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10 Dollars 1992, Jamaica

in Krause book Number: 71d
Years of issue: 01.08.1992
Edition: 15 000 000
Signatures: Governor: Mr. G. Arthur Brown (in office from October 1989 till September 1992)
Serie: 1970 Issue
Specimen of: 1970
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 145 х 68
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Dollars 1992

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Pineapple.

Avers:

10 Dollars 1992

George William Gordon

George William Gordon (1820 – 23 October 1865) was a wealthy mixed-race Jamaican businessman, magistrate and politician, one of two representatives to the Assembly from St. Thomas-in-the-East Parish. He was a leading critic of the colonial government and the policies of Jamaican Governor Edward Eyre.

After the start of the Morant Bay rebellion in October 1865, Eyre declared martial law in that area, directed troops to suppress the rebellion, and ordered the arrest of Gordon in Kingston. He had him returned to Morant Bay to stand trial under martial law. Gordon was quickly convicted of conspiracy and executed, on suspicion of having planned the rebellion. Eyre's rapid execution of Gordon on flimsy charges during the crisis, and the death toll and violence of his suppression of the revolt, resulted in a huge controversy in Britain. Opponents of Eyre and his actions attempted to have him prosecuted for murder, but the case never went to trial. He was forced to resign. The British government passed legislation to make Jamaica a Crown Colony, governing it directly for decades. In 1969, the Jamaican government proclaimed Gordon as a National Hero of Jamaica.

George William Gordon was the second of eight children born in Jamaica to a Scottish planter, Joseph Gordon (1790?–1867),[4] and an enslaved woman, Ann Rattray (1792? – before 1865).[5] His siblings were Mary Ann (1813?), Margaret (1819?), Janet Isabella (1824?), John (1825?), Jane (1826?), Ann (1828?) and Ralph Gordon (1830). Gordon was self-educated, teaching himself to read, write, and perform simple accounting. At the age of ten, he was allowed to live with his godfather, James Daly of Black River, Jamaica. Within a year, Gordon began working in Daly's business.

Gordon later moved to St. Thomas-in-the-East Parish at the eastern end of the island, where he became a wealthy businessman and a landowner.

Gordon was elected from St. Thomas-in-the-East parish as a member of the House of Assembly. He earned a reputation by the mid-1860s as a critic of the colonial government, especially Governor Edward John Eyre. He maintained a correspondence with English evangelical critics of colonial policy. He also established a Native Baptist church, where Paul Bogle was a deacon. Although this was unknown at the time, in May 1865 Gordon attempted to purchase an ex-Confederate schooner with a view to ferrying arms and ammunition to Jamaica from the United States of America. In 1865 the mass of Jamaicans were ex-slaves and their descendents; they struggled with poverty and crop failure in the mostly rural economy, and the aftermath of crippling epidemics of cholera and smallpox.

In October 1865, following the Morant Bay Rebellion led by Bogle, Governor Eyre ordered the arrest of Gordon, whom he suspected of planning the rebellion. By order of Eyre, Gordon was transported from Kingston, where martial law was not in force, to Morant Bay, where it was. Within two days Gordon was tried for high treason by court-martial, without due process of law, sentenced to death, and executed on 23 October.

The execution of Gordon and the brutality of Eyre's suppression of the revolt, with hundreds of Jamaicans killed by soldiers and more executed after trials, made the affair a cause célèbre in Britain. John Stuart Mill and other liberals sought unsuccessfully to have Eyre (and others) prosecuted. When they were unable to get the cases to trial, the liberals worked to bring civil proceedings against Eyre. He was forced to resign from office but never went to trial.

coat of arms

Centered is the coat of arms of Jamaica.

The coat of arms was first granted to Jamaica in 1661. Designed by William Sandcroft, the then Archbishop of Canterbury, it shows a male and female Taino Indian standing on either side of the shield, which bears a red cross with five golden pineapples superimposed on it. The crest is a Jamaican crocodile surmounting the royal helmet and mantlings. The original Latin motto Indus Uterque Serviet Uni was changed to one in English: "Out of Many, One People" in 1962, the year of Jamaica's independence.

Jacaranda mimosifolia

On right side is the Jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosifolia).

The Jacaranda family, native to South America, consists of more than fifty species, of which the J. mimosifolia is the most widely planted and admired. This deciduous tree grows very fast and likes fertile, sunny areas. It does not thrive well in heavy wet soils. The Jacaranda produces vivid lilac/purple-blue clusters of trumpet-shaped blossoms, which appear in the summer. The ferny leaves of the tree are reminiscent of those of the mimosa, thus its botanical name.

Blind feature: Three vertical lines on right and left sides of note.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners. Centered in words.

Revers:

10 Dollars 1992

Bauxite Industry

The Bauxite Industry in Jamaica.

According to my assumption, the bank shows a factory of the corporation "Bayer".

The first commercial extraction of alumina (Al2O3) from bauxite has been attributed to Henri Sainte-Claire Deville in about 1854.

Soon after this, in 1888, Karl Joseph Bayer described what is now known as the Bayer Process, which led to a dramatic reduction in the cost of aluminum metal. Today, it is an everyday commodity, rather than a precious metal.

Although deposits of aluminous red earth have been known to occur in the Tertiary Limestone areas (which covers two thirds of the land surface of Jamaica) since the 1820's, it was not until the 1940's that their economic significance as an ore of aluminum was recognised.

In October, 1943, Alcan was incorporated under the name Jamaica Bauxites Limited as a Jamaican company to investigate the commercial potential of Jamaican bauxite. In the same year, 2500 tonnes of ore was shipped to the USA for process investigation and it was realised that the bauxite was suitable for processing using Bayer technology.

The Kirkvine works were completed around 1952 and the first shipment of alumina was consigned to a Norwegian smelter in January 1953.

In the early 50s. The Canadian company Alcan has completed exploration and development of the St. Anne and Manchester bauxite deposits and launched the country's first alumina plant in the city of Kerkwein. The first batch of alumina was sent to the Norwegian plant in January 1953.

Since 1952, Reynolds has operated bauxite deposits on the north coast of the island. The bauxite produced by it was exported to the USA through the port of Ocho Rios. In 1953, the mining of bauxite by the Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical ("Kaiser") in the south of the island began. In the early 60s. Alumina Partners of Jamaica (“Alpart”), which included Kaiser, Reynolds, and Anashonda, began developing bauxite deposits in the Essex Valley area. At the same time, Alsoa (USA) began the exploitation of the Clarendon bauxite deposit in the St. Elizabeth area.

Until 1974, American and Canadian monopolies played a leading role in the mining of bauxite and the production of alumina. From 1974 to March 1977, Jamaica’s production bought out 51% of the shares of the bauxite-mining companies Reynolds, Kaiser, Alcoa, and in 1978 signed an agreement to buy 51% of the Alcoa alumina production branch. In 1977, on the basis of an agreement between the production of Jamaica and the board of the American company Reynolds, a new firm, Jamaica Reynolds Bauxite Partners, was established. Since the mid 70s. The industry is in a state of crisis. Foreign companies are consistently pursuing a policy of reducing bauxite mining and alumina production under the pretext of unfavorable tax laws in Jamaica.

In bauxite mining, Jamaica ranks 3rd among industrialized capitalist and developing countries (1985). The number of people involved in bauxite mining and alumina production is 3.2 thousand people (1985). There are 3 enterprises (total design capacity of 7.4 million tons, 1987); development in the open way. The largest bauxite mining complex owned by Kaiser Jamaica Bauxite Co. operating at the Dry Harbor (Water Valley) field in the north of the country. The Essex Valley field, located on the south coast, is operated by Reynolds Jamaica Mines, and the Schwallen-Berg field (in the north) by Jamaican. Careers at the Williamsfield, Maggotti, Mopo and Lidford fields are conserved. About 40% of the mined bauxite is mainly exported to the USA, Canada and CCCP, the rest is processed into alumina at 4 plants owned by Alcan, Alcoa and Alpart branches, with a total capacity of 3 million tons / year. Exports of bauxite in 1985 - 2.3 million tons, alumina 1.6 million tons (100% of production). Revenues from bauxite and alumina exports c. 1985 - 292 million dollars. The main markets for alumina are Canada, USA, Norway, and the United Kingdom. (www.mining-enc.ru .rus)

Bauxite Industry Bauxite Industry

Centered is a Wheel tractor-scraper Caterpillar DW-21.

In civil engineering, a wheel tractor-scraper is a piece of heavy equipment used for earthmoving. The rear part of the scraper has a vertically moveable hopper with a sharp horizontal front edge which can be raised or lowered. The front edge cuts into the soil, like a carpenter's plane cutting wood, and fills the hopper. When the hopper is full it is raised, closed, and the scraper can transport its load to the fill area where it is dumped. With a type called an 'elevating scraper' a conveyor belt moves material from the cutting edge into the hopper.

The scraper is a large piece of equipment which is used in mining, construction, agriculture and other earthmoving applications. The rear part has a vertically moveable hopper (also known as the bowl) with a sharp horizontal front edge. The hopper can be hydraulically lowered and raised. When the hopper is lowered, the front edge cuts into the soil or clay like a plane and fills the hopper. When the hopper is full (8 to 34 m3 or 10 to 44 cu. yd. heaped, depending on type) it is raised, and closed with a vertical blade (known as the apron). The scraper can transport its load to the fill area where the blade is raised, the back panel of the hopper, or the ejector, is hydraulically pushed forward and the load tumbles out. Then the empty scraper returns to the cut site and repeats the cycle.

Bauxite Industry

On the "elevating scraper" the bowl is filled by a type of conveyor arrangement fitted with a horizontal flights to move the material engaged by the cutting edge into the bowl as the machine moves forward. Elevating scrapers do not require assistance from push-tractors. The pioneer developer of the elevating scraper was Hancock Manufacturing Company of Lubbock, Texas USA. Self-propelled scrapers were invented by R. G. Le Tourneau, in the 1930s. His company called them Tournahoppers. This concept was further developed by LeTourneau Westinghouse Company. Most current scrapers have two axles, although historically tri-axle configurations were dominant.

Scrapers can be very efficient on short hauls where the cut and fill areas are close together and have sufficient length to fill the hopper. The heavier scraper types have two engines ("tandem powered"), one driving the front wheels, one driving the rear wheels, with engines up to 400 kW (536 hp). Multiple scrapers can work together in a push-pull fashion but this requires a long cut area.

Denominations in numerals are in all corners. Lower - in words.

Comments:

The signature on banknote belongs to:

George Arthur Brown

Governor of the Bank of Jamaica Mr. George Arthur Brown.

G. Arthur Brown was the first Jamaican to be appointed Governor of the Bank of Jamaica. Born in St. Elizabeth, Jamaica on 25 July 1922, Mr. Brown began his career in the Jamaican civil service in 1941, when he joined the staff of the Income Tax Department. He remained there until 1947 when he was awarded the Issa Scholarship to the London School of Economics from which he graduated in 1950 with a B. Sc. in Economics.

On his return to Jamaica, Mr. Brown worked briefly with the Income Tax Department before being assigned to the Colonial Secretary's Office in 1951 where he stayed until 1953 when he was appointed Principal Assistant Secretary in the |Ministry of Finance.

In 1957, Mr. Brown became the first Jamaican head of the Central Planning Unit and was responsible for drafting Jamaica's first Five Year Development Plan. In 1962, he was appointed Financial Secretary and in 1967, Governor of the Bank of Jamaica.

Mr. Brown remained as Governor for ten years, before retiring in 1977. Following his retirement, he served briefly as Chairman of the International Bauxite Association before joining the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) as Deputy Administrator in 1978. Between 1984 and 1989 he served as Associate Administrator, UNDP. He returned as Governor of the Bank of Jamaica in 1989 and served in this capacity until 1992.

During his first tenure as Governor, Mr. Brown served as Chairman of Bank of Jamaica; Air Jamaica Ltd.; Students' Loan Council; Sugar Manufacturing Corporation of Jamaica; Jamaica Export Credit Insurance corporation; Priory School and as a director of National Hotels and Properties; Urban Development Corporation; Capital Development Fund; Jamaica Stock Exchange Council; Kingston Waterfront Development Ltd. and Frome Moneymusk Land Corporation. He served as Jamaica's Alternate Governor to the International Monetary Fund; World Bank; Inter-American Development Bank and the Caribbean Development Bank.

Mr. Brown also lectured part-time on finance and banking at the University of the West Indies and at Columbia University in New York. During his second stint as Governor, Mr. Brown was also chairman of the University Council, Mona Campus.

He died on 02 March 1993. (boj.org.jm)