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100 Bolivianos 2008, Bolivia

in Krause book Number: 236
Years of issue: 2008
Edition:
Signatures: Presidente a.i. B.C.B: Gabriel Loza Telleria, Gerente General a.i. B.C.B: Eduardo Pardo
Serie: 1986 Issue
Specimen of: 28.11.1986
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 140 x 69
Printer: Canadian Bank Note Company Limited, Ottawa

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Bolivianos 2008

Description

Watermark:

map watermark

Denomination 100, portrait of Rene Moreno, Bolivian map with marked space for capital of the country - La-Paz.

Avers:

100 Bolivianos 2008

Gabriel René Moreno

The engraving on banknote is made after this photo of Gabriel Moreno, 1908.

Gabriel René Moreno del Rivero (Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia, 1836 - Valparaiso, Chile, 1908) was a historian, bibliographer, literary critic and educator, considered by Enrique Finot as the "prince of Bolivian writers."

Son of Gabriel José Moreno and Sinforosa del Rivero, he belonged to an aristocratic Santa Cruz family. His father, a lawyer, held important public positions, including that of Minister of the Supreme Court of Justice.

Gabriel René Moreno completed his primary and secondary studies in Santa Cruz, and completed them at the Junín de Sucre National College.

From 1856 he lived in Chile, where he began his university studies in philosophy and law. He would become a lawyer ten years later, although he did not practice that profession.

Moreno would remain in that country for the rest of his days, with some interruptions: he visited his native country in 1871 and in 1874-1875; during the War of the Pacific, he resided in Argentina (1879 and 1882-1883), Bolivia (1879-1881) and Europe (1881-1882).

It belonged to the generation immediately following that of Andrés Bello, whom he met. In addition, Moreno shared intellectual tasks or correspondence and friendship with a number of important contemporaries: Chileans Vicuña Mackenna and Diego Barros Arana; the Colombians Miguel Antonio Caro and Rufino José Cuervo de Colombia; the Peruvians Mariano Felipe Paz-Soldán and Ricardo Palma; the Argentines Bartolomé Miter and Antonio Zinny and the Uruguayan Andrés Lamas.

His classist and racist style and attitude were not yet a reason for deep analysis despite the harshness with which he always referred to the "indigenous race", stating, for example: "The Indian and the mestizo racially incidentally are useless in the progressive evolution of modern societies will sooner or later, in the struggle for existence, disappear under the sovereign plant of pure or purified targets."

Moreno obtained a teaching position at the prestigious National Institute of Santiago (1864), the oldest school in Chile. He also worked as an interim curator in the Library of the same institution. In 1868 he was appointed director of that library, and it is there that he would develop a large part of his documentary and historiographical work.

During that time, Moreno began to produce bibliographic catalogs of great quality and depth. In many cases, the comments of the bibliographic records reach the level of essays, biographies and historical monographs. Despite the distance, Moreno spent most of his investigative effort on subjects related to Bolivian history and culture. Thus, his first important publication was a study of contemporary Bolivian poets (1864).

In 1871, he traveled to his homeland, where he was able to reconnect with his family and, at the same time, initiate new research projects. Three years later he returned to Sucre, where he collected, bought and copied a large number of historical documents from the national archives. It helped to gather and transfer to the National Library of Bolivia documentation that was dispersed in several repositories and to the creation of the National Archive of Bolivia. The set of documents of the former Real Audiencia de Charcas and the University to which he had access were fundamental for the catalog of his so-called Bolivian Library. More than 3000 cataloged and commented pieces are part of this work, which was later integrated into the Bolivian National Archive and Library. This task of compiling, analyzing and commenting on every printed document helped the construction of a serious and scientific Bolivian history, which at that time was incipient, if not nonexistent.5 6 Another important work of this collection is the Archive Catalog of Mojos y Chiquitos (1888).

René Moreno also catalogs in detail Peruvian archives and books in his Peruvian Library, with 1816 pieces arranged alphabetically.

Some of his historiographical studies were also reflected in individual publications, such as Matanzas de Yáñez (1886) and Últimas días coliales in Alto Perú (1896-1901), one of his most outstanding works.

During his long stay in Chile, René Moreno eventually carried out some diplomatic tasks in the service of Bolivia. In 1863, he was a collaborator of Bolivian plenipotentiary minister Tomás Frías, who sought a solution to the binational conflict over the exploitation of the port of Mejillones. Later, between 1871 and 1873 he was secretary of the Bolivian legation in Chile.

At the outbreak of the Pacific War between Bolivia and Chile, the situation urged Moreno to return to his homeland. However, before his departure, the Chilean government proposed him to serve as an intermediary to find a solution to the conflict. Moreno agreed to take a letter with a Chilean proposal to President Hilarión Daza, and the proposal, considered unacceptable to Bolivia, was rejected outright by Daza, and then Moreno was accused of treason for having collaborated in it. In the end, the Bolivian justice found him free of guilt, but he suffered harsh criticism for his failed mediation.

After the war he returned to Chile, where he resumed his research and bibliography, continuing with the development of the Bolivian Library. He wrote other essays, literary critics, such as Elementos de literatura perceptiva (1891) and portrayals of characters such as Nicomedes Antelo (1885) and José R. Muñoz Cabrera (1901).

Solitary man, died in Valparaiso in 1908. His remains were moved to Santa Cruz de la Sierra in 1920.

His work and bibliographical collections were fundamental for the creation and establishment of the National Archive of Bolivia.

Influenced by the currents of positivism and social regeneration, Moreno has been criticized for his ethnic prejudices, which can be seen in some of his writings, and the affinity with Nicomedes Antelo and social Darwinism.

coat

The coat of arms of Bolivia is at the bottom.

The coat of arms of Bolivia has a central cartouche surrounded by Bolivian flags, muskets, laurel branches, and has an Andean condor on top.

The central cartouche has a border with ten stars in the bottom, which symbolize the nine Departamentos and the former province Litoral that was taken over by Chile in 1879, and the name of Bolivia in the top section. Within the border the silver mountain Potosí - recognized by a mine entrance — is depicted, with Inti in form of a sun rising above it, and with an alpaca standing next to a palm tree and some wheat. The alpaca stands on a plain that contrasts with the mountain. The mountain and its contrast with the plains are indicative of the geography of Bolivia. The llama is the national animal, related to the alpaca and the items next to it are symbolic of the resources of the nation.

Around the shield there are three Bolivian flags on each side. Behind these are two pairs of crossed rifles that symbolize the struggle for independence. Next to the muskets there are an axe and a red Phrygian hood, which is the symbol of liberty and freedom. The laurel branches are symbolic of peace, and the condor perched upon the shield is symbolic of a willingness to defend the nation and its liberty.

In some depictions of these coat of arms, the two pairs of muskets are replaced by two cannons. Other depictions also have more realistic symbols in the shield.

Denominations in numerals are in three corners. In words centered.

Revers:

100 Bolivianos 2008

Gabriel René Moreno

The Royal and Pontificial Major University of Saint Francis Xavier of Chuquisaca (Spanish: Universidad Mayor, Real y Pontificia de San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca or USFX) is a public university in Sucre, Bolivia. It is one of the oldest universities of the new world, ranking as the second oldest university in the Americas behind Peru's National University of San Marcos. On many historical texts it is also referred as the University of Charcas (Spanish: Universidad de Charcas).

Founded in 1624 by order of the Spanish King Philip IV, and with the support of Pope Innocent XII, the university was intended to provide an education in Law and Theology to the families and descendants of the wealthy gentry of South America.

At the turn of the XIX century, Chuquisaca and its university came to constitute a center of revolutionary zeal in Bolivia. The university intellectually sustained the well-cultivated Francophile elite whose ideals led to the Bolivian War of Independence and ultimately to the independence of all the Spanish colonies. Once Republic was proclaimed by Simón Bolívar, the university became the main university of the new country.

The building of the university deserves special attention. It is made in the style of classical baroque. Its facade is richly decorated with decorative stucco, at the entrance there are beautiful Doric columns. No less admirable are the arched stained-glass windows and massive wooden doors.

Until the first decades of the XX century, its law faculty remained famous all across South America.

Denominations in numerals are repeated 3 times, in words - at the bottom.

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