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100 Pounds 1988, Lebanon

in Krause book Number: 66d
Years of issue: 1988
Signatures: Hussein Kanaan, Edmond Naïm
Serie: 1964 Issue
Specimen of: 1964
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 160 x 90
Printer: TDLR (Thomas de la Rue & Company), London

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

100 Pounds 1988



watermark watermark

Bashir Shihab II, who established the castle on obverse of banknote.

Bashir Shihab II (also spelt "Bachir Chehab II"; 2 January 1767 –1850) was a Lebanese emir who ruled Lebanon[clarification needed] in the first half of the 19th century. Having converted from Sunni Islam, the religion of previous Shihabi Emirs, he was the first and last Maronite ruler of the Emirate of Mount Lebanon.

He was born on January 2, 1767, being the son of Emir Kasim ibn Umar Shihab from the noble family Shihab, who came to power in 1697. Despite his noble origins, he was born in poverty and married his rich cousin.

In 1788, after the abdication of his predecessor, Emir Youssef Shihab, he was elected emir and, having started his reign under Ottoman suzerainty, was appointed governor of Mountain Lebanon, the Bekaa and Jabal Amel Valley, which together makes up about two thirds of the territory of modern Lebanon . He carried out a tax reform and attempted to eliminate the feudal system in order to eliminate rivals, the most dangerous of which was another Bashir: Bashir Jumblatt, whose wealth and feudal possessions were or even exceeded the wealth of Bashir II and who had great support in the community of those living in Lebanon Druze.

In 1799 Bashir refused to help both Napoleon and al-Jazzar during the siege of Napoleon Acre. This was one of the factors that led to the defeat of Napoleon and his subsequent return to Egypt.

In 1822, the Ottoman wali Damascus entered the war with Acre, who was associated with Mohammed Ali, the Egyptian Pasha. Within the framework of this conflict, one of the most famous mass murders of Christians by the Druze, the force acting with the consent of Vali Damascus, occurred. Jumblatt represented more disaffected Druze who were simultaneously suspended from official power and angry at the growing ties with the Maronites from Bashir II, who himself was a Maronite Christian (originally representatives of the Shihab clan were Sunni Muslims, but some of them converted to Christianity in the late 18th century under Bashir).

Bashir II lost the throne of the emir when he supported Akko in the war, and fled to Egypt, and then returned and organized the army. Jumblatt collected the forces of the Druze, and the war took on a sectarian character: the Maronites supported Bashir II, the Druze - Bashir Jumblatt. Jumblatt raised the uprising, and between 1821 and 1825, there were many massacres and battles between the Maronites who controlled the mountains of Lebanon and the Druza who controlled the Bekaa valley. In 1825, Bashir II defeated his rival and killed him after the battle of Al-Simcania. Bashir II was not a generous man and arranged a massive execution of the Druze who supported the uprising, particularly in the Beirut area.

Bashir II, who came to power with the support of local authorities and almost lost power due to the increase in his separation from them, sought allies, allies who would look at the surrounding lands as the "East" and who could help trade , weapons and money, without demanding fidelity in return and not being drawn into seemingly endless internal squabbles. Attempting to obtain a higher degree of autonomy, he supported Muhammad Ali's desire for independence from the Ottoman Empire in alliance with his son Ali Ibrahim Pasha, who ruled Syria on behalf of his father. Thus, the interests of Britain and Austria were threatened, so in 1840 they helped the Turks drive Ibrahim Pasha from Syria. Bashir was captured and sent into exile to Malta, and then to Constantinople. After a short period of direct Ottoman rule over Lebanon, the emir was appointed Bashir Shinab III, another member of the Shinab family.

One of the most remarkable monuments of the Bashir era is the magnificent palace in Beit-ed-Din, which he began to build immediately after coming to power in 1788. He transferred the seat of his government from Deir al-Kamar to Beit-ed-Din when he executed (in the course of his numerous intrigues) the popular local prince, which caused riots in Deir al-Kamar.

To date, Shihabs are still one of the prominent families in Lebanon, and the direct descendants of the ruler now reside in Turkey, France and the UK, known as the Paxaw family.


100 Pounds 1988

Beiteddine Palace

The symbolic stream of water running along the courtyard symbolizes well-being and abundance in the old Arab tradition.

This huge outer courtyard, which primarily comes to the visitor, is called Dar al Baraniye. At the time of the emir, every traveler who traveled Beit Ed-din could come here and for three days unobstructed enjoy the hospitality of the emir. During these three days, no one asked him who he was, for what purpose he was traveling, and the traveler could leave without telling his name and purpose of the trip. Now the customs have changed a little, and at the entrance to the yard you will not only be asked where you are from, but also will graciously take flight.

It is in this spacious courtyard, which seats 5,000 people, that now events are being held in Beit Ed-din.

Behind a small terrace there is a steep slope of the Damour River gorge.

To the south-east of Beirut, on a low seashore, is the city of Beit Ed-din. It is considered to be one of the remarkable examples of architecture of the XIX century.

Built from white and yellow limestone mined in the vicinity of the city, the palace complex embodies the power, strength and well-being of Emir Bashir El-Shehab II who ruled in the 17th century.

Fahr al-Din II Maan ruled in 1590-1633, and by the end of the 17th century the dynasty had weakened, and Druze emirs from the Shekhab family inherited the territory. The greatest success was reached by Emir Bashir al Shehab II, who received from the Ottoman Empire the right to rule this region.

He decided to change the location of his palace and leave Deir al-Qamar. For the new palace, he chose a place more profitable in terms of fortification. In the new place the palace was better protected, the best view was opened from it. Its location made it possible to control the road passing by. The palace was only five kilometers from Deir al-Kamara, on the opposite edge of the Damour River gorge.

To build the palace, the emir attracted Italian architects and the best masters who could be found in the country. The construction of the palace began in 1788 and lasted for 30 years, and according to some sources and until 1840, when the emir lost power. The new palace was named Beit al-Din, the House of Faith. According to one version, this name is due to the fact that the palace was built on the site of the Druze monastery.

Curious bike is associated with Italian architects. In the palace, of course, there are baths, the ceiling of which is traditionally a dome with round glass windows. And here in the baths, if you look at the ceiling, but not lifting your head, and using sunglasses as a mirror, you can see that the glass windows form a Maltese cross. The guide claims that the Italians decided to secretly leave the symbol of faith in the palace of the unclean. True or not, the Italians do not ask.

After the emir was sent into exile in 1840, the palace was owned for a time by his heirs. But soon the palace moved to the Ottomans and began to use it for administrative purposes. This role was also carried out during the time of the French protectorate, which followed the expulsion of the Turks. The French also managed to take care of the cultural heritage of the Middle East and in 1926 began the restoration of the palace.

In 1934, the palace was declared a national monument, and in 1943 Beshara el-Khoury, the first president of independent Lebanon, showed great taste, making the national monument his summer residence. Subsequently, he organized the transportation to Beiteddin of the ashes of Bashir al-Shehab, who died and was buried in Istanbul in 1850.

During the economic boom, in 1950-1960-ies in the palace were held festivals and other cultural events. During the civil war, which began in 1975, the palace was badly damaged, according to some estimates it was destroyed by 90%. When the battles in these places ceased, in 1984 Walid Jumblatt, leader of one of the most influential Druze clans and chairman of the Progressive Socialist Party, ordered the restoration of the palace, and after its completion in 1987 - the organization of the festival in Beit Eddine.

The festival in Beit Ed Din is an interesting phenomenon in the cultural life of the Middle East. As it is now described, it was conceived in order to support the people of Lebanon, exhausted by the ongoing civil war. As a result, this annual festival has become the largest cultural event in the Middle East. The world stars of pop, rock, opera and ballet took part in it, including Montserrat Caballe, Charles Aznavour, Emir Kusturica, Cesaria Evora, UB40, Joaquin Cortes, Kiri Te Kanava, Joe Cocker, Elton John, as well as Middle Eastern stars - Feyruz, Kadim al Sahir and many others.

In the castle there is a museum in which a rich collection of costumes and weapons of that era is collected, and also here you can see a fine collection of well-preserved Byzantine mosaics.

Denominations in numerals are in top right and lower left corners. In words - centered, at the bottom.


100 Pounds 1988

أرز الربّ‎

The Cedars of God (Arabic: أرز الربّ‎ Arz ar-Rabb "Cedars of the Lord") is one of the last vestiges of the extensive forests of the Lebanon cedar, that once thrived across Mount Lebanon in ancient times. Their timber was exploited by the Phoenicians, Israelites, Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Romans, and Turks. The wood was prized by Egyptians for shipbuilding; the Ottoman Empire used the cedars in railway construction.

The mountains of Lebanon were once shaded by thick cedar forests and the tree is the symbol of the country. After centuries of persistent deforestation, the extent of these forests has been markedly reduced.

It was once said that a battle occurred between the demigods and the humans over the beautiful and divine forest of Cedar trees near southern Mesopotamia. This forest, once protected by the Sumerian god Enlil, was completely bared of its trees when humans entered its grounds 4700 years ago, after winning the battle against the guardians of the forest, the demigods. The story also tells that Gilgamesh used cedar wood to build his city.

Over the centuries, cedar wood was exploited by the Phoenicians, Egyptians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, Romans, Israelites and Turks. The Phoenicians used the Cedars for their merchant fleets. They needed timbers for their ships and the Cedar woods made them the “first sea trading nation in the world”. The Egyptians used cedar resin for the mummification process and the cedar wood for some of “their first hieroglyph bearing rolls of papyrus”. In the Bible, Solomon procured cedar timber to build the Temple in Jerusalem. The emperor Hadrian claimed these forests as an imperial domain, and destruction of the cedar forests was temporarily halted.

Concern for the biblical "cedars of God" goes back to 1876, when the 102-hectare (250-acre) grove was surrounded by a high stone wall, paid for by Queen Victoria, to protect saplings from browsing by goats. Nevertheless, during World War I, British troops used cedar to build railroads.

Time, along with the exploitation of the Cedars’ wood, has led to a decrease in the number of cedar trees in Lebanon. However, Lebanon is still widely known for its cedar tree history, as they are the emblem of the country and the symbol of the Lebanese flag. The remaining trees survive in mountainous areas, where they are the dominant tree species. This is the case on the slopes of Mount Makmel that tower over the Kadisha Valley, where the Cedars of God are found at an altitude of more than 2,000 meters (6,600 ft.). Four trees have reached a height of 35 meters (115 ft.), with their trunks reaching 12–14 meters (39-46 ft.).

In 1998, the Cedars of God were added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

The forest is rigorously protected. It is possible to tour it escorted by an authorized guide. After a preliminary phase in which the land was cleared of detritus, the sick plants treated, and the ground fertilized, the "Committee of the Friends of the Cedar Forest" initiated a reforestation program in 1985. These efforts will only be appreciable in a few decades due to the slow growth of cedars. In these areas the winter offers incredible scenery, and the trees are covered with a blanket of snow.

Cedrus libani

The Lebanon cedar is the national emblem of Lebanon, and is displayed on the flag of Lebanon and coat of arms of Lebanon. It is also the logo of Middle East Airlines (MEA), which is Lebanon's national carrier. Beyond that, it is also the main symbol of Lebanon's "Cedar Revolution" of 2005, along with many Lebanese political parties and movements, such as the Kataeb Party, the Lebanese Forces, the National Liberal Party, and the Future Movement. Finally, Lebanon is sometimes metonymically referred to as the Land of the Cedars.

It is a species of cedar native to the mountains of the Eastern Mediterranean basin. It is an evergreen conifer, that can reach 40 meters in height. Cedrus libani is the national emblem of Lebanon and is widely used as an ornamental tree in parks and gardens.

Denominations in numerals are in top corners, in words - in lower left corner.