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1 Pound 1933, Australia

in Krause book Number: 22a
Years of issue: 1933 - 1937
Edition: L/0 000001 to N/71 372000
Signatures: Governor of the Commonwealth Bank of Australia: Sir Ernest Riddle (in office from October 1926 till February 1938), Secretary to the treasury: Sir Henry (Harry) Sheenan (29.04.1932 - 28.02.1938)
Serie: 1933 Issue
Specimen of: 1933
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 154.94 x 81.28
Printer: John Ash, Australian Note Printer, Melbourne, Australia

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

1 Pound 1933



Edward VIII watermark

Effigy of Edward VIII, prepared for the coins and banknotes.

Behind the signatures is an inscription - One Pound.

Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Empire, and Emperor of India, from 20 January 1936 until his abdication on 11 December the same year.

Edward was the eldest son of King George V and Queen Mary. He was named Prince of Wales on his sixteenth birthday, nine weeks after his father succeeded as king. As a young man, he served in the British Army during the First World War and undertook several overseas tours on behalf of his father.

Edward became king on his father's death in early 1936. However, he showed impatience with court protocol, and caused concern among politicians by his apparent disregard for established constitutional conventions. Only months into his reign, he caused a constitutional crisis by proposing marriage to Wallis Simpson, an American who had divorced her first husband and was seeking a divorce from her second. The prime ministers of the United Kingdom and the Dominions opposed the marriage, arguing that a divorced woman with two living ex-husbands was politically and socially unacceptable as a prospective queen consort. Additionally, such a marriage would have conflicted with Edward's status as the titular head of the Church of England, which at the time disapproved of remarriage after divorce if a former spouse was still alive. Edward knew that the British government, led by Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin, would resign if the marriage went ahead, which could have forced a general election and would ruin his status as a politically neutral constitutional monarch. When it became apparent that he could not marry Wallis and remain on the throne, Edward abdicated. He was succeeded by his younger brother, George VI. With a reign of 326 days, Edward is one of the shortest-reigning monarchs in British history.

After his abdication, he was created Duke of Windsor. He married Wallis in France on 3 June 1937, after her second divorce became final. Later that year, the couple toured Germany. During the Second World War, he was at first stationed with the British Military Mission to France but, after private accusations that he held Nazi sympathies, he was appointed Governor of the Bahamas. After the war, Edward spent the rest of his life in retirement in France.


1 Pound 1933

Photo by photographer Mr.George Grantham Bain (Bain News Service from 1898), HM The King George V

This engraving is done from the portrait by photographer Mr.George Grantham Bain (Bain News Service from 1898).

HM The King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert, 3 June 1865, Marlborough House, London - 20 January 1936, Sandringham House, Norfolk, United Kingdom) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 until his death.

George was a grandson of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert and the first cousin of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany. From 1877 to 1891, he served in the Royal Navy. On the death of Victoria in 1901, George's father became King Edward VII, and George was made Prince of Wales. On his father's death in 1910, he succeeded as King-Emperor of the British Empire. He was the only Emperor of India to be present at his own Delhi Durbar.

As a result of the First World War (1914-1918), most other European empires fell while the British Empire expanded to its greatest effective extent. In 1917, George became the first monarch of the House of Windsor, which he renamed from the House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha as a result of anti-German public sentiment. His reign saw the rise of socialism, communism, fascism, Irish republicanism, and the Indian independence movement, all of which radically changed the political landscape. The Parliament Act 1911 established the supremacy of the elected British House of Commons over the unelected House of Lords. In 1924 he appointed the first Labour ministry and in 1931 the Statute of Westminster recognised the dominions of the Empire as separate, independent states within the Commonwealth of Nations. He was plagued by illness throughout much of his later reign and at his death was succeeded by his eldest son, Edward VIII.

coat of arms Australia

In the middle, on top, is Australian coat of arms.

The coat of arms of Australia (formally known as Commonwealth Coat of Arms) is the official symbol of Australia. The initial coat of arms was granted by King Edward VII on 7 May 1908, and the current version was granted by King George V on 19 September 1912, although the 1908 version continued to be used in some contexts.

In the top half of the shield, from left to right, the states represented are: New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. In the bottom half, from left to right: South Australia, Western Australia, and Tasmania. Above the shield is the seven-pointed Commonwealth Star or Star of Federation above a blue and gold wreath, forming the crest. Six of the points on the star represent the original six states, while the seventh point represents the combined territories and any future states of Australia. In its entirety the shield represents the federation of Australia.

The Red Kangaroo and Emu that support the shield are the unofficial animal emblems of the nation. They owe this recognition to the fact that they are native Australian fauna (found only on that continent), and likely chosen because they are the most well-known native Australian animals large enough to be positioned together in scale holding up the shield. It is often claimed these animals were chosen because neither animal can move backward, only forward - i.e. progress. In reality both animals can move backwards, but infrequently do. In the background is wreath of Golden Wattle, the official national floral emblem, though the representation of the species is not botanically accurate.At the bottom of the coat of arms is a scroll that contains the name of the nation. Neither the wreath of wattle nor the scroll are technically part of the official design described on the Royal Warrant that grants the armorial design.

Denominations in numerals are centered, in lower left and top right corners. In words is also centered and in lower right and top left corner.


1 Pound 1933

A distinctive feature of currency notes designed in the 1930's was the use of artwork by Frank Manley based on bas-relief panels originally designed by artist Paul Raphael Montford. These panels represented various sectors of the Australian economic life:

Manufacturing – Ten shilling note

Pastoral – One pound note

Commerce – Five pound note

Agriculture – Ten pound note

Mining – Fifty pound note

Dairying – One hundred pound note

This note shows Pastoral.


For over 100 years, from the 1840s to the 1950s, the Australian economy was seen to be "riding on the sheep's back". Agriculture, especially wool, established Australia as a thriving economy with a substantial workforce, service industries and large port cites.

Australian agriculture benefited from many different agricultural practices, formal and informal land grants, overseas capital and access to relatively cheap labour through Indigenous workers and indentured schemes. Combined with invention, ingenuity and hard work this has led to Australia becoming a leading exporter of fine food, meats and grains.

However, from 1901 to 2009 there has been a dramatic decline proportionally in the income from wool, and the people employed in agriculture, from 14 per cent to 3 per cent. At the same time, there has been an increase in the head of cattle and the variety of profitable agricultural export industries. Most of Australia's agricultural products continue to be exported and farmers supply about 93 per cent of Australia's food.

There have been many changes in farming methods over the last 200 years and Australian farmers have had to be adaptable as well as resilient and inventive. The challenges of access to fresh water, the legacy of high amounts of fertilizers, massive clearing, over grazing, a tyranny of distance, transport costs and feral animals, have tested Australian farmers to their limits. In response, farming has become more mechanized and reliant on technologies, as well as holistic as it seeks to become more sustainable.

Most of Australia's land, about two-thirds, is given over to farming production. About 90 per cent of farm land is for grazing on native pastures, occurring mostly in the arid and semi-arid zones. Cattle and sheep grazing is known as pastoralism and has a long history associated with rural and outback Australia, connecting most Australians. (Australian government)

There are lots of information about sheepstations and pastoral in Australia. Something you can read also here (National museum of Australia)

Denominations in numerals are in all corners and on the left side.