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5 Pounds Sterling 1980, Kingdom of Great Britain

in Banknotes Book Number: BE113c
Years of issue: 06.1980
Edition: --
Signatures: Chief Cashier: Mr. David Henry FitzRoy Somerset (1980 - 1988)
Serie: England
Specimen of: 11.1971
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 145,5 х 78
Printer: Bank of England print works, Loughton (Debden), Essex, UK

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5 Pounds Sterling 1980

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Repeated image of the Duke of Wellington. Please readr reverse description!

Avers:

5 Pounds Sterling 1980

HM The Queen Elizabeth II.

Like the previous portraits of The Queen, which had been drawn for the banknotes issued by the Bank of England, this likeness of Her Majesty is not based on an existing portrait. The master drawing of The Queen was executed by Harry Eccleston in 1956, the designer of the Bank's 'D' series. Three versions of the portrait were created. As well as the two version of the portrait described below, an earlier portrait of Her Majesty was prepared by Eccleston for use on the 50-pence and 10-shilling notes, which were never issued. The unused portrait was similar to Portrait 14b, except that in the unused portrait The Queen wore a cap, which is part of the full regalia of the Order of the Garter, rather than the Diadem.

This version of the portrait was used on the 1- and 5-pound notes of the ‘D’ series. In this version of the portrait The Queen is depicted wearing the robes of the Order of the Garter, the George IV State Diadem and Queen Alexandra's Cluster Earrings.

Diadem

The Queen is wearing the George IV State Diadem. Made by Rundell, Bridge & Rundell (and likely designed by their designer, Philip Liebart) in 1820, the diadem features a set of 4 crosses pattée alternating with 4 bouquets of roses, thistles, and shamrocks. The motifs are set on a band of diamond scrollwork between two bands of pearls. Queen Alexandra had the diadem made smaller in 1902, reducing the top band of pearls from 86 to 81, and the bottom band from 94 to 88. The front cross is set with a 4 carat yellow diamond, and the piece features 1,333 diamonds in all. (Sartorial Splendor)

HM depicted in Mantle of the Order of the Garter.

One of the most distinctive pieces of the wardrobe of the Most Noble Order of the Garter - England's highest chivalric order - is the Mantle, sometimes referred to as a robe, cloak, or cape. The Mantle has been used in one form or another, with varying fabrics and colors, since the 15th century. The current version is made of dark blue velvet lined with white taffeta and is accented by a red velvet hood (also lined with white taffeta), elaborate cords for closure, and white ribbons at the shoulders. The Garter Collar, with the Great George as a pendant (not visible in the portrait), is draped over the Mantle across the shoulders. (Her Majesty’s Jewel vault)

Queen Alexandra’s Cluster Earrings

She is also wearing Queen Alexandra’s Cluster Earrings. The wedding gift from the future King Edward VII to his bride, Alexandra of Denmark. Also known as Queen Alexandra's Cluster Earrings, these two button earrings have large pearls surrounded by diamonds - 10 larger stones each plus smaller filler stones to create a full diamond ring. Like the brooch, these passed to the Queen via Queen Mary. They're now worn primarily at evening functions.

fresco Nike fresco Nike

On background in the vignette of the Winged Victory with two horse chariot.

Victoria, in ancient Roman religion, was the personified goddess of victory. She is the Roman equivalent of the Greek goddess Nike, and was associated with Bellona. She was adapted from the Sabine agricultural goddess Vacuna and had a temple on the Palatine Hill. The goddess Vica Pota was also sometimes identified with Victoria. Victoria is often described as a daughter of Pallas and Styx, and as a sister of Zelus, Kratos, and Bia.

Unlike the Greek Nike, the goddess Victoria (Latin for "victory") was a major part of Roman society. Multiple temples were erected in her honor. When her statue was removed in 382 CE by Emperor Gratianus there was much anger in Rome. She was normally worshiped by triumphant generals returning from war.

Also unlike the Greek Nike, who was known for success in athletic games such as chariot races, Victoria was a symbol of victory over death and determined who would be successful during war.

Victoria appears widely on Roman coins, jewelry, architecture, and other arts. She is often seen with or in a chariot, as in the late 18th-century sculpture representing Victory in a quadriga on the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, Germany; "Il Vittoriano" in Rome has two. Nike or Victoria was the charioteer for Zeus in his battle to over take Mount Olympus.

In ancient Greek religion, Nike; Greek: Νίκη, "Victory") was a goddess who personified victory. Her Roman equivalent was Victoria. She was variously described as the daughter of the Titan Pallas and the goddess Styx, and the sister of Kratos (Strength), Bia (Force), and Zelus (Zeal).

Seated Britannia as logo of Bank of England is in lower left corner.

The Inscriptions: Bank of England. I Promise to Pay the Bearer on Demand the Sum of Five Pounds. London, for the Governor and Company of the Bank of England.

Denominations in numerals are in right top and lower left corners. In words centered.

Revers:

5 Pounds Sterling 1980

Wellington

The engraving on banknote is made after the portrait of The Duke of Wellington, by Thomas Lawrence. Painted c. 1815–16, after the Battle of Waterloo.

The Duke of Wellington is standing at half-length, wearing Field Marshal’s uniform, with the Garter star and sash, the badge of the Golden Fleece, and a special badge ordered by the Prince Regent to be worn from 1815 by Knights Grand Cross of the Military Division of the Order of the Bath who were also Knights Companion of the Order of the Garter.

Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain. His defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 put him in the first rank of Britain's military heroes.

Wellesley was born in Dublin, into the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland. He was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787, serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. He was also elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons. He was a colonel by 1796, and saw action in the Netherlands and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general (since 1802), won a decisive victory over the Maratha Confederacy at the Battle of Assaye in 1803.

Wellesley rose to prominence as a general during the Peninsular campaign of the Napoleonic Wars, and was promoted to the rank of field marshal after leading the allied forces to victory against the French Empire at the Battle of Vitoria in 1813. Following Napoleon's exile in 1814, he served as the ambassador to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the allied army which, together with a Prussian army under Blücher, defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Wellington's battle record is exemplary; he ultimately participated in some 60 battles during the course of his military career.

Wellington is famous for his adaptive defensive style of warfare, resulting in several victories against numerically superior forces while minimising his own losses. He is regarded as one of the greatest defensive commanders of all time, and many of his tactics and battle plans are still studied in military academies around the world.

After the end of his active military career, Wellington returned to politics. He was twice British prime minister as part of the Tory party: from 1828 to 1830, and for a little less than a month in 1834. He oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829, but opposed the Reform Act 1832. He continued as one of the leading figures in the House of Lords until his retirement and remained Commander-in-Chief of the British Army until his death.

Wellington Wellington Wellington

On banknote is the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro, 3-5 May 1811 from the book "Campaigns of Field-Marshal His Grace, the Most Noble Arthur, Duke of Wellington", published by Calignani, Paris in 1818. It is unclear why, but the engraving in issue dated by 1810, although the battle took place in 1811.

In 1811, Masséna returned toward Portugal to relieve Almeida; Wellington narrowly checked the French at the Battle of Fuentes de Onoro. Simultaneously, his subordinate, Viscount Beresford, fought Soult's 'Army of the South' to a mutual bloody standstill at the Battle of Albuera in May. Wellington was promoted to full General on 31 July for his services. The French abandoned Almeida, slipping away from British pursuit, but retained the twin Spanish fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajoz, the 'Keys' guarding the roads through the mountain passes into Portugal.

"Battle vignette - Peninsula Campaign, Battle of Fuentes de Onoro, 3-5 May 1811 The vignette is based on an illustration from "Campaigns of Field-Marshal His Grace, the Most Noble Arthur, Duke of Wellington", published by Calignani, Paris. It depicts an episode in the battle fought in and around the village of Fuentes de Onoro, when the French under Massena tried to relieve the blockade of Almeida. On the second day of the battle, General Pakenham came to see Wellington and the British 74th and 88th regiments counter-attacked through the village. These two events appear to have been combined in the illustration to provide the required military and artistic impact.

As the research into the subject proceeded, it was found that a considerable amount of modification to the original would be required. The book from which the engraving was taken, although dedicated to the Glory of Wellington, was produced in France and proved to be not particularly accurate on British military detail. The modifications on the note include the substitution of a British six pounder gun for a French gun and adjustments to certain of the uniforms." From "Promises to Pay", by Derrick Byatt (Spink, 1994), ISBN: 0 907605 50 8 (page 191).

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners. In words on top, centered.

Comments:

Designer: Harry Eccleston.

The banknote withdrawn from circulation on November 29, 1991.

For the materials provided, many thanks to Malcolm Shemmonds from the Bank of England Public Relations Department.

On banknote have signed Mister David Henry FitzRoy Somerset.

David Henry FitzRoy Somerset (19 June 1930 – 25 October 2014) was Chief Cashier of the Bank of England for 1980 to 1988. The signature of the Chief Cashier appears on British banknotes. Somerset was replaced as Chief Cashier by Malcolm Gill.

Somerset was educated at Mount House School (now known as Mount Kelly) in Tavistock, Devon.

He was an emeritus fellow of Peterhouse, Cambridge from 1997 to 2014, and fellow 1988-1997.