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10 Rand 1999, South Africa

in Krause book Number: 123b
Years of issue: 1999
Edition: --
Signatures: Governor: Mr. Tito Mboweni (08.08.1999 - 08.11.2009).
Serie: Fourth issue 1992-1994 "Big five"
Specimen of: 1994
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 128 x 70
Printer: South African Bank Note Company (Pty) Ltd, Pretoria

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

10 Rand 1999

Description

Watermark:

watermark

White rhino.

Avers:

10 Rand 1999

Closeup of white rhino head, another at a distance with a rhinoceros baby.

Ceratotherium simum

The white rhinoceros or square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is the largest and most numerous species of rhinoceros that exists. It has a wide mouth used for grazing and is the most social of all rhino species.

A popular theory of the origins of the name "white rhinoceros" is a mistranslation from Dutch to English. The English word "white" is said to have been derived by mistranslation of the Dutch word "wijd", which means "wide" in English. The word "wide" refers to the width of the rhinoceros' mouth. So early English-speaking settlers in South Africa misinterpreted the "wijd" for "white" and the rhino with the wide mouth ended up being called the white rhino and the other one, with the narrow pointed mouth, was called the black rhinoceros. Ironically, Dutch (and Afrikaans) later used a calque of the English word, and now also call it a white rhino. This suggests the origin of the word was before codification by Dutch writers. A review of Dutch and Afrikaans literature about the rhinoceros has failed to produce any evidence that the word wijd was ever used to describe the rhino outside of oral use. Other popular theories suggest the name comes from its wide appearance throughout Africa, its color due to wallowing in calcareous soil or bird droppings or because of the lighter colour of its horn.

An alternative name for the white rhinoceros, more accurate but rarely used, is the square-lipped rhinoceros. The white rhinoceros' generic name, Ceratotherium, given by the zoologist John Edward Gray in 1868, is derived from the Greek terms keras (κερας) "horn" and therion (θηριον) "beast". Simum, is derived from the Greek term simus (σιμος), meaning "flat nosed".

At bottom are geometric figures.

Lower left is a coincides image, as security measure.

Denomination in numeral is centered, in words are on right and left sides.

Revers:

10 Rand 1999

Agriculture.

On background are the mountains and the sun.

Above are three contour image of sunflowers.

In South Africa, a very well-developed and modern high-efficiency agriculture. Climate and geographic features of South Africa is not very conducive to agriculture, only 12% of the area suitable for cultivation, but despite this the country is a major exporter of food products, especially wine, corn, tobacco, peanuts and other products.

In rural South Africa farm employs about 10% of employees, its products account for about 3% of GDP and 8% of the country's exports.

In agricultural cooperatives South Africa cultivated sunflower, avocado, sugarcane, peanuts, beans, corn, mango, wheat, plums, sorghum, soybeans, tobacco, cotton, citrus, barley, pineapple, oranges, grapes, apples and other crops.

Head of ram. Lower are sheep on the pasture.

South African merino

South African merino sheep.

Shearing from sheep is 9-12 kg, from queens - 6-8 kg. The fineness of the fibers of 21.7 microns.

The Merino is by far the most important sheep breed in South Africa. According to official estimates there are presently about 30,5 million sheep in the Republic and National States of which 24,2 mil. or 79,4% are wooled sheep. Although no exact figures are available, it can be accepted that the vast majority of the latter are Merinos and Merino derivates.

The Merino is of great importance to South Africa's prosperity, earning more than US $200 million annually in foreign exchange from wool exports, granting employment opportunities to thousands of inhabitants and clothing and feeding millions. South Africa is not richly endowed with agricultural resources but, by the utilization of genetic resources such as the Merino, a livestock industry comparable to the best in the world has been established.

The main livestock industry is South Africa is sheep wool industry. This direction plays a prominent role in the country's exports. By shearing wool South Africa belongs to one of the leading places in the capitalist world. Amount of livestock in South Africa - 13.5 million heads.

Windmill

In lower left corner is a windmill.

This water pumps are installed in areas, where is no centralized power. Wind turbine converts wind energy into electricity, to lift water from deep wells of the Great Artesian Basin, and to collect it in a special elevated water tanks, located nearby. Extracted the water thus used for household purposes as well as for irrigation.

Since 1876, the brothers Griffiths from Toowoomba, Australia produced such wind turbines, under the trade name of "Windmills of the Southern Cross" (Southern Cross windmill). Received widespread use since 1903, they have become a symbol of Australia's rural areas.

Denomination in numeral is centered, in words and in numerals are on right and left sides.

Comments:

In Afrikaans and English.

In the 1990s, the notes were redesigned with images of the Big Five wildlife species. 10, 20 and 50 rand notes were introduced in 1992, retaining the colour scheme of the previous issue. Coins were introduced for 2 rand and 5 rand, replacing the notes of the previous series, mainly because of the severe wear and tear experienced with low denomination notes in circulation. In 1994 notes were introduced for 100 and 200 rand.

In Africa, the big five game animals are the African lion, African elephant, Cape buffalo, African leopard, and White/Black rhinoceros.

The term big five game (sometimes capitalized or quoted as "Big Five") was coined by big-game hunters and refers to the five most difficult animals in Africa to hunt on foot. Subsequently the term was adopted by safari tour operators for marketing purposes. The term is used in most tourist and wildlife guides that discuss African wildlife safaris. The members of the Big Five were chosen for the difficulty in hunting them and the degree of danger involved, rather than their size.