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2000 Lire 1976, Italy

in Krause book Number: 103а
Years of issue: 22.11.1976
Edition: 420 000 000
Signatures: Il Governatore: Paolo Baffi (in office from 19.08.1975 till 03.1979), Il Cassiere: Vittorio Stevani
Serie: 1976 - 1979 Issue
Specimen of: 10.09.1973
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 133 х 65
Printer: Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Rome (from 1978)

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

2000 Lire 1976

Description

Watermark:

Evangelista Torricelli watermark

Portrait of Evangelista Torricelli. The engraving on banknote is made after the work by Lorenzo Lippi, approx. 1647. today this portrait is hold by "Galleria Silvano Lodi & Due", in Milan.

Evangelista Torricelli (15 October 1608 – 25 October 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.

The perusal of Galileo's Two New Sciences (1638) inspired him with many developments of the mechanical principles there set forth, which he embodied in a treatise De motu (printed amongst his Opera geometrica, 1644). Its communication by Castelli to Galileo in 1641, with a proposal that Torricelli should reside with him, led to Torricelli traveling to Florence, where he met Galileo, and acted as his amanuensis during the three remaining months of his life.

Avers:

2000 Lire 1976

Galileo Galilei

On banknote is the portrait of Galileo Galilei (1636), by Justus Sustermans, today is in The Uffizi Gallery (Galleria degli Uffizi), in Florence.

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564 – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath. Galileo is a central figure in the transition from natural philosophy to modern science and in the transformation of the scientific Renaissance into a scientific revolution.

Galileo's championing of heliocentrism and Copernicanism was controversial during his lifetime, when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. He met with opposition from astronomers, who doubted heliocentrism because of the absence of an observed stellar parallax. The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615, which concluded that heliocentrism was "foolish and absurd in philosophy, and formally heretical since it explicitly contradicts in many places the sense of Holy Scripture." Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (1632), which appeared to attack Pope Urban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits, who had both supported Galileo up until this point. He was tried by the Inquisition, found "vehemently suspect of heresy", and forced to recant. He spent the rest of his life under house arrest. While under house arrest, he wrote one of his best-known works, Two New Sciences, in which he summarized work he had done some forty years earlier on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials.

Galileo studied speed and velocity, gravity and free fall, the principle of relativity, inertia, projectile motion and also worked in applied science and technology, describing the properties of pendulums and "hydrostatic balances", inventing the thermoscope and various military compasses, and using the telescope for scientific observations of celestial objects. His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus, the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter, the observation of Saturn's rings (though he could not see them well enough to discern their true nature) and the analysis of sunspots.

Known for his work as astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician, Galileo has been called the "father of observational astronomy", the "father of modern physics", the "father of the scientific method", and even the "father of science".

Justus Sustermans (28 September 1597 – 23 April 1681) also known as Giusto Sustermans, was a Flemish painter working in the Baroque style. He was born in Antwerp and died in Florence.

Duomo di Pisa

The cathedral, with the Leaning Tower of Pisa, view from south-west (Duomo di Santa Maria Assunta, Duomo di Pisa) in Piazza del Duomo (Cathedral Square) in Pisa, Italy.

Pisa Cathedral (Italian: Cattedrale Metropolitana Primaziale di Santa Maria Assunta; Duomo di Pisa) is a medieval Roman Catholic cathedral dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin Mary, in the Piazza dei Miracoli in Pisa, Italy. It is a notable example of Romanesque architecture, in particular the style known as Pisan Romanesque. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Pisa.

Construction on the cathedral began in 1063 (1064 according to the Pisan calendar of the time) by the architect Buscheto, and expenses were paid using the spoils received fighting against the Muslims in Sicily in 1063. It includes various stylistic elements: classical, Lombard-Emilian, Byzantine, and Islamic, drawing upon the international presence of Pisan merchants at that time. In the same year, St. Mark's Basilica began its reconstruction in Venice, evidence of a strong rivalry between the two maritime republics to see which could create the most beautiful and luxurious place of worship.

The church was erected outside Pisa's high middle age-era walls, to show that Pisa that was so powerful, it had no fear of being attacked. The chosen area had already been used in the Lombard era as a necropolis and at the beginning of the 11th century a church had been erected here, but never finished, that was to be named Santa Maria. Buscheto's grand new church, was initially called Santa Maria Maggiore until it was officially named Santa Maria Assunta.

In 1092 the cathedral was declared a primatial church, archbishop Dagobert having been given the title of Primate by Pope Urban II. The cathedral was consecrated in 1118 by Pope Gelasius II, who belonged to the Caetani family which was powerful both in Pisa and in Rome.

In the early 12th century the cathedral was enlarged under the direction of architect Rainaldo, who increased the length of the nave by adding three bays consistent with the original style of Buscheto, enlarged the transept, and planned a new facade which was completed by workers under the direction of the sculptors Guglielmo and Biduino. The exact date of the work is unclear: according to some, the work was done right after the death of Buscheto about the year 1100, though others say it was done closer to 1140. In any case, work was finished in 1180, as documented by the date written on the bronze knockers made by Bonanno Pisano found on the main door.

The structure's present appearance is the result of numerous restoration campaigns that were carried out in different eras. The first radical interventions occurred after the fire of 1595, following which the roof was replaced and sculptors from the workshop of Giambologna, among whom were Gasparo Mola and Pietro Tacca, created the three bronze doors of the facade. In the early 18th century began the redecoration of the inside walls of the cathedral with large paintings, the "quadroni", depicting stories of the blesseds and saints of Pisa. These works were made by the principal artists of the era, and a group of citizens arranged for the special financing of the project. Successive interventions occurred in the 19th century and included both internal and external modifications; among the latter was the removal of the original facade statues (presently in the cathedral museum) and their replacement with copies.

Other notable interventions include: the dismantling of Giovanni Pisano's pulpit between 1599 and 1601 that only in 1926 was reassembled and returned to the cathedral (with some original pieces missing, including the staircase); and the dismantling of the monument to Henry VII made by Lupo di Francesco that was found in front of the door of San Ranieri and later substituted by a simpler, symbolic version.

The original building plan was a Greek cross with a grand cupola at the crossing, but today the plan is a Latin cross with a central nave flanked by two side aisles on each side, with the apse and transepts having three naves. The inside offers a spatial effect similar to that of the great mosques thanks to the use of raised lancet arches, the alternating layers of black and white marble, and the elliptical dome, inspired by the Moors. The presence of two raised matronea in the nave, with their solid, monolithic columns of granite, is a clear sign of Byzantine influence. Buscheto welcomed Islamic and Armenian influence.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa (Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa, known worldwide for its unintended tilt. The tower is situated behind the Pisa Cathedral and is the third oldest structure in the city's Cathedral Square (Piazza del Duomo), after the cathedral and the Pisa Baptistry.

The tower's tilt began during construction in the 12th century, caused by an inadequate foundation on ground too soft on one side to properly support the structure's weight. The tilt increased in the decades before the structure was completed in the XIV century. It gradually increased until the structure was stabilized (and the tilt partially corrected) by efforts in the late 20th and early XXI centuries.

The height of the tower is 55.86 meters (183.27 feet) from the ground on the low side and 56.67 meters (185.93 feet) on the high side. The width of the walls at the base is 2.44 m. (8 ft. 0.06 in.). Its weight is estimated at 14,500 metric tons (16,000 short tons). The tower has 296 or 294 steps; the seventh floor has two fewer steps on the north-facing staircase. Prior to restoration work performed between 1990 and 2001, the tower leaned at an angle of 5.5 degrees, but the tower now leans at about 3.99 degrees. This means the top of the tower is displaced horizontally 3.9 meters (12 ft. 10 in.) from the center.

Lampada di Galileo Lampada di Galileo

On left side is Galileo's Pendulum Chandelier (Lampada di Galileo).

The chandelier hanging next to the dome of the cathedral is called the "lamp of Galileo" (Lampada di Galileo). According to Viviani, the first biographer of Galileo Galilei (the credibility of this certificate is currently being questioned), in 1583 the 19-year-old Galileo youth, while in the Pisa Cathedral, drew attention to the rocking of the chandelier. He noticed, counting the pulse of the pulse, that the period of the oscillations of the chandelier remains constant, in spite of the fact that their amplitude gradually decreases. In this way, the small oscillations of the pendulum were isochronous. Now in the dome of the cathedral there is another chandelier, and the lamp, which Galileo could see, was transferred to the chapel of Aulla, in Campo Santo.

Lower is the unofficial emblem of Bank of Italy.

Winged lion of St. Mark, symbol of Venice above three shields of Genoa, Pisa and Amalfi.

The Lion of Saint Mark, representing the evangelist St Mark, pictured in the form of a winged lion, is the symbol of the city of Venice and formerly of the Republic of Venice. It appears also in both merchant and military naval flags of the Italian Republic. The Lion of Saint Mark is also the symbol of the award of the Venice Film Festival, the "Golden Lion", and of the insurance company Assicurazioni Generali.

Denomination in numeral and in words is in lower left corner.

Revers:

2000 Lire 1976

arcetri arcetri arcetri

On banknote, centered and on right side is the view of the landscape of Arcetri and Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory.

Arcetri is a location in Florence, Italy, positioned among the hills south of the city center.

A number of historic buildings are situated there, including the house of the famous scientist Galileo Galilei (called Villa Il Gioiello), the Convent of San Matteo and the Torre del Gallo. The Arcetri Observatory is also located there. The church of San Leonardo in Arcetri is the main church of the area.

Galileo Galilei died there on January 8, 1642.

The Arcetri Observatory (Italian: Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) is an astrophysical observatory located in the hilly area of Arcetri on the outskirts of Florence, Italy. It is located close to Villa Il Gioiello, the residence of Galileo Galilei from 1631 to 1642. It was founded in 1807. The observatory belongs to the National Astrophysical Institute.

It was created on the basis of the Museum of Natural History and Physics built in the middle of the XVIII century, when in 1807 the museum established training courses, including on astronomy. In the same year, the first astronomical observations began. In 1864, Donati suggested moving the observatory to a more favorable place for observations (where there is no light and shaking the land from the horses). It was chosen a place on the hill of Arcetri, near the villa "Jewel". In 1869, work on the construction of a new observatory began. The official opening of the new observatory took place on October 27, 1872. Since 1921 the observatory is called "Astrophysical". In 1924, a solar tower with a height of 25 meters was built, equipped with a spectrograph and a spectroheliograph with a focal length of 4 meters.

galileo telescope

Lower right is telescope of Galileo.

The Florentine Istituto e Museo di Storia della Scienza houses two complete telescopes and a single objective lens (reconstructed from several fragments) that can be attributed to Galileo. These optics have been partially dismantled and made available for optical testing with state-of-the-art equipment. The lenses were investigated individually; the focal length and the radii of curvature were measured, and the optical layout of the instruments was worked out. The optical quality of the surfaces and the overall performance of the two complete telescopes have been evaluated interferometrically at a wavelength of 633 nm (with a He–Ne laser source). It was found in particular that the optics of Galileo came close to attaining diffraction-limited operation.

In what year did Galileo Galilei create the telescope? This happened in 1609. The scientist came up with his own technology for polishing lenses, significantly increased them in diameter and reached a 30-fold increase in any object. His telescope was relatively small (lens 53 mm, tube 1245 mm.), And its optical circuit was imperfect, but he allowed to observe amazing things.

Galileo was the first to see:

lunar craters and mountains

stars of the Milky Way

rings of Saturn

sunspots;

the moons of Jupiter

phases of Venus

Galileo Galilei invented the telescope, but never sold his invention for money. He built custom telescopes for secular people and presented them as a gift.

The discoveries of Galileo gave a powerful impetus to the development of astronomy. More and more scientists have been engaged in the creation and improvement of telescopes, and the results did not wait - amazing cosmic discoveries literally turned the picture of the world. And now humanity is not limited to its planet, but actively mastering the universe.

celestial map celestial map

A seventeenth century English celestial map depicting planets, constellations and signs of the Zodiac.

Denomination is in lower left corner.

Comments:

Drawing: Lazzaro Lazzarini (obverse & reverse).

Etching: Trento Cionini (obverse); Volumnio Cerichelli (reverse).

Paper: High quality, ivory-coloured with grayish tones, special pulp, watermark, luminous fibrils and a vertical security thread.