but the medieval historian Vasifi, a contemporary of Ulugbek, calls the student Kazi-zade ar-Rumi Kamaleddin Muhandis an architect.

Soon after the construction of the Ulugbek Madrasa was completed, it became one of the most prestigious universities of the XV century Muslim East. According to legend, the famous poet, scientist and philosopher Abdurahman Jami studied here. His listeners were Sheikh Tariqa Naqshbandi Khoja Ahrar and the poet Alisher Navoi. The school lectured on mathematics, geometry, logic, natural sciences, theology, sets of teachings about man and the world soul. Such well-known scientists read them as Kazi-zade ar-Rumi, Jemshid Giyas ad-Din Al-Kashi, Al-Kushchi, as well as Ulugbek himself. The first mudarris (rector) of the university was appointed Maulana Muhammad Khavafi - a wandering dervish, a commoner by birth, who had deep scientific knowledge.

In 1533, Uzbek Khan Ubaidullah came to power in Maverannakhr, who soon transferred his capital to Bukhara. Having lost its status as a capital, Samarkand is gradually falling into decay. However, the Ulugh Beg Madrasah continues to maintain the status of one of the best educational institutions in Central Asia. During the reign of Yalangtush Bahadur, who carried out a radical restructuring of Registan Square, the building of the madrasa was thoroughly repaired. It was his graceful proportions that formed the basis of the new madrasah built by the specific ruler of Samarkand, later called Sherdor. During the period of feudal wars and popular unrest that accompanied the rule of the last Bukhara Khan from the Ashtarkhanid dynasty of Abulfeiz, the appearance of the Ulugbek madrasah was severely damaged. According to an eighteenth-century Samarkand historian, Abu Tahir Khoja, the governor of Bukhara ordered to demolish the second floor of the building for fear that insurgents might bombard his residence from the high walls of madrasahs.

At the beginning of the XIX century, the Ulugbek madrasah was destroyed by a strong earthquake. Describing the state of construction by the words of the character of his work, the famous French writer Jules Verne wrote:

The Registan Square is a beautiful quadrangle ... On three sides of the square rise the well-preserved ruins of three "madrasas", where the "mullahs" gave children a religious education. The inclined minarets seem to be about to fall, but never fall, fortunately for their enamel lining. - J. Vern. Claudius Bombarnak. The reporter's notebook on the opening of the great Trans-Asian Mainline (From Russia to Beijing).

The earthquake of 1897 turned "well-preserved ruins" into ruins.

Restoration of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah began in the 1920s and lasted for more than seventy years. At the first stage, urgent work was carried out to preserve the surviving fragments of the building. In 1932, under the project of architects V. G. Shukhov and M. F. Mauer, a unique operation was carried out to straighten the northeastern minaret, which had a worldwide resonance. The main restoration works were carried out in the 50s - 60s of the 20th century: the ground level was lowered by 2 meters, the portal was restored, the building decoration elements were restored. In 1965, engineers S. M. Handel and E. O. Nelle straightened southeast minaret. In the 90s of the 20th century, the second floor of the hudjr was rebuilt. Currently, from the original elements of the building there are no outdoor domes over the corner auditoriums and the south-western minaret. The north-western minaret is partially preserved.

The Ulugh bek madrasah was built according to the Muslim canon in full accordance with the requirements of its era. It is a classic example of the spiritual school of Central Asia and the Middle East.

Madrasah is a rectangular building with a total area of ​​81x56 meters. Its main eastern facade faces Registan Square. The main element of the main facade is a powerful entrance portal - peshtak. In the depth of the portal there are three entrances, of which the central one, framed by an exaggeratedly large pointed arch, is closed by an openwork panjara. The other two entrances are also decorated with pointed arches, but smaller. Above each of them is located one loggia overlooking the Khujr square. At the corners of the madrasa, four minarets with a height of 33 meters once rose, of which only the eastern ones were fully preserved. In the corners of the building there are spacious auditoriums (darshans), which were once covered with double domes. The four-yard courtyard, square in plan, with an area of ​​30x30 meters, is paved with large stone slabs and is framed by two floors of one-room and two-room hujras. Ivanas are located on the axes of the building and decorated with portals. Each aivan divides the hujr sections in half so that on each side of it there are six hujras with two floors. The northern and southern aivans are deaf and have previously performed the function of summer audiences. In the western aivan is the entrance to the winter mosque, which occupies the entire central part of the western wing.

In the decoration of the madrasah, the whole set of materials available at that time were used: glazed bricks, carved kashin mosaic, majolica, carved marble. The combination of white, blue, blue and manganese-black tiles with terracotta facing bricks creates all the wealth of geometric, plant and epigraphic patterns. The portals of the madrasahs and timpans of the Khujr arches are decorated with a mosaic of multicolored kashin. Especially luxurious main portal. Mosaic stars on his tympanum form a pattern symbolizing the starry sky, and the pylons are decorated with mosaic panels with geometric patterns. The architectural merits of the Ulugbek Madrasah, underlined by highly artistic decorative design, put it on par with other masterpieces of Muslim medieval architecture.

Sherdor

Sher-Dor Madrasah (Uzbeks. Sherdor madrasai, taj. Madrasai Sherdor - Madrasas with lions) - Islamic educational, spiritual and educational and memorial and religious building of the XVII century in Samarkand on Registan Square. Together with the Ulugh bek and Tilya-Kari madrasas, it forms a complete architectural ensemble. In 2001, together with other sights of Samarkand, it is listed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

The Sher-Dor Madrasah was built by the Samarkand architect Abdullah Jabbar in 1619-1635 / 36 on the orders of the specific ruler (hakim) of Samarkand Yalangtush Bahadur, who was descended from an Uzbek alchin family. His decoration was done by master Muhammad Abbas.

The eastern part of the Registan Square was chosen as the site for the construction of the madrasah. To this end, the heavily dilapidated Khanaka Ulugh bek, built in 1424, was dismantled to the ground. Khanaka gave a rich construction material for Sher-Dor Madrasah, which was confirmed by archaeological excavations carried out in 1956 by Soviet archaeologist S. N. Yurenev.

Sher-Dor Madrasah was built in the reception "kosh" with Ulugh bek madrasah, the elegant proportions of which were the basis of the project. According to the plan of the architect, the main facades of the two madrasahs were to be a mirror image of each other. However, the author did not take into account that for the two hundred years that have passed since the construction of the Ulugh bek Madrasa, the level of Registan Square has risen by two meters. As a result, the proportions of the Sher-Dor Madrasah turned out to be more squat than the original.

After the construction of the madrasah, it was named after the customer Yalangtush Bahadur, but this name did not take root among the people. The modern name - Sher-dor - it received a mosaic pattern on the tympanum of its front portal. The master of decor depicted the scene of the hunting of the gazelle of a fantastic beast from the cat family, resembling a tiger, but with the mane of a lion, in the rays of an ascending sunny face. The name is translated as "having a lion" or "having a tiger." The plot, depicted on the portal of madrasas, eventually became one of the national symbols of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

For almost three centuries, the Sherdor madrasa was a well-known educational institution in the Islamic world, although by prestige they were inferior to both the metropolitan educational institutions and the Ulugh bek madrasah. Despite the impressive size, just over forty people could study at once in the madrasa. Among the most famous of his graduates are the famous Tatar theologian, the sheikh of the Sufi brotherhood Naqshbandi, the philosopher and historian Shigabutdin Mardzhani.

Throughout its existence, Sher-Dor Madrasah experienced several earthquakes, the most destructive of which occurred at the beginning and at the end of the XIX century. The building survived, but nevertheless it was significantly damaged: the arch of its main portal was severely deformed, the facing was collapsed in many places, and the minarets slanted. At the beginning of the 20s of the XX century, the instruction of the Soviet authorities was discontinued in the madrasa. The building was nationalized and in 1924 restoration work began. The hudjras were repaired, the collapsed part of the brick arch of the portal arch was restored, the carved mosaic of the tympanum of the main portal was strengthened, its deformed arch was dismantled, the domes and arches of the hudjras were rebuilt, the facing of the madrasas was restored. At the end of the 50s of the XX century, archaeological research was carried out on the territory of the madrasah, after which a new stage of restoration began. In 1960-1962, the minarets of the madrasah were repaired, and in 1962, a mosaic of tympana above the arch of the main portal was restored by the project of the artist V.N. Gorokhov and architect A.I. Freitag.

Sher-Dor Madrasah was built in the traditions of Central Asian medieval architecture. It is a rectangular building with a total area of ​​70x57 meters. The main facade is highlighted by a powerful entrance portal - peshtak - with a pointed arch, whose height is 31.5 meters. The corners of the building along the main facade are flanked by 31-meter-high minarets, topped with stalactite cornices. The eastern outer corners of the madrasah are made in the form of three-quarter towers erected in a level with the height of the walls. A spacious four-backed yard of a madrasah measuring 30x38 meters, paved with large paving stones from Chupanat slate, is surrounded by two hujr tiers along the perimeter. All 48 hujr one-room. In the corners of the courtyard there are auditoriums for students' classes - darskhans. On the main façade, darskhanas are covered with ribbed spheroconical domes on high drums decorated with turquoise tiles. The right darshana from the main entrance was eventually turned into a gurkhana. There are several unidentified graves. Left dome darshana served as a mosque. The architectural design of the side aivans is interesting: their niches have a body in the form of a multifaceted semi-dome.

In the decoration of madrasas, sets of glazed bricks, majolica and kashin mosaic are widely used. The decoration of the external facades is dominated by complex geometric patterns - girikhi, designed for perception from afar. On the friezes of the minarets and the dome drums there are epigraphic ornaments. The majolica mosaic of the tympanum of the main portal, which is one of the rarest works of Islamic art, is unique. The timpans of the arches are richly decorated. Curly stems with lush buds and flowers form an openwork pattern. The mosaic panels in the niche of the western aivan are noteworthy: the lush bouquets of flowers in the figured flowerpots symbolize the tree of life. The interior decoration of the darshana is particularly interesting in the interior of the building. Its walls and vaults are painted in the technique of kundal with a small multicolor floral pattern, and the painting of the dome and vaults forms complex arabesque medallions.

At the bottom a frame is located, in which is the text "ЎЗБЕКИСТОН СЎМИНИ ҚАЛБАКИЛАШТИРИШ ҚОНУНГА МУВОФИҚ ТАЪҚИБ ҚИЛИНАДИ" ("Counterfeiters of Uzbekistan Sums are prosecuted in accordance with the criminal law") takes place in two lines.

Comments:

On July 1, 1994, a second sum was introduced at a rate of 1 new sum = 1000 old sum. This sum is subdivided into 100 Tiyin.

The rampant inflation situation is considered a politically sensitive issue in Uzbekistan, which is why the Uzbek government is slow to acclimate the currency to the current value by issuing higher coin and note denominations.