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10 Dollars 1988. First print, Australia

in Krause book Number: 49a
Years of issue: 08.07.1988
Edition: 3 000 000 (in booklets)
Signatures: Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia: Mr. R. A. Johnston (1982-1989), Secretary to the Treasury: Mr. Bernie W. Fraser.
Serie: Commemorative issue
Specimen of: 1988
Material: Polymer
Size (mm): 155 x 77.5
Printer: Note Printing Australia, Craigieburn, Melbourne

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Dollars 1988. First print




It is possible, that the prototype image of James Cook on the banknote was the work by artist Nathaniel Dance, finished in London on 25 May 1776.

Captain James Cook (7 November 1728 - 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy. Cook made detailed maps of Newfoundland prior to making three voyages to the Pacific Ocean, during which he achieved the first recorded European contact with the eastern coastline of Australia and the Hawaiian Islands, and the first recorded circumnavigation of New Zealand.

Cook joined the British merchant navy as a teenager and joined the Royal Navy in 1755. He saw action in the Seven Years' War, and subsequently surveyed and mapped much of the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River during the siege of Quebec. This helped bring Cook to the attention of the Admiralty and Royal Society. This notice came at a crucial moment in both Cook's career and the direction of British overseas exploration, and led to his commission in 1766 as commander of HM Bark Endeavour for the first of three Pacific voyages.

In three voyages Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and on a scale not previously achieved. As he progressed on his voyages of discovery he surveyed and named features, and recorded islands and coastlines on European maps for the first time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage and an ability to lead men in adverse conditions.

Cook was killed in Hawaii in a fight with Hawaiians during his third exploratory voyage in the Pacific in 1779. He left a legacy of scientific and geographical knowledge which was to influence his successors well into the 20th century and numerous memoria worldwide have been dedicated to him.


10 Dollars 1988. First print

In 1770, passing along the east coast of Australia, Captain James Cook noted on the map Botany Bay, which he recommended, by return to England, as a convenient port of call for ships and disembarkation. At this time, between the world powers was a fierce struggle for the new colonies. In 1776, the war started the American Revolution, the Americans refused to accept convicts sent to them from the UK, and British prisons began to overflow. By Parliament and the Minister of Colonies Sydney (which was friend of botanist Joseph Banks, who, along with Cook, explored Botany Bay), was decided to send settlers prisoners to Australia, in order to found a new British colony. 11 ships, six of which are filled with prisoners, departed from Portsmouth for a long voyage.

HMS Supply

HMS Supply is centered.

Supply, a small brig of 168 tons and already 28 years old, served as the naval tender and armed companion of the First Fleets flagship HMS Sirius. The Grantham packet was purchased into the service to be employed as a Tender, but on examination was found very rotten and totally unfit for the voyage, consequently the Supply Navy Transport was ordered to Deptford and fitted in lieu of the Grantham. Despite Phillip Gidley King’s lament that she was not much better because “her size is much too small for so long a voyage which added to her not being able to carry any quantity of provisions aboard her sailing very ill renders her a very improper vessel for this service”, she must have been a very good choice. Not only did she withstand the rigours of a voyage half around the world, but she was also the fleet’s swiftest vessel, conveying messages, rounding up stragglers, and doing all those daily chores expected of a tender.

Her commanding officer was Lieutenant Henry L Ball RN, and she was assigned a crew of 24.

After leaving Cape of Good Hope, the fleet was formed into two divisions, and with Sirius proving to be too slow, Captain Arthur Phillip and staff transferred to the brig, making her the flagship of the fleet. By far the oldest and smallest of the eleven ships, Supply must have sailed nearly twice the mileage of any of the other ships, serving the infant colony during it’s struggling years, maintaining the lifeline between Port Jackson and Norfolk Island.

Supply sailed for supplies to Batavia in April and returned 19 September 1790 and sailed to England via Cape Horn in 1791/2, thereby completing a circumnavigation of the globe.

The crew of Supply were paid off at Deptford on 15 May 1792 and the ship bought for £500 pounds, at an auction on the 17 July by Thomas Oldfield of Rotherhithe, a London coal merchant. It was renamed Thomas and Nancy and appears to have carried coal in the Thames area until the end of it’s useful life around 1806. (First Fleet Fellowship Victoria Inc)

Sydney settlement Sydney settlement

In January 1788 the first fleet came into Botany Bay. However, due to the lack of sufficient fresh water, and most importantly, Gulf's insecure from the sea winds, the ships had to move to 12 km. north, to the more convenient for the establishment of port, three channels Bay - Port Jackson, where was founded the first European settlement in Australia - Sydney. The town was named by colonists after Lord Sydney. He was, at this time, Minister of the colonies of Great Britain.

The background of HMS Supply is Port Jackson. The prototype based on engraving by Edward Dayes, first published in the "An historical journal of the transactions at Port Jackson and Norfolk Island" in 1793. Engraving is done from the sketch by captain John Hunter. Hunter was the senior officer of the first flotilla, later - the second governor of New South Wales.

There is also a medley of people serving to illustrate the diverse backgrounds of the nation. It comprises reading from left to right, an early colonial officer and his wife, convict woman, surveyor, village woman, gold digger, pioneer woman, bushranger, urban woman, urban child, shearer, Chinese worker, kanaka (island worker), camel driver, Boer War soldier, aviatrix, depression swaggy, World War II sailor, World War II female factory worker, migrant family, Asian female worker and construction worker. Thus these diverse backgrounds are depicted in a general chronological order and gender equality is observed.

colonial officer and his wife

Colonial officer and his wife.

Until Australia became a Federation in 1901 each of the six colonial governments was responsible for the defence of their own colony. From 1788 until 1870 this was done with British regular forces. In all, 24 British infantry regiments served in the Australian colonies. Each of the Australian colonies gained responsible government between 1855 and 1890, and while the Colonial Office in London retained control of some affairs, and the colonies were still firmly within the British Empire, the Governors of the Australian colonies were required to raise their own colonial militia. To do this, the colonial Governors had the authority from the British crown to raise military and naval forces. Initially these were militias in support of British regulars, but British military support for the colonies ended in 1870, and the colonies assumed their own defence. The separate colonies maintained control over their respective militia forces and navies until 1 March 1901, when the colonial forces were all amalgamated into the Commonwealth Forces following the creation of the Commonwealth of Australia. Colonial forces, including home raised units, saw action in many of the conflicts of the British Empire during the 19th century. Members from British regiments stationed in Australia saw action in India, Afghanistan, the Maori Wars of New Zealand, the Sudan conflict, and the Boer War in South Africa.

Despite an undeserved reputation of colonial inferiority, many of the locally raised units were highly organised, disciplined, professional, and well trained. For most of the time from settlement until Federation, military defences in Australia revolved around static defence by combined infantry and artillery, based on garrisoned coastal forts; however, in the 1890s improved railway communications between all of the eastern mainland colonies (Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia), led Major General Bevan Edwards, who had recently completed a survey of colonial military forces, to state his belief that the colonies could be defended by the rapid mobilisation of standard brigades. He called for a restructure of colonial defences, and defensive agreements to be made between the colonies. He also called for professional units to replace all of the volunteer forces.

Convicted woman

Convicted woman. By Juan Ravenet, "Convicts in New Holland", 1793, wash drawing made on the Spanish Scientific Expedition of Alessandro Malaspina, 1789-1794.

Mitchell Library, State Library of NSW.

In the UK, the XVIII century, dire need was the main reason for the increase of the crime rate. To stop this, the authorities issued strict laws providing severe penalties. Even for the most petty theft they could be death sentenced. In that terrible era similar fate befell some 160 thousand people. Women, as a rule, with their children, were sentenced to 7-14 years of hard labors. However, there is also a law, which in many cases allows to replace the death penalty with deportation to the English colonies in North America, and then, after the declaration of the independence of the United States, to Australia, where they formed lots of hard labor settlements. "Many deported to Australia as "criminals" were children, under the age of adolescence" - Bill Beattie writes in his book "Early Australia - With Shame Remembered". As he say in the book, in one case, the court sentenced seven year old boy to "life exile in Australia".

On a horse and with hat - researcher of mainland.

Two decades passed already after the establishment of the colony, but for the residents of New South Wales was still unknown: what represents the entire fifth continent. By this time, have been explored only a few areas around Sydney. The need to resettle the arriving exiles, lack of pasture and water, as well as the attempts of the French to settle in Australia, have enhanced the study by the British of Australian mainland. Many brave explorers journeyed to sail around the continent or rides on horseback, deep into the continent, to explore unknown lands and harbors. Among them were Charles Napier Sturt и Hamilton Hume, who studied the water system in Australia, that had great importance for further development, as the expedition found large reserves of fresh water and vast expanses of fertile land, it is extremely convenient for colonization.

Near the researcher staying a country girl.

Captain Phillip was about to create a self-sustaining colony in Australia, but for five years, he served as governor of New South Wales, the colony was totally dependent on supplies from England, as volunteers did not want to go to a "colony of infamy". Urgently the colony needed free settlers to create a more sustainable footing colonization on distant continent. In one of his letters the governor wrote: "Fifty farmers with their families, in one year, will create self-sustaining colony, much quicker than a thousand exiles."

Reports of researchers about new fertile lands, as well as certain government actions: travel costs, liabilities for two years to provide food, provision of exiles to work on the land and its distribution - resulted in the influx of impoverished farm families from England.

Land in Australia was owned by the British Crown. The prisoners, who have served their sentences, and free colonists from England received land as a gift from the British government. In August 1824 the British government introduced a system of sale of land in Australia. By 1828 in New South Wales has been sold 6 times more lands than 10 years before.

It started a truly "land rush". For 8 years, from England, came over 30 thousand colonists. The inhabitants of the colonies, regardless of their performance, were dealing with land speculations. Priests and doctors, soldiers and government officials - all have become farmers and speculators. During the period from 1832 to 1837 were sold more than a million acres of land for 360 thousand Pounds.

gold digger

Gold digger.

The Australian gold rushes were periods of significant migration of workers, both more locally and from overseas, to areas which had discoveries of gold deposits. A number of gold finds occurred in Australia prior to 1851, but only the gold found from 1851 onwards created gold rushes. This is mainly because, prior to 1851, the colonial government of New South Wales (Victoria did not become a separate colony until 1 July 1851, and Tasmania did not become a separate colony until 1856) had suppressed news of gold finds which it believed would reduce the workforce and destabilise the economy.

After the California gold rush began in 1848, causing many people to leave Australia for California to look for gold there, the New South Wales government rethought its position, and sought approval from the Colonial Office in England to allow the exploitation of the mineral resources and also offered rewards for the finding of payable gold.

The first gold rush in Australia began in May 1851 after prospector Edward Hargraves claimed to have discovered payable gold near Bathurst, at a site he called Ophir. Hargraves had been to the Californian goldfields and had learned new gold prospecting techniques such as panning and cradling. Hargraves was offered a reward by both the Colony of New South Wales and the Colony of Victoria. Before the end of the year, the gold rush had spread to many other parts of the state where gold had been found, not just to the west, but also to the south and north of Sydney.

The Australian gold rushes changed the convict colonies into more progressive cities with the influx of free emigrants. These hopefuls, termed diggers, brought new skills and professions, contributing to a burgeoning economy. The mateship that evolved between these diggers and their collective resistance to authority led to the emergence of a unique national identity. Although not all diggers found riches on the goldfields, many decided to stay and integrate into these communities.

In July 1851, Victoria's first gold rush began on the Clunes goldfield. In August, the gold rush had spread to include the goldfield at Buninyong (today a suburb of Ballarat) 45 km (28 m) away and, by early September 1851, to the nearby goldfield at Ballarat (then also known as Yuille's Diggings), followed in early September to the goldfield at Castlemaine (then known as Forest Creek and the Mount Alexander Goldfield) and the goldfield at Bendigo (then known as Bendigo Creek) in November 1851. Gold, just as in New South Wales, was also found in many other parts of the state. The Victorian Gold Discovery Committee wrote in 1854:

"The discovery of the Victorian Goldfields has converted a remote dependency into a country of world wide fame; it has attracted a population, extraordinary in number, with unprecedented rapidity; it has enhanced the value of property to an enormous extent; it has made this the richest country in the world; and, in less than three years, it has done for this colony the work of in age, and made its impulses felt in the most distant regions of the earth."

When the rush began at Ballarat, diggers discovered it was a prosperous goldfield. Lieutenant-Governor, Charles La Trobe visited the site and watched five men uncover 136 ounces of gold in one day. Mount Alexander was even more rich than Ballarat. With gold sitting just under the surface, the shallowness allowed diggers to easily unearth gold nuggets. In 7 months, 2.4 million pounds of gold was transported from Mount Alexander to nearby capital cities.

Near the gold digger is one of the first free pioneer women.

In the middle of the XIX century, the world was conceived feminist movement. More and more women came to Australia with their husbands or parents as free settlers in search of a chance for a better life in a new continent. Women felt the strength to do business, to be an artist, writer, even the gold diggers, wanted to participate in politics, and a wild, nomadic life gave them invaluable experience of independence.

More than 160,000 women were among the 600,000 who arrived in Victoria between 1851 and 1860. Those accompanying their husbands (or who were daughters travelling with their family) felt that Australia offered a chance for a better life:

"[I] did not wish to begin Life again in old England I wanted to make a fresh start in a new country my husband was a cabinet maker by trad and he used to suffer with the sick headach almost every week i had to work very hard my self to keep our familey and i found my strenth getting very low I concluded the best to try a new country. Sarah Davenport"

The status of women as subordinate to men, combined with what we now call Victorian morality means that women are not as well represented as men in the historical record. It was not as common for women to write memoirs and publish novels. Women were expected to behave better as the "fairer" sex and were constantly warned that there were men who would take advantage of them.

First-hand accounts from women who had taken a tour of the colony were in high demand in England. Ellen Clacy reflected most of the traditional ideas about women:

"To those of my own sex who desire to emigrate to Australia, I say do by all means, if you can go under suitable protection, possess good health, are not fastidious or 'fine-ladylike,' can milk cows, churn butter, cook a good damper, and mix a pudding […] But to those who cannot wait upon themselves, and whose fair fingers are unused to the exertion of doing anything useful, my advice is, for your own sakes remain at home. Ellen Clacy." (Women pioneers)


Hands in his pockets and in the cylinder - the representative of trade and financial class.

As time went on, the young dependent England colony developed, there were financial resources, it's time for the appearance of the banks.

Westpac is an oldest Australian bank and financial-services provider, headquartered in Sydney. It is one of Australia's big four banks and is also the second-largest bank in New Zealand.

Established in Sydney in 1817, the Bank of New South Wales (BNSW) was the first bank in Australia with Edward Smith Hall as its first cashier and secretary. During the 19th and early 20th century, the Bank opened branches first throughout Australia and Oceania, at Moreton Bay (Brisbane) in 1850, then in Victoria (1851), New Zealand (1861), South Australia (1877), Western Australia (1883), Fiji (1901), Papua New Guinea (1910) and Tasmania (1910).



Bushrangers, or bush rangers, originally referred to runaway convicts in the early years of the British settlement of Australia who had the survival skills necessary to use the Australian bush as a refuge to hide from the authorities. The term "bushranger" then evolved to refer to those who abandoned social rights and privileges to take up "robbery under arms" as a way of life, using the bush as their base. More than 2000 bushrangers are believed to have roamed the Australian countryside, beginning with the convict bolters and drawing to a close after Ned Kelly's last stand at Glenrowan.

urban woman and urban child

Urban woman and urban child.

The second half of the XIX century was characterized by the boom in Australia for urban development: to build universities, libraries, churches, office buildings; open banks, shops. Urban population been increased by arriving migrants. In the new XX century Australia became one of the most urbanized countries in the world with nearly 3 million population, developed mining industry and some good views to the future.

Sheep shearer

A sheep shearer is a worker who uses (hand-powered)-blade or machine shears to remove wool from domestic sheep during crutching or shearing.

During the early years of sheep breeding in Australia, shearing was carried out by shepherds, assigned servants, Ticket of Leave men, and free labourers using blade shears. As the sheep industry expanded, more shearers were required. Although the demand had increased, the conditions had not, and shearers had to contend with terrible working conditions, very long hours and low pay. In 1888, Australia became the first country in the world have a complete shearing, at Dunlop Station, finished using machines.

By 1915, most large Australian sheep station shearing sheds had machines that were powered by steam engines. Later, internal combustion engines powered machines until rural power supplies became available.

Chinese worker

Chinese worker.

Individuals such as Macarthur’s employees were part of the varied mix that was early Sydney Town. It was the increasing demand for labour after convict transportation ceased in the 1840s that led to much larger numbers of Chinese men arriving as indentured labourers, to work as shepherds and irrigation experts for private landowners and the Australian Agricultural Company. These workers seemingly all came from Fujian Province via the port then known as Amoy (now Xiamen) and some may have been brought involuntarily, as kidnapping or the "sale of pigs", as it was called, was common. Indentured labourers had been successful in other areas as an alternative to the slave trade and many ships and crews who had previous experience in the Atlantic slave trade came to transport indentured Chinese labourers and then later Chinese miners.

The Anglo-Chinese unequal treaties signed after the First (1839-1842) and Second Opium Wars (1856-1860) also had their effect on Chinese in Australia and facilitated the practice of indentured labour. The British were conscious of not jeopardising the stipulation that British subjects be allowed to reside in the newly opened treaty ports in China. They made this stipulation reciprocal. So to avoid antagonizing the ruling Qing dynasty the British government didn't allow the Australian colonies to completely exclude Chinese peoples.

Between 1848 and 1853, over 3,000 Chinese workers on contracts arrived via the Port of Sydney for employment in the NSW countryside. Resistance to this cheap labour occurred as soon as it arrived, and, like such protests later in the century, was heavily mixed with racism. Little is known of the habits of such men or their relations with other NSW residents except for those that appear in the records of the courts and mental asylums. Some stayed for the term of their contracts and then left for home, but there is evidence that others spent the rest of their lives in NSW. A Gulgong resident who died at age 105 in 1911 had been in NSW since 1841 while in 1871 the Keeper of Lunacy still required the Amoy dialect from his interpreters.

The large influx of Chinese to the colony caused great alarm among the politicians and the miners in Victoria. There was a lot of agitation amongst the miners at this time to begin with. The Red Ribbon Rebellion and the Eureka Stockade were in 1853 and 1854 respectively and the arrival of so many Chinese added to the tension. Chinese men were seen as yet another problem by both miners and government. Some in parliament argued that it was a security risk to have so many Chinese in the colony who were "...fanatically loyal to a despotic foreign emperor who could order them to rise up at any moment.." This was a great example of the ignorance of the times as the origins of these men in Southern China were hotbeds of anti-Qing revolt and sentiment and judging by the work translating tombstones in Australian cemeteries by Dr Kok Hu Jin, some of the Chinese who came to Australia were followers of Hong Xiuquan and the Heavenly Kingdom. The belief the Chinese men were a security risk may not have been very accurate yet it fuelled Victorian policy nonetheless.

The Royal Commission after the Eureka stockade also looked into the Chinese situation as another one of the miner's grievances. In 1855 the Victorian parliament passed the Immigration Restriction Act in an effort to restrict Chinese immigration. This forced Chinese arrivals in Victorian ports to pay a £10 head tax. It also mandated that there could only be a certain amount of Chinese travelers per tonnage of shipping. This put a dent in the ship masters coffers. Cost of passage was already high. This Act did appear to limit the numbers of Chinese arriving in Victorian ports. Official Victorian records show over 10,000 Chinese arriving in Victoria between 1853 and 1855 but only a few hundred in the next two years. However, numbers of Chinese on the Victorian goldfields continued to swell through overland routes. To avoid this Act, many ships travelled to South Australia. Between 1855 and 1857 thousands of Chinese landed in the Port of Adelaide and the port town of Robe, South Australia. In fact thanks to these migrants the town of Robe's population doubled overnight and it developed into the main port of call for Chinese arriving in Australia. It was then a long overland route to the Victorian goldfields.

It is unknown exactly how many Chinese made it to the goldfields in this way but estimates are usually in the thousands. Parties of Chinese men would often pay for local guides to take them to the goldfields. Sometimes, these guides would abandon the Chinese in the bush in order to return to Robe and get the money from another group and do the same thing. However, as more and more Chinese undertook this journey it became an easier more organized exercise and chances for these sort of hustles diminished. Along the way Chinese sojourners established wells and paths through the bush. Many Chinese marks and developments can still be found along this route today.

kanaka, camel driver, Boer War soldier


Kanaka was the term for a worker from various Pacific Islands employed in British colonies, such as British Columbia (Canada), Fiji and Queensland (Australia) in the 19th and early 20th centuries. They also worked in California and Chile (see Easter Island and Rapanui people as related subjects).

The word "kanaka" originally referred only to native Hawaiians, called kānaka ʻōiwi or kānaka maoli in the Hawaiʻian language. Until 2009, several rough translations of the word "Kanak" were admitted: "man", "animal man", "wild man" were the most used. In its resolution n°5195, the Academy of the Polynesian languages Pa'umotu specified a definition more faithful to the primal Polynesian language Mamaka Kaïo of origin, that of "free man".

According to the Macquarie Dictionary, the word "kanaka", which was once widely used in Australia, is now regarded in Australian English as an offensive term for a Pacific Islander. In part, this is because most "Kanakas" in Australia were people from Melanesia, rather than Polynesia, and included few Hawaiians. The descendants of 19th century immigrants to Australia from the Pacific Islands now generally refer to themselves as "South Sea Islanders", and this is also the term used in formal and official situations.

Most of the original labourers were recruited from the Solomon Islands and New Hebrides (Vanuatu), though others were taken from the Loyalty Islands, Tonga, Samoa, Kiribati and Tuvalu. Some were kidnapped ("blackbirded") or otherwise induced into long-term indentured service.

Reflecting European prejudices of the time, the men were generally referred to as "Kanakas" (boys). Islander descendants regard this term as a pejorative and insulting reminder of their ancestors' exploitation at the hands of white planters and their recruiters. In Australia, South Sea Islanders were often unfree labour, of the specific form known as indentured labour. It is often alleged that their employment in Australia was a form of slavery, due to the belief that many people were recruited by "blackbirding", as the enslavement of Pacific Islanders and indigenous Australians was known at the time.

Of the more than 60,000 Islanders recruited from 1863, the majority were to be "repatriated" (that is, deported) by the Australian Government between 1906-08 under the Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901 legislation prompted by the White Australia policy. Some were exempted on various grounds, including marriage to Australians. These and others who escaped deportation remained in Australia and their descendants today form Australia's largest Melano-Polynesian ethnic group. Many Australian South Sea Islanders are also of mixed ancestry, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people for whom they are often mistaken. In consequence, Australian South Sea Islanders have faced similar forms of discrimination meted out to Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders.

The Australian South Sea Islander Community was recognised as a unique minority group in 1994 after a report by the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission found they had become more disadvantaged than the indigenous Australians.

Camel driver.

The dromedary, also called the Arabian camel or the Indian camel (Camelus dromedarius), is a large, even-toed ungulate with one hump on its back.

In 1840, about six camels were shipped from Tenerife to Adelaide, but only one survived the trip, arriving on October 12, 1840. He was called Harry and was owned by the explorer John Ainsworth Horrocks. Although Harry had proved to be bad tempered, he was still used in the following year's expedition because of his load-carrying capability. However, a month into this trip, Horrocks had dismounted from the supine camel to shoot a prized bird. As he was loading his gun alongside him, Harry lurched against him, catching his pack against the gun lock, making it discharge and shooting Horrocks in the finger, the bullet then entering his cheek. He died some three weeks later from his infected injuries. The next major group of camels were imported in 1860 and between 1860 and 1907 some 10 to 12 thousand were imported. These were used mainly for riding and transportation. An estimated one million feral camels now live in Australia.

Boer War soldier.

The military history of Australia during the Boer War is complex, and includes a period of history in which the six formerly autonomous British Australian colonies federated to become the Commonwealth of Australia. At the outbreak of the Second Boer War, each of these separate colonies maintained their own, independent military forces, but by the cessation of hostilities, these six armies had come under a centralised command to form the Australian Army.

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, an escalating conflict between the British Empire and the Boer republics of southern Africa, led to the outbreak of the Second Boer War, which lasted from 11 October 1899, until 31 May 1902. In a show of support for the empire, the governments of the self-governing British colonies of Canada, New Zealand, Natal, Cape Colony and the six Australian colonies all offered men to participate in the conflict. The Australian contingents, numbering over 16,000 men, were the largest contribution from the Empire, and a further 7,000 Australian men served with other colonial or irregular units. At least 60 Australian women also served in the conflict as nurses.


Development of the Australian Commonwealth went toe to toe with the birth and development of global aviation in general and, on the continent, in particular. Long distances between settlements facilitated the introduction of air traffic in all spheres of activity. In the bill represents one of the first women conquering the airspace. Maybe it Lores Bonney (Lores Bonney) - the first Australian, made ​​a flight from Australia to England in 1931. For this flight, she was awarded the Order of the British Empire by King George V. To her achievements belongs flight from Australia to South Africa, and she went around the whole of Australia by air. (Monash University )


The swagman on the note is easily recognizable by backpack, beard and stowed bowler, as Banjo Paterson described it in his poem " Waltzing Matilda ".

A swagman (also called a swaggie, sundowner or tussocker) is an old Australian and New Zealand term, describing an underclass of transient temporary workers, who travelled by foot from farm to farm carrying the traditional swag (bedroll). Also characteristic of swagman attire was a hat strung with corks to ward off flies.

Particularly during the Depression of the 1890s and the Great Depression of the 1930s, unemployed men travelled the rural areas of Australia on foot, their few meagre possessions rolled up and carried in their swag. Typically, they would seek work in farms and towns they travelled through, and in many cases the farmers, if no permanent work was available, would provide food and shelter in return for some menial task.

World War II sailor

World War II sailor.

At the commencement of World War II, Australia supported Great Britain and was at war with Germany and Italy (later with Japan). The initial support provided by Australia to Great Britain was provided by the Royal Australian Navy. On receipt of the signal by telegram, “Total Germany repeat total Germany”, the Australian Navy knew that is was at war in support of Britain against Germany. The signal was received on Sunday, 3 September 1939 and 9:50 p.m. This started the mobilisation of the Australian Navy reservists and the conversion of civilian vessels to wartime use. Within a month of the signal being received, three armed merchant cruisers were in commission and Australia’s only destroyers had left Australian waters heading for the Mediterranean Sea.

In particular, five old World War I vintage destroyers were sent to the Mediterranean. The destroyers were HMAS Stuart (a Scott Class destroyer leader) and four V&W class destroyers, HMAS Vendetta, Vampire, Voyager and Waterhen. This flotilla had been described by the German propaganda minister, Goebbels, as the “scrap iron flotilla” because of the age of the vessels. It is true, they were old ships, built at the end of the First World War, but they proved to be tough in action and have a very distinguished battle history. Later, Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham commented: “Nobody will appreciate the ‘scrap’ better than the officers and men of the Australian destroyers.” [For non English as a first language speakers, 'scrap' is also slang, especially in the 1940's, for a fight or brawl].

The destroyers rendezvoused at Singapore and carried out the some training exercises. These were principally in the area of anti-submarine warfare as Australian waters had not seen submarines since Oxley and Otway had left the station many years before. On 13 November 1939, the five vessels sailed from Singapore heading to Colombo. It was whilst in Colombo that news reached the area of the sinking of the British freighter Africa Shell in the Indian Ocean. Some had postulated that the Deutschland was responsible, others that it was the Graf Spee. It did not really matter in either case as the flotilla members worked out the best strategy to handle either vessel if they were encounter. The fact that three cruisers only just managed to take the Graf Spee at the Battle of the River Plate in the end cannot have been lost on the crews of the flotilla.

The flotilla then sailed to the harbour of Diego Suarez. From there, they sailed through the Red Sea and in line astern, through the Suez Canal and into the Mediterranean Sea. The flotilla then sailed to and entered Malta just before Christmas 1939. The destroyers then worked at convoy escort over the following months, sailing with and providing protection for convoys to and from France (Marseilles in particular) as well convoys between Egypt and Malta and Malta and Gibraltar.

By mid 1940, the five destroyers of the Scrap Iron Flotilla were incorporated as part of the 10th Destroyer Flotilla under Captain Waller. Italy entered the war on 10 June 1940. At this time, four of the Australian destroyers were on patrol (Stuart, Vampire, Voyager and Waterhen - Vendetta being in dock in Malta at that time under refit). Of the threats that Italy posed in the Mediterranean at this time, probably the largest came from the Italian submarine fleet, which at this time was larger than that of Germany. In fact, the Italian fleet at this time consisted of a large number of surface vessels as well, many new.

Vendetta was therefore in dock when the first Italian air raids fell on Malta. When the air defence of Malta was left to three aging Gloster Gladiator bi-planes. The crew from Vendetta were detailed to assist the Army defenders during the raids. The three bi-planes were nicknamed “Faith”, “Hope” and “Charity”. There were more pilots than aircraft at this time. Vendetta remained in refit for some weeks. Her captain at this time was Lieutenant-Commander R. Rhoades, who was later awarded a Distinguished Service Cross.

Actually, Vendetta has quite a history in the case of being in dock and under air attack. Malta was not the last time that this happened and there is the famous tale of Vendetta being in dock in Singapore when the Japanese attacked. There is a separate article about that in Thomo’s Hole - search the Hole with the term "Vendetta" for details.

Stuart was the first ship of this Scrap Iron Flotilla to go to action stations genuinely. Previously all calls to action stations had been drills so in the morning of 11 June when a lockout spotted ships in the horizon “bearing green three-oh”, the call to action stations also included the expression “Dinkum, dinkum, dinkum” so that the sailors knew the call was real and not another drill. There were four ships apparently sighted and the Stuart heaved to for action. As the distance closed, there were some quick estimates made, the ship expecting to be facing a cruiser and three destroyers. As the distance closed even further it was discovered that the small enemy fleet the Stuart was preparing to engage was, in fact, the tug Respond and three barges being towed from Malta.

On 12 June, Stuart encountered and crossed a number of minefields. On 13 June 1940, Voyager, under Lieutenant-Commander Morrow was chasing the submarine laying mines. The submarine was detected that night and three passes with depth charges were made. The submarine was forced to the surface by this attack where the 4″ guns of the Voyager quickly engaged the submarine. The submarine submerged again and whilst at the time it was felt that the crew had sunk it, it was not until several days later that Voyager had her first confirmed kill. At this point, Italy had been in the war for three days and it looked like Italy had lost it’s first submarine destroyed of the Second World War.

Stuart however had noticed the gunfire and the depth charge explosions and was heading to assist. Again she had to thread her way through a minefield - one laid by that submarine - for two hours. At 3:14 a.m. on 14 June 1940, Voyager detected another submarine. Unfortunately, Voyager was out of depth charges so flashed the position of the submarine to Stuart. Stuart made a series of depth-charge attacks. This did not force the submarine to the surface but the discovery of a two and a half mile long oil patch in the position of the attack the following morning by Vampire indicated that the submarine had shattered under the surface and sunk.

This then was the six months of the Scrap Iron Flotilla’s service in the Mediterranean. The ships of the flotilla engaged at various times in anti-submarine work, shore bombardment, fleet actions (Stuart and Vendetta being present at the Battle of Matapan) and convoy protection. The Scrap Iron Flotilla were in the Mediterranean for two years (until September 1941). All in all, the losses suffered by the Scrap Iron Flotilla were the loss of the Waterhen to aerial bombardment (although no crew were lost). In total, there were less than 20 casualties overall from all five vessels. On the other side the Scrap Iron Flotilla had sunk nearly a score of Italian submarines (there may have been more), two cruisers torpedoed, the shelling of a destroyer and the capture and sinking of other vessels. as well as shore bombardment along the North African coast from Sollum to Tripoli. (Thomo's Hole)

World War II female factory worker

World War II female factory worker.

At first the government politely discouraged those women who wanted to perform some kind of military service. It soon became clear that the war was going to demand much more than the government had expected. Women could do the technical jobs normally performed by men, freeing those men for combat.

Each branch of the armed services formed their own auxiliary corps for women. These were not combat forces, as the government was determined that no female auxiliary forces would serve outside Australia. As the situation became more desperate, some women were called on to serve overseas, particularly in New Guinea. They worked on observation posts and as anti-aircraft gunners, drivers, mechanics, and radio operators.

Before the war, it was generally expected that a working man was the main provider for his family. So, any woman who took a job was somehow taking it from a man, who needed it to support his family. With so many men away at war, this argument could no longer stand. Women were recruited to many jobs which would previously have been considered too physically hard for them: welding, machine repair, operating tractors and other large engines. They made uniforms, weapons and ammunition. They helped build trucks, tanks and airplanes.

Women also stepped into agricultural jobs. A volunteer force called the Australian Women’s Land Army sent women out from the cities to work on farms: ploughing, harvesting, milking cows. They were essential in keeping up the food supply of Australia. (State Library of Victoria)

migrant family

Migrant family.

After World War II ended in May 1945 Europe was in chaos. Germany was crushed and the map of Europe was being carved up by the United States and the Soviet Union. Western Europe was supported by the United States while Eastern Europe was invaded by the Soviet Union. Migrants began streaming out of Eastern Europe to places like Australia and the United States to get away from the oppression in their homelands by the Soviet Union. The Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union meant that nuclear war was a real threat and some people saw Australia as a safe place to live.

Between 1945 and 1965 more than two million migrants came to Australia. Most were assisted: the Commonwealth Government paid most of their fare to get to Australia. In return they had to stay in Australia for at least two years and work in whatever jobs the Government gave them.

The first wave of post war migration began with Displaced Persons. These people fled their countries which had been utterly destroyed by war or overran by the Soviet Union. Between 1947 and 1953 the Australian Government assisted over 170,000 Displaced Persons to migrate to Australia.

The second wave of post-war immigration arrived in the 1950s and 1960s, and consisted of those seeking employment and better living conditions. These programs were an enormous success. A number of migrants spent their first months in Australia living in migrant hostels while they tried to find themselves a home. Some found work on the Snowy Mountains Hydro Electric Scheme, others in factories and others did the hard and dirty jobs in heavy industry. Skilled migrants found it hard to find work to suit their training and qualifications and had to accept what work was available. All migrants, especially those who did not speak English well, had to put up with prejudice. (Migration Heritage center)

Asian female worker

Asian female worker.

Since World War II many refugees have come to Australia. The first refugees came from countries in Eastern Europe which had been taken over by the Soviet Union after World War II. Later refugees came from countries such as Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Greece and Chile, fleeing civil wars and persecution. In the 1970s and 1980s refugees came from Asian countries like Vietnam and Kampuchea to escape revolution and persecution.

Between 1945 and 1970 the Australian Government’s Immigration Policy sought migrants from England and Europe. In the 1970s, this policy changed and people from other countries were encouraged to come to Australia. Migrants have come from Asia, the Middle East and South America as well as Europe. Unlike migrants who choose to leave their own country to move to another country, refugees flee their homeland because they are afraid to stay there. Refugees were allowed to come to Australia because Australia had signed a United Nations agreement to accept refugees. Australia wanted to help people in Asia and other parts of the world who had been made homeless by war, revolutions or persecution by governments.

After the Vietnam War in the late 1970s when communists gained controlled of Vietnam, thousands of people who were afraid of the Government left in small boats. In 1978, the first boats reached Australia at Darwin. Suddenly Australians were made aware of the problems of refugees. By the end of 1979, 2011 Vietnamese ‘boat people’ as they had been termed by the media had survived the dangerous journey from Vietnam. Many more died trying. In 1979 Australian immigration officers selected most refugees from refugee camps in Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia. Those with relatives in Australia, useful skills and who could speak English were selected, as well as a small number of students and diplomats.

In 1982, the Vietnamese Government agreed to let refugees leave Vietnam without persecution, freeing people to come to Australia to be with their families who had fled earlier. By 1985, 70,000 refugees from Southeast Asia, mostly Vietnam, had settled in Australia. The arrival of Vietnamese refugees forced changes in migration policy around the world, especially in Australia, which was pressured by ASEAN to accept more refugees after 1978. Very few refugees were accepted by Australia at first. The arrival of Vietnamese refugees signalled the end of the infamous White Australia Policy in 1978, and was accompanied by much argument and debate.

By the late 1980s there were fewer arrivals, as it became more difficult to leave Vietnam and several countries reduced the numbers of people allowed to stay. As camps closed from 1996 onwards, forced repatriations to Vietnam have occurred. In Australia, most people arriving from Vietnam have been accepted through family reunion programs. Others have migrated from the north - again a difficult decision - often for education and work prospects. (Migration Heritage center)

construction worker

Construction worker.

The Snowy Mountains scheme or Snowy Scheme is a hydroelectricity and irrigation complex in south-east Australia. The Scheme consists of sixteen major dams; seven power stations; a pumping station; and 225 kilometres (140 mi) of tunnels, pipelines and aqueducts that were constructed between 1949 and 1974. The Scheme was completed under the supervision of Chief Engineer, Sir William Hudson and is the largest engineering project undertaken in Australia.

The water of the Snowy River and some of its tributaries, much of which formerly flowed southeast onto the river flats of East Gippsland, and into the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean, is captured at high elevations and diverted inland to the Murray River and the Murrumbidgee River, through two tunnel systems driven through the Snowy Mountains.

The water falls 800 meters (2,600 ft) and travels through large hydro-electric power stations which generate peak-load power for the Australian Capital Territory, New South Wales and Victoria.

The Snowy Mountains Scheme was notable for its immigrant, mostly European, work force. The scheme's construction is seen by many "as a defining point in Australia's history, and an important symbol of Australia's identity as an independent, multicultural and resourceful country".

Denominations in numerals are in top right and lower left corners, in words centered, vertically.


10 Dollars 1988. First print

Symbolises the original discovery and settlement of Australia some 40,000 - 60,000 years earlier.

Man's Dreaming

Patterns, on background, are taken from the work by Australian aboriginal painter Paddy Carroll Tjungurrayi - "Man's Dreaming", Acrylic on canvas, 155x132 сm.

The main picture is a young native youth with ceremonial paint (for the Morning Star ceremony).

Yolngu people call the planet Venus "Banumbirr", and tell how she came across the sea from the east in the Dreaming, naming and creating animals and lands as she crossed the shoreline, and continued travelling westwards across the country, leaving as her legacy one of the "Songlines" which are important in Aboriginal cultures.

In an important and beautiful "Morning Star Ceremony", earthly Yolngu people communicate with their ancestors living on Baralku, the island of the dead, with the help of Banumbirr together with a "Morning Star Pole". The ceremony starts at dusk and continues through the night, reaching a climax when Banumbirr rises a few hours before dawn. She is said to trail a faint rope behind her along which messages are sent, and which prevents her from ever moving away from the Sun. This faint line in the sky is probably zodiacal light, which is caused by extraterrestrial dust in the plane of the solar system. Although difficult to see for most of us in our polluted skies, it is easily visible in the clear dark skies and low latitude of Arnhem Land.

The Morning Star ceremony tells us two important things.

One is that Yolngu people had already observed that Venus never strays far from the Sun, which they explain in terms of the rope binding the two bodies together - a bond that Isaac Newton called "gravity".

The other is that the Morning-Star ceremony has to be planned well in advance, since Venus rises a few hours before dawn only at certain times of the year, which vary from year to year. So the Yolngu people also track the complex motion of Venus well enough to predict when to hold the Morning Star Ceremony. (Morning Star ceremony)

Morning Star Pole

Behind the young aboriginal is the Morning Star Pole. The one depicted is a reproduction of a pole, created by the Aboriginal artist, Yumbulul. Such poles are used by the Aboriginal people of North - East Arnhem Land (Northern Territory), on some ceremonial occasions.

At the left shoulder of the youth is a rock painting of a woman, found in Deaf Adder Gorge (also in Arnhem Land). This, human like figure, is from Dream time.

Dream time - In the animist framework of Australian Aboriginal mythology, Dreamtime is a sacred era in which ancestral totemic spirit beings created the world.

Hand prints or stencils common to many ancient rock drawings found across the country form a background pattern on the left side of the note.

Denomination in numeral is in top left corner.


10 dollars 1988 10 dollars 1988 10 dollars 1988

This is the presentation folder with the banknote (the first print), in my collection.

Interestingly, the 3 million notes that had actually been date stamped “26 JANUARY 1988” on the front and had AA serials were in fact not released in their light blue presentation folders until July 8th, 1988, well after the initial production problems had been resolved.

Harry Williamson, assisted by NPB staff, designed this note.

A number of Aboriginal artists, including Paddy Carroll Tjungurrayi, George Milpurrurru and Banduk Marika were commissioned by RBA to assist in the design of the note. Some of their works are included in the background patterns using colours associated with the "Outback".

Banknote issued in 1988 and is dedicated to the 200th anniversary of the first European settlement in Australia.

History was made in the world of banknotes on 27th January, 1988 when the first polymer note, a $10, was released into general circulation. This note is the brainchild of Note Printing Australia (NPA), Australia's leading security printer and the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), the Federal Government research institution.

It is the product of almost twenty years of research to "build a better banknote". Shortly after the decimalisation of Australia's currency in February, 1966, the Reserve Bank of Australia (RBA) became alarmed with the extent of the counterfeiting of its workhorse note, the $10. It approached the CSIRO for assistance and it together with NPA {which at the time was known as the Note Printing Branch (NPB) - of the RBA} embarked on what proved to be a ground breaking project.

Development of the polymer note was not without its difficulties. Suffice to say many obstacles were overcome such that today over 20 countries have embraced this technology.

Much secrecy surrounded the development of the note and this first issue has the RBA code name "C $10", for commemorative $10.

January 26 is Australia's national day (a public holiday) and in 1988 200 years of European settlement were celebrated. It is understood that the note was actually available on that day from RBA which especially opened sales offices.

(Of course, Australia's indigenous people do not place the same importance on this date having arrived some 40,000 years earlier. In 1988 one of their number an actor, Burnum Burnum, travelled to Britain and staked a claim on British territory at Folkestone on behalf of the Australian Aboriginal people. Presumbly this was tongue in cheek.)

However, befitting the occasion, this commemorative note depicts scenes of European settlement and the general development of a multi - cultural nation on one side and on the other side Australia's aboriginal heritage.

A sophisticated Optically Variable Device (OVD) as a key security feature developed by NPB is introduced with this note in the RBA's campaign against the counterfeiters. The OVD is a NPA development and this is its first appearance. Inquisitive and irreverent members of the public attempted to scratch off this OVD with a coin, much the same way as one "opens" a scratch lottery ticket. Australia's Federal Government was also very keen that this note be issued to coincide with the commencement of the bicentennial celebrations and it is understood that production was fast tracked to meet this goal. This may have contributed to some production faults.

Alarmed with the extent of public interference with the OVD, the RBA suspended issue, effectively recalling the note through the banking system. When notes were deposited with commercial banks, they were not re-issued and presumably returned to the RBA and destroyed.

On 24th October, 1988 the note was re- released after a completely new printing. This release was without the previous problems; seemingly the public's curiosity had been satisfied. A significant difference between the two is that the first issue has a thin smooth varnish over the OVD whereas the second issue has a thick mottled varnish. As a commemorative, it was not intended to replace the current paper notes but was to circulate in tandem with them for about one year and to act as a test for a future generation of polymer notes.

All circulation notes, including the recalled issue have the prefix AB followed by two numbers. A six digit number then follows. Those notes which were withdrawn have 93, 94 or 96 as the first two digits of the six digit number. These numbers are excluded from the second issue.

Mr Robert Johnston, Governor of RBA, was reported in the Sydney Morning Herald of 29th January, 1988 as saying "that 54 million notes are expected to enter circulation". Actual numbers fell well short of this figure no doubt because of the reprinting and the later re-issue date.

Packaged notes in a folder and envelope have an AA prefix. These notes carry the commemorative date, "26 JANUARY 1988". Notes are also available in a base uncut sheet of 24 and smaller sheets of 12 (half sheet) and strips and blocks of 4. Only the packaged and uncut notes are dated. Whilst the AB note is not dated there are sufficient design elements (including micro-printing) to enable it to qualify as a commemorative. A perspex encased note was also released in limited quantities.

The folder note became available on 8th July, 1988 and the uncut sheets in January, 1989.

Understandably, the authorities were keen for this technology to be successful having invested some 20 years and $20million into its development. Whilst the note was intended as a one year issue, in 1989 intensive field testing was undertaken in the Newcastle area (some 170 km north of Sydney an area traditionally used for market research because of its location and demographics). Market research was also done to measure public and professional (bank tellers, check-out operators and other high volume cash handlers) reaction to the note. These findings assisted the RBA / NPA in determining the characteristics of future polymer notes for Australia and for other countries. (Trevor Wilkin)