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10 Pounds 1978, Lebanon

in Krause book Number: 63d
Years of issue: 01.04.1978
Signatures: Farid El Soloh, Joseph Oughurlian
Serie: 1964 Issue
Specimen of: 1964
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 146 x 74
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

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10 Pounds 1978



فخر الدين الثاني بن قرقماز watermark

Fakhr-al-Din ibn Maan (August 6, 1572 – April 13, 1635) (Arabic: الامير فخر الدين بن معن‎), also known as Fakhreddine and Fakhr-ad-Din II, was a Druze Ma'ani Emir and an early leader of the Mount Lebanon Emirate, a self-governed area under the Ottoman Empire.

His rule was characterized by economic and cultural prosperity, and he had fought other Lebanese families to unite the people of Lebanon and seek independence from the Ottoman Empire. He is therefore considered by some to be the first "Man of Lebanon" to seek the sovereignty of modern-day Lebanon, a claim considered by some to be anachronistic as his aims were more dynastic than national. However, the Ottomans eventually tired of this troublesome vassal and in 13 April 1635, Sultan Murad IV had him executed together with one or two of his sons.

Fakhr-al-Din was born in Baakline to Qurqumaz (Arabic: الامير قرقماز بن معن‎), the Emir of Lebanon and Sit Nasab (Arabic: الست نسب‎) of the Druze Tanukhi family. He was thirteen years of age when his father died, after which a civil war erupted between the predominant factions, the Kaysīs, of which Fakhr-al-Din belonged, and the Yamanis, a war which he won sometime in 1591. He then set out to unite the perpetually warring Maronite and Druze districts of Ottoman Lebanon, which was realized after he defeated the local ruler Yūsuf Sayfā in 1607.

In order to cement his position, Fakhr-al-Din forged an alliance with the Italian Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1608. Fakhr-al-Din's ambitions, popularity and unauthorized foreign contacts alarmed the Ottomans who authorized Hafiz Ahmed Pasha, governor of Damascus, to mount an attack on Lebanon in 1613 in order to reduce Fakhr-al-Din's growing power. Faced with Hafiz's army of 50,000 men, Fakhr-al-Din chose exile in Tuscany, leaving affairs in the hands of his brother Yunis and his son Ali Beg. They succeeded in maintaining most of the forts such as in Banias (Subayba) and in Niha which were a mainstay of Fakhr-al-Din's power. Before leaving, Fakhr-al-Din paid his standing army of soqbans (mercenaries) two years wages in order to secure their loyalty.

Hosted in Tuscany by the Medici Family, Fakhr-al-Din was welcomed by the grand duke Cosimo II, who was his host and sponsor for the two years he spent at the court of the Medici. He spent a further three years as guest of the Spanish Viceroy of Sicily and then Naples, Pedro Téllez-Girón. Fakhr-al-Din had wished to enlist Tuscan or other European assistance in a "Crusade" to free his homeland from Ottoman domination, but was met with a refusal as Tuscany was unable to afford such an expedition. The emir eventually gave up the idea, realizing that Europe was more interested in trade with the Ottomans than in taking back the Holy Land. His stay nevertheless allowed him to witness Europe's cultural revival in the XVII century, and bring back some Renaissance ideas and architectural features.

By 1618, political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many of Fakhr-al-Din's enemies from power, allowing his return to Lebanon, whereupon he was able quickly to reunite all the lands of Lebanon beyond the boundaries of its mountains; and having revenge from Emir Yusuf Pasha ibn Siyfa, attacking his stronghold in Akkar, destroying his palaces and taking control of his lands, and regaining the territories he had to give up in 1613 in Sidon, Tripoli, Bekaa among others. Under his rule, printing presses were introduced and Jesuit priests and Catholic nuns encouraged to open schools throughout the land.

In 1623, the prince angered the Ottomans by refusing to allow an army on its way back from the Persian front to winter in the Bekaa. This (and instigation by the powerful Janissariy garrison in Damascus) led Mustafa Pasha, Governor of Damascus, to launch an attack against him, resulting in the battle at Anjar where the Emir's forces although outnumbered managed to capture the Pasha and secure the Lebanese prince and his allies a much needed military victory. By 1631, he had dominated most of Syria, Lebanon and Palestine.

However, as time passed, the Ottomans grew increasingly uncomfortable with the Emir's increasing powers and extended relations with Europe. In 1632, Kuchuk Ahmed Pasha was then named governor of Damascus, being a rival of Fakhr-al-Din and a friend of Sultan Murad IV, who ordered the new governor and the sultanate's navy to attack Lebanon and depose Fakhr-al-Din.

The Ma'ani cave fortress at Mount Arbel, near the Druze shrine of Nabi Shu'ayb, Israel

This time, the Emir had decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Ali Beg in Wadi el-Taym was the beginning of his defeat. He later took refuge in Niha's grotto, closely followed by Kuchuk Ahmed Pasha. He surrendered to the Ottoman general Jaafar Pasha, whom he knew well, under circumstances that are not clear.

Fakhr-al-Din was taken to Constantinople and kept in the Yedikule (Seven Towers) prison for two years. Fakhr-al-Din, and one or two of his sons, were accused of treason and "denial of Islam and sympathy toward Christians". Fakhr-al-Din was executed there on 13 April 1635. There are unsubstantiated rumors that he changed his religion, where in fact he died as a druze. Some rumors say that the younger of the two boys was spared and raised in the harem, later becoming Ottoman ambassadors to India, but it was never confirmed.

After his death, his Druze nephew Mulhim ruled the Shouf heartland of Fakhr-al-Din's former domains until his death in 1658 after which a power struggle erupted between his sons which was eventually won by Ahmad, who ruled until 1697. After his death the Shihab family succeeded the Ma'ans as "Emirs of Mount Lebanon".


10 Pounds 1978

Ruins of Anjar Ruins of Anjar Ruins of Anjar

Ruins of Anjar - 3 survived arches.

58 kilometers from Beirut is the Lebanese city of Anjar. In some sources it is called Khush Moussa. In ancient times he was called Guerra. It is assumed that the name originated from a source of water located nearby. Ain Zhara means "Source of Herr". There is an opinion that on the site of Anjar was located Khaltsis - the ancient Iturean city.

During the archaeological excavations in the place of Anjar, ruins of the palace dating from the beginning of the VIII century were found. Once, the majestic structure was the property of Caliph Walid I. Also preserved was a high wall that protected the palace complex. When the building was erected, the masters of antiquity used fragments of buildings built in ancient times.

The founders of modern Anjar were Armenians, who in 1939 built a new city in the mountains of Lebanon. All of them came from the villages of the Turkish Musa-Dage. Now the city unites 6 quarters, each of which was built by migrants from the same number of Turkish villages. The ruins of the palace Walid I and the nearby area are listed in UNESCO.

Denominations in numerals are in top right and lower left corners. In words - centered, at the bottom.


10 Pounds 1978


The embankment of Raouché (الروشة) is one of the elite residential areas of Beirut, which impresses with its high modern residential buildings, numerous restaurants and the beautiful promenade of Rausha. Its name comes from the distorted French word "Roche", which means the rock.

There is also a rock, shown on a banknote or Pigeon rock. Located in the westernmost part of the capital and is a favorite place of visit not only for the Lebanese, but also for all lovers of the beauty of nature from around the world. The locals call these Burj al-Hamam cliffs rising above the surface of the water. This rock is the main attraction of Beirut due to its beauty and atmosphere of tranquility.

There is a legend that, once, from the rocks dumped unfaithful wives into the water, somehow incredibly figuring out whether it was actually true or not. Now you can often see young people, fearlessly, jumping from the rocks into the sea, just for fun. (

Denominations in numerals are in top corners, in words - in lower left corner.