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1 Pound 1961, Ghana

in Krause book Number: 2c
Years of issue: 01.07.1961
Signatures: Director: Mr. C. E. Osei , Governor Mr. Hubert Kessels
Serie: 1958 Issue
Specimen of: 01.07.1958
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 155 х 78
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Pound 1961




Inscription GHANA, on the background the star.


1 Pound 1961

Bank of Ghana Bank of Ghana Bank of Ghana

Centered is the building of the central bank on High Street, in the capital of Ghana, Accra.

The Bank of Ghana is the central bank of Ghana. It is located in Accra and was formed in 1957. A new and modern five-storey building had been put up on the High Street, adjacent to the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) to house both the Bank of Ghana and the Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB).

Lower right is the emblem of the Bank of Ghana.

Denominations in numerals are in top corners, in words lower, centered.


1 Pound 1961

Cocoa Cocoa

Beans of cocoa are in two heaps near the table, on background - rural landscape.

On right side is the mat, with pile of crushed cocoa on it. More to the right is cacao tree.

Cocoa harvest processing.

The harvested pods are opened, typically with a machete, to expose the beans. The pulp and cocoa seeds are removed and the rind is discarded. The pulp and seeds are then piled in heaps, placed in bins, or laid out on grates for several days. During this time, the seeds and pulp undergo "sweating", where the thick pulp liquefies as it ferments. The fermented pulp trickles away, leaving cocoa seeds behind to be collected. Sweating is important for the quality of the beans, which originally have a strong, bitter taste. If sweating is interrupted, the resulting cocoa may be ruined; if underdone, the cocoa seed maintains a flavor similar to raw potatoes and becomes susceptible to mildew. Some cocoa-producing countries distill alcoholic spirits using the liquefied pulp.

A typical pod contains 20 to 50 beans and about 400 dried beans are required to make one pound - or 880 per kilogram - of chocolate. Cocoa pods weigh an average of 400 g. (0.88 lb.) and each one yields 35 to 40 g. (1.2 to 1.4 oz.) dried beans (this yield is 40-44% of the total weight in the pod). One person can separate the beans from about 2000 pods per day.

Cocoa beans drying in the sun.

The wet beans are then transported to a facility so they can be fermented and dried. They are fermented for four to seven days and must be mixed every two days. They are dried for five to 14 days, depending on the climate conditions. The fermented beans are dried by spreading them out over a large surface and constantly raking them. In large plantations, this is done on huge trays under the sun or by using artificial heat. Small plantations may dry their harvest on little trays or on cowhides. Finally, the beans are trodden and shuffled about (often using bare human feet) and sometimes, during this process, red clay mixed with water is sprinkled over the beans to obtain a finer color, polish, and protection against molds during shipment to factories in the United States, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and other countries. Drying in the sun is preferable to drying by artificial means, as no extraneous flavors such as smoke or oil are introduced which might otherwise taint the flavor.

The beans should be dry for shipment (usually by sea). Traditionally exported in jute bags, over the last decade, beans are increasingly shipped in "mega-bulk" parcels of several thousand tonnes at a time on ships, or in smaller lots around 25 tonnes in 20-ft containers. Shipping in bulk significantly reduces handling costs; shipment in bags, however, either in a ship's hold or in containers, is still common.

Denomination in numeral is in lower right corner.