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100 Yuan 1990, China

in Krause book Number: 889b
Years of issue: 20.08.1992
Edition:
Signatures: no signature
Serie: 1980 Issue
Specimen of: 1980
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 165 х 77
Printer: China Banknote Printing and Minting Corporation (CBPM)

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Yuan 1990

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Mao Zedong.

Avers:

100 Yuan 1990

There are 4 great leaders on the banknote: Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi and Zhu De.

毛澤東

Mao Zedong or Mao Tse-tung (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976), also known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary, poet, political theorist and founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949, until his death in 1976. His Marxist–Leninist theories, military strategies, and political policies are collectively known as Maoism or Marxism-Leninism-Maoism.

Born the son of a wealthy farmer in Shaoshan, Hunan, Mao adopted a Chinese nationalist and anti-imperialist outlook in early life, particularly influenced by the events of the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and May Fourth Movement of 1919. Mao adopted Marxism–Leninism while working at Peking University and became a founding member of the Communist Party of China (CPC), leading the Autumn Harvest Uprising in 1927. During the Chinese Civil War between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the CPC, Mao helped to found the Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, led the Jiangxi Soviet's radical land policies and ultimately became head of the CPC during the Long March. Although the CPC temporarily allied with the KMT under the United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), after Japan's defeat China's civil war resumed and in 1949 Mao's forces defeated the Nationalists who withdrew to Taiwan.

On 1 October 1949, Mao proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC), a one-party state controlled by the CPC. In the following years Mao solidified his control through a campaign of classicide against landlords, and a mass purge of perceived enemies of the state he termed as "counter-revolutionaries" alleged to have caused between 2,000,000 to 6,000,000 deaths. (Mao himself admitting 800,000 deaths in the classicide and 712,000 in the suppression of Counterrevolutionaries) In 1957, he launched the Great Leap Forward campaign that aimed to rapidly transform China's economy from an agrarian economy to an industrial one. The campaign contributed to a widespread famine, whose death toll is estimated at between 15,000,000 and 55,000,000. In 1966, he initiated the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, a program to remove "counter-revolutionary" elements of Chinese society that lasted 10 years and which was marked by violent class struggle that killed 400,000 to 10,000,000 people, widespread destruction of cultural artifacts and unprecedented elevation of Mao's personality cult. In 1972, Mao welcomed American President Richard Nixon in Beijing, signalling a policy of opening China, which was furthered under the rule of Deng Xiaoping (1978–1992). Mao suffered a series of heart attacks in 1976, and died in September, aged 82. He was succeeded as Paramount leader by Hua Guofeng (1976–1978), who was quickly sidelined and replaced by Deng.

A controversial figure, Mao is regarded as one of the most important individuals in modern world history, and is also known as a theorist, military strategist, poet and visionary. Supporters credit him with driving imperialism out of China, modernizing China and building it into a world power, promoting the status of women, improving education and health care, and increasing life expectancy as China's population grew from around 550 million to over 900 million under his leadership. In contrast, critics consider him a dictator comparable to Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin who damaged traditional Chinese culture, as well as considering him a perpetrator of human rights abuses, and they estimate that Mao was responsible for 40 to 70 million deaths through starvation, prison labour and executions, which would rank his tenure as the top incidence of excess mortality in human history.

周恩來

Zhou Enlai (Chinese: 周恩来; Wade–Giles: Chou En-lai; 5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976. Zhou served along with Chairman Mao Zedong and was instrumental in the Communist Party's rise to power, and later in consolidating its control, forming foreign policy, and developing the Chinese economy.

A skilled and able diplomat, Zhou served as the Chinese foreign minister from 1949 to 1958. Advocating peaceful coexistence with the West after the stalemated Korean War, he participated in the 1954 Geneva Conference and the 1955 Bandung Conference, and helped orchestrate Richard Nixon's 1972 visit to China. He helped devise policies regarding the bitter disputes with the United States, Taiwan, the Soviet Union (after 1960), India and Vietnam.

Zhou survived the purges of other top officials during the Cultural Revolution. While Mao dedicated most of his later years to political struggle and ideological work, Zhou was the main driving force behind the affairs of state during much of the Cultural Revolution. His attempts at mitigating the Red Guards' damage and his efforts to protect others from their wrath made him immensely popular in the Cultural Revolution's later stages.

As Mao's health began to decline in 1971 and 1972 and following the death of disgraced Lin Biao, Zhou was elected First Vice Chairman of the Communist Party by the 10th Central Committee in 1973 and thereby designated as Mao's successor, but still struggled against the Gang of Four internally over leadership of China. Zhou's health was also failing, however, and he died eight months before Mao on 8 January 1976. The massive public outpouring of grief in Beijing turned to anger at the Gang of Four, leading to the Tiananmen Incident. Although Zhou was succeeded by Hua Guofeng, Zhou's ally Deng Xiaoping was able to outmaneuver the Gang of Four politically and took Hua's place as paramount leader by 1978.

劉少奇

Liu Shaoqi (Chinese: 刘少奇; 24 November 1898 – 12 November 1969) was a Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist. He was Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee from 1954 to 1959, First Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China from 1956 to 1966 and Chairman (President) of the People's Republic of China, China's de jure head of state, from 1959 to 1968, during which he implemented policies of economic reconstruction in China.

For 15 years, President Liu was the third most powerful man in China, behind only Chairman Mao Zedong and Premier Zhou Enlai. Originally groomed as Mao's successor, Liu antagonized him in the early 1960s before the Cultural Revolution, and from 1966 onward was criticized, then purged, by Mao. Liu disappeared from public life in 1968 and was labelled the "commander of China's bourgeoisie headquarters", China's foremost "capitalist-roader", and a traitor to the revolution.

He died under harsh treatment in late 1969, but was posthumously rehabilitated by Deng Xiaoping's government in 1980 and granted a national memorial service.

朱德

Zhu De (1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976) was a Chinese general, warlord, politician, revolutionary and one of the pioneers of the Communist Party of China. Born poor in 1886 in Sichuan, he was adopted by a wealthy uncle at age nine; this prosperity provided him a superior early education that led to his admission into a military academy. After his time at the academy, he joined a rebel army and soon became a warlord. It was after this period that he adopted communism. He ascended through the ranks of the Chinese Red Army as it closed in on securing the nation. By the time China was under Mao's control, Zhu was a high-ranking official within the Communist Party of China. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1955 he became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the principal founder. Zhu remained a prominent political figure until his death in 1976. As the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1975-76, Zhu was the head of state of the People's Republic of China.

The braille dots for visually impaired are in lower right corner.

Denominations in numerals are in top right and lower left corners. In words - in lower right corner.

Revers:

100 Yuan 1990

On the banknote - the mountains of Jinggangshan, or more precisely - Wuzhifeng ("the peak of five fingers"), as the cradle of the Chinese revolution.

井冈山

In recent years, in addition to the famous mountains and large rivers, tourists in China have shown great interest in traveling to revolutionary places. Such trips in China are called "Red Tourism". The mountains of Jinggangshan are closely connected with the history of the Chinese revolution. They are located on the border of the provinces of Jiangxi and Hunan. From the city of Nanchang, the administrative center of Jiangxi Province, to the picturesque Jinggangshan Mountains region, it takes about 4 and a half hours to travel to the south-west.

The area of ​​the Jinggangshan District is over 260 square kilometers. More than 80% of its territory is covered with forest. For many centuries, this area was an abandoned region, far from civilization. Only in 1981, there appeared the county of Jinggangshan, and after 3 years the county acquired the status of the city. In May 2000, as a result of the merger of the city of Jinggangshan and Ningang County, a new city of approximately 1300 sq. km., the population today is about 150 thousand people.

The landscape of "Jinggangshan" is quite diverse: mountains with peaks from 381 to 1779 meters above sea level, valleys, karst formations. Here is represented the largest in the subtropical zone primary ecosystem of broad-leaved forests, where there are 3415 species of higher plants, including mutant species. The main occupations of the local population are connected with agriculture and timber industry, rice, potatoes, vegetables, bamboo and tea are grown here for production, in particular, essential oil.

In the late 1920s, precisely in view of the complex mountainous terrain and dense forest, one of the leaders of the CCP Mao Zedong created here the first revolutionary base in the country. Starting out from the Jinggangshan Mountains region, the Chinese revolution won throughout the country. Therefore, the mountains of Jinggangshan are considered the cradle of revolution in China. Today for tourists these mountains are interesting not only as a picturesque natural area, but also for their sights connected with the history of the country. "Humanitarian landscapes" are an important compound of the mountains of Jinggangshan. In the area of ​​the mountains, more than 100 memorable places are associated with the revolution, 24 of them are under state protection.

Jinggangshan is a historical place known as the "cradle of the Chinese revolution". In 1927-1928, Mao Zedong and his companion Zhu De came to the area with their revolutionary soldiers. In the mountains of Jinggangshan, the first connections of the legendary Chinese Red Army were created and Soviet power was first proclaimed in the liberated areas. The poem "Jinggangshan" was written during Mao Zedong's stay in the mountains of Jinggangshan.

"There are military banners visible beneath the mountain.

From the top the thunder of drums is heard.

The enemy surrounded us with a ring.

We stubbornly repulsed the attack.

We strengthened our positions in advance,

And the will, like the stones of the Great Wall, is adamant.

The Huangyang rifle shaking the volleys of rumblings,

There came a report that the soldiers were leaving the enemy. "

The poem is written in the genre of "tsi" for the popular motif of the poetic phrase "Sijiangyue" ("Moon over Yangziji") from the poem of the great Chinese poet Tang Dynasty Li Bo (701-762 gg.).

The mountains have more than 500 peaks. There are more than 60 picturesque places attracting tourists. The most famous of these are the seven peaks Shihoufeng, Wangzhifeng, Gubayfeng, Yangmeifeng, Guandaofeng, Kuntsuefeng and Shisunfeng. Standing on the top of the Shihoufeng peak, which means "stone monkeys" in Chinese, looking east, we will see a small flat place where there is a pile of unusual stones. They resemble a group of monkeys. The tallest of them is a monkey mother. Next to her children. As if she were teaching them something.

In the Jinggangshan area, the climate is mild. There is no heat in summer, and there are no severe frosts in winter. It's nice to come here any time of the year. Of course, the best time is from April to October, when all the mountains are covered with azalea flowers. Azalea is recognized as a symbol of the Jinggangshan District.

The mountains of Jinggangshan in China are called red. This is because the red color in Chinese culture means victory and success. Starting out from the Jinggangshan Mountains region, the Chinese revolution won throughout the country. Currently, the mountains of Jinggangshan are also called green, because the ecological environment in this mountainous region is under very serious protection. (m.sinorusfocus.com .rus)

coat

Top left is the coat of arms of China.

The national emblem of the People's Republic of China contains in a red circle a representation of Tiananmen Gate, the entrance gate to the Forbidden City, where Mao declared the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC) in 1949. Above this representation are the five stars found on the national flag. The largest star represents the Communist Party of China, while the four smaller stars represent the four social classes as defined in Maoism. The outer border of the red circle shows sheaves of wheat and the inner sheaves of rice, which together represent agricultural workers. At the center of the lower portion of the border is a cog-wheel that represents industrial workers.

Each note has the words "People's Bank of China" as well as the denomination in the Uyghur, Tibetan and Mongolian (but no Zhuang since Zhuang alphabet was not invented yet) languages on the back, which has since appeared in each series of Renminbi notes.

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners.

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