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1 Dollar 1989, Guyana

in Krause book Number: 21f
Years of issue: 1989
Edition: 34 769 234
Signatures: Governor: Patrick E Matthews, Minister of Finance: Carl Greenidge
Serie: No Serie
Specimen of: 1966
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 156 х 65
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Dollar 1989

Description

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1 Dollar 1989

logo

Centered, on background is the logo of the Bank of Guyana:

The top left division depicts the Rice Industry.

The top right division depicts the Timber Industry.

The bottom left division depicts the Ship Building Industry.

The bottom right division depicts the Minerals of Guyana. (www.bankofguyana.org.gy)

Kaieteur Falls

On right side is Kaieteur falls.

Kaieteur Falls is a waterfall on the Potaro River in central Essequibo Territory, Guyana. It is located in Kaieteur National Park. It is 226 meters (741 ft.) high when measured from its plunge over a sandstone and conglomerate cliff to the first break. It then flows over a series of steep cascades that, when included in the measurements, bring the total height to 251 meters (822 ft.). While many falls have greater height, few have the combination of height and water volume, and the falls are among the most powerful waterfalls in the world with an average flow rate of 663 cubic meters per second (23,400 cubic feet per second).

Kaieteur Falls is about four times higher than Niagara Falls, located on the border between Canada and the United States and about two times the height of the Victoria Falls located on the border of Zambia and Zimbabwe in Africa. It is a single drop waterfall which is the 123rd tallest (single and multi-drop waterfall) in the world, according to the World Waterfall Database. The same web site lists it as 19th largest waterfall in terms of volume, and in their estimation, Kaieteur is the 26th most scenic waterfall in the world.

Denominations in numerals are in lower right and top left corners, in words - centered.

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1 Dollar 1989

rice harvesting

On right side - Rice harvesting by special combines in Guyana.

Rice production in Guyana reached a high of over 180,000 tons in 1984 but declined to a low of 130,000 tons in 1988. The fluctuating production levels were the result of disease and inconsistent weather. Droughts and heavy rains had an adverse effect on rice crops because the irrigation and drainage systems in rice-growing areas were poorly maintained. The area under rice cultivation fell from 100,000 hectares in 1964 to 36,000 hectares in 1988, according to the Guyana Rice Producers' Association. The Guyana Rice Development Board is also an important institution in the development of rice production in Guyana.

Most rice farms in Guyana were privately owned; the government operated the irrigation systems and rice-processing mills, with the notable exception of Kayman Sankar, whose plantations at Hampton Court (on Essequibo's Atlantic coast) included milling, shelling, grading, drying, and storage facilities. This division of the industry resulted in several difficulties. According to the United States Embassy, the government neglected irrigation and drainage canals because private farmers refused to pay taxes for their maintenance. Meanwhile, the government-run mills were reportedly slow in paying farmers for their crops. In addition, the government-controlled distribution system for tractors, fuel, spare parts, and fertilizer was highly inefficient, according to some reports. In 1990 the government began privatizing the rice industry by putting several rice mills up for sale.

The bulk of Guyana's rice production was consumed domestically. Even so, exports took on increasing importance during the 1980s as a source of foreign exchange; there were even reports of rice being smuggled out of the country. Guyana shared a quota for rice exports to the EEC with neighboring Suriname but was unable to fill the quota during the late 1980s. In 1988 the government set a 1991 production goal of 240,000 tons and an export goal of 100,000 tons. In the first quarter of 1990, however, exports fell to a record low of 16,000 tons, for an annual rate of less than 70,000 tons. Half of these exports came directly from private farmers, the other half from the Guyana Rice Milling and Marketing.

The annual rice production target for 2013 is 412,000 tonnes. Venezuela is the largest importer of Guyana’s rice. Rice is also exported to Caribbean countries such as Trinidad and Tobago, and to Europe. Reports in October 2013 indicate that this will be exceeded despite a very wet August and a high infestation of paddy bugs which had caused some damage to the first crop. Dr. Leslie Ramsammy, the Minister of Agriculture has indicated that the local rice industry will surpass the 500,000-tonne mark and Mr. Dharamkumar Seeraj. the General Secretary of the RPA, is reported as saying that the weather conditions were ideal for harvesting and as such, the rice harvest was proceeding smoothly in all rice producing areas of Guyana.

Black Bush polder

On left side is the drainage system at Black Bush polder.

A polder is a low-lying tract of land enclosed by dikes that form an artificial hydrological entity, meaning it has no connection with outside water other than through manually operated devices. There are three types of polder:

Land reclaimed from a body of water, such as a lake or the sea bed

Flood plains separated from the sea or river by a dike

Marshes separated from the surrounding water by a dike and subsequently drained; these are also known as koogs especially in Germany

The ground level in drained marshes subsides over time. All polders will eventually be below the surrounding water level some or all of the time. Water enters the low-lying polder through infiltration and water pressure of ground water, or rainfall, or transport of water by rivers and canals. This usually means that the polder has an excess of water, which is pumped out or drained by opening sluices at low tide. Care must be taken not to set the internal water level too low. Polder land made up of peat (former marshland) will sink in relation to its previous level, because of peat decomposing when exposed to oxygen from the air.

Polders are at risk from flooding at all times, and care must be taken to protect the surrounding dikes. Dikes are typically built with locally available materials, and each material has its own risks: sand is prone to collapse owing to saturation by water; dry peat is lighter than water and potentially unable to retain water in very dry seasons. Some animals dig tunnels in the barrier, allowing water to infiltrate the structure; the muskrat is known for this activity and hunted in certain European countries because of it. Polders are most commonly, though not exclusively, found in river deltas, former fenlands and coastal areas.

Found an article on the topic:

"To ensure that farmers’ livelihoods are safeguarded, especially during rainy seasons, a two-door sluice is currently under construction at East Black Bush Polder, Region 6.

The $417 Mln. project, which is being constructed by Rupan Ramotar Investment, also encompasses a canal and two pump stations to effectively drain the popular cattle rearing and rice growing area.

Minister of Finance, Juan Edghill, was in Region 6 recently and checked on the status of that and several other projects. He was accompanied by representatives of the Ministry of Agriculture’s National Drainage and Irrigation Authority (NDIA).

Minister Edghill requested a weekly report from the contractor, with accompanying pictures to keep abreast of the project’s progress. He issued a stern warning for the works to be accelerated, so that the May 2013 completion deadline can be met.

“This project is a very important aspect in our work programme, which will reduce some of the hardship farmers face, during the rainy seasons… the weather is in your favour, and there should be no excuse for delays,” he added.

The contractor, who was also present, maintained that the project will be completed as scheduled, once the weather remains favourable.

In an interview with the Government Information Agency (GINA), the contractor stated that the project, when completed, is expected to adequately drain the Black Bush Polder area.alt

“We understand the importance of such a project, hence the reason we are working day after day without rest…our aim is to have this project completed on schedule and without any defects,” he said.

Lalbahadoor Singh, Chairman of the Black Bush Polder Water Users’ Association, lauded the government for the project, which he said will significantly assist rice farmers, especially during cultivating.

He added that while there were some slight delays in executing the project, works are now progressing satisfactorily, and is now 50 percent complete.

“This project is very important to the Black Bush Polder area, especially for rice and cash crop farmers. This will eliminate all the flooding and the difficulty farmers are currently facing, and I want to say a special thanks to the government for this project,” Singh said.

There are currently 17,500 acres of rice lands under cultivation in the area, as works continue apace to meet the annual production target and supply the country’s market demands.

In the past, rice farmers suffered losses, hence the huge investment in drainage and irrigation in the region.

“This is a really good project and the people of Black Bush Polder, as well as those in the front lands are satisfied and we commend the Guyana Government that played a very important part in getting this project going,” Singh said". (guyanachronicle.com)

Denominations in numerals are in all corners. In words - at the bottom.

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