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20 Hryven 2016. 160th anniversary of the birth of the Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko, Ukraine

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Years of issue: 01.06.2016
Edition:
Signatures: Голова правління банку: Вале́рія Олексі́ївна Го́нтарева (19.06.2014 - 10.05.2017)
Serie: Commemorative issue
Specimen of: 2016
Material: Cotton fiber
Size (mm): 130 х 69
Printer: Банкнотно-монетный двор Нацбанка Украины, Киев

* All pictures marked magnify are increased partially by magnifying glass, the remaining open in full size by clicking on the image.

** The word "Specimen" is present only on some of electronic pictures, in accordance with banknote images publication rules of appropriate banks.

20 Hryven 2016. 160th anniversary of the birth of the Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko

Description

Watermark:

watermark

Ivan Franko and denomination 20.

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20 Hryven 2016. 160th anniversary of the birth of the Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko

Ivan Franko

The engraving on banknote is made after this photo of Ivan Franko, made in 1896.

Ivan Yakovych Franko (Ukrainian: Іван Якович Франко) (August 27 [O.S. August 15] 1856 – May 28 [O.S. May 15] 1916) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, social and literary critic, journalist, interpreter, economist, political activist, doctor of philosophy, ethnographer, and the author of the first detective novels and modern poetry in the Ukrainian language.

He was a political radical, and a founder of the socialist and nationalist movement in western Ukraine. In addition to his own literary work, he also translated the works of such renowned figures as William Shakespeare, Lord Byron, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Dante Alighieri, Victor Hugo, Adam Mickiewicz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller into Ukrainian. Along with Taras Shevchenko, he has had a tremendous impact on modern literary and political thought in Ukraine.

Lvov jblast Lvov jblast

Right of portrait of Ivan Franko is the view on the hills of Lviv region - the birthplace of Ivan Franko.

Lviv Oblast (Ukrainian: Львівська область, translit. L’vivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as L’vivshchyna, Ukrainian: Львівщина) is an oblast (province) in western Ukraine. The administrative center of the oblast is the city of Lviv.

The terrain of Lviv Oblast is highly varied. The southern part is occupied by the low Beskyd (ukr: Бескиди) mountain chains running parallel to each other from northwest to southeast and covered with secondary coniferous forests as part of the Eastern Carpathians; the highest point is Pikuy (1408 meters). North from there are the wide upper Dniester river valley and much smaller upper San River valley. These rivers have flat bottoms covered with alluvial deposits, and are susceptible to floods. Between these valleys and Beskyd lies the Precarpathian upland covered with deciduous forests, with well-known mineral spa resorts (see Truskavets, Morshyn).

In the central part of the region lie Roztocze, Opillia, and part of the Podolia uplands. Rich sulphur deposits were mined here during the Soviet era. Roztocze is densely forested, while Opillia and Podolia (being covered with loess on which fertile soils develop) are densely populated and mostly covered by arable land. In the central-north part of the region lies the Small Polesia lowland, geographically isolated from the rest of Polesia but with similar terrain and landscapes (flat plains with sandy fluvioglacial deposits and pine forests). The far North of the region lies on the Volhynia upland, which is also covered with loess; coal is mined in this area.

In centered part of banknote, right of the portrait, is the first part of Franko's poem "Земле, моя всеплодющая мати…", written by Drahomanivka:

"Земле, моjа всеплодьушчаjа мати!

Сили, шчо в твоjіj движель глубіні,

Крапльу, шчоб в боjу сміліjше стоjати,

даj і міні!"

In English:

"A mother of all-breeding, the mother of the All-Earth,

The force that lives in your depths,

Drop, in battle, to stand, without bending,

Give me the same!"

Drahomanivka (Ukrainian: драгоманівка) was a proposed reform of the Ukrainian alphabet and orthography, promoted by Mykhailo Drahomanov. This orthography was used in a few publications and in Drahomanov's correspondence, but due to cultural resistance and political persecution it was never able to catch on.

This phonemic orthography was developed in Kiev in the 1870s by a group of cultural activists led by Pavlo Zhytetsky and including Drahomanov, for the compilation of a Ukrainian dictionary. The 1876 Ems Ukaz banned Ukrainian-language publications and public performances in the Russian Empire, so cultural activity was forced to move abroad before this reform had a chance to be published.

Zhytetsky named this alphabet the Hertsehovynka, after the influence of the recent Serbian orthography of Vuk Karadžić, from Herzegovina. But Drahomanov first used it in a publication (Hromada, Geneva 1878), and it came to be popularly referred to as the Drahomanivka. It was used in Drahomanov's publications and personal correspondence, as well as in publications in Western Ukraine (Austro-Hungarian Galicia) by Drahomanov's colleagues Ivan Franko and Mykhailo Pavlyk (Hromadskyi Druh, Dzvin, and Molot, Lviv 1878). But these publications were opposed by conservative Ukrainian cultural factions (the Old Ruthenians and Russophiles) and persecuted by the Polish-dominated Galician authorities, and the orthography fell into obscurity.

Denominations in numerals are in lower left and top right corners, in words in lower right corner.

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20 Hryven 2016. 160th anniversary of the birth of the Ukrainian writer Ivan Franko

Lviv theatre

The Solomiya Krushelnytska Lviv State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet, which was named in 1956 after Ivan Frankoб on the centenary of his birth.

It is an opera house located in Lviv, Ukraine's largest western city and one of its historic cultural centers. Originally built on former marshland of the submerged Poltva River, the Lviv Opera now sits at the end of Freedom Avenue (Ukrainian: Проспект Свободи), the tree-lined centerpiece of Lviv's historic Old City, a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in the city's Halych district.

According to the inscription in the theater lobby, the building was constructed between 1897 and 1900, and has remained standing throughout several changes in history. Originally built when Lviv was the capital of the autonomous province of Galicia in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Lviv Opera (German: Lemberger Oper) first stood at the end of Archduke Karl Ludwig Avenue, was later known as the Grand Theatre (Polish: Teatr Wielki) of the Second Polish Republic, and during the time of Soviet rule, entering patrons would pass by a towering statue of Vladimir Lenin. For four decades, the theater was known as the Ivan Franko Lviv State Academic Theatre of Opera and Ballet, having been renamed in 1956 after the city's famous poet and political activist on the centenary of his birth. In 2000, the Lviv Opera celebrated its own centennial with another renaming, this time after one of the city's native daughters, Solomiya Krushelnytska, a renowned soprano of the early XX century.

At the end of the XIX century, local leaders felt the need for a large city theatre to be situated in the capital of Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина,, Polish: Galicja). In 1895, the city announced an architectural design competition, which attracted a large number of submissions. Among the participants were the renowned Viennese architects Fellner & Helmer, whose entry was rejected as too international and eclectic.

An independent jury chose the design by Zygmunt Gorgolewski, a graduate of the Berlin Building Academy and the director of city's Engineering Academy. Gorgolewski pleasantly surprised the jury by planning to locate the building in the center of the city, despite the area having been already densely built-up. In order to solve the space problem, he boldly proposed to enclose the Poltva River underground, and instead of using a traditional foundation, utilized a reinforced concrete base for the first time in Europe.

In June 1897, the cornerstone was placed. Gorgolewski oversaw construction, earthwork and design, employing the leading stonemasons from the city and beyond. Local materials were used wherever possible, however marble elements were manufactured in Vienna, special linen for painting in the foyer was imported from Belgium. The Austrian company Siemens was ran the electrical wiring and lights, while the hydraulic mechanization of the stage was built by the Polish railway workshop company in Sanok.

Construction continued for three years. Funding came from the city, the surrounding communities, and from voluntary donations. The cost of the works totaled 6 million Austrian crowns.

Stories remain that despite the engineering innovations used by Gorgolewski to construct the foundation of the building, it began to slowly sink because of the Poltva river running underneath it in a tunnel. Learning of the flaw, the architect took it to heart and fell into depression, and hung himself. This is not borne out by facts, as the engineer actually died of heart disease. After some initial settling, the building ceased 'sinking' and remains stable to this day, owing to the innovative design of Gorgolewski.

Lviv theatre

Right of Theatre building is Allegory of Glory, on the facade of the Lviv Theater.

The main entrance is arranged in the form of three portals with arched loggias above them, separated by Corinthian columns. The fronton is crowned with the figure "Glory" with a palm branch, on both sides on the tips of the facade are placed the symbolic bronze figures "Genius of Tragedy" and "Genius of Music" by the sculptor Voitovich.

If you look outside the facade of the Lviv Opera Theater and look up, then at the top in front of the central entrance to the building we see a sculpture of a woman with angel wings and a palm branch in her hands. This is the main front sculpture of the Lvov Opera - Glory. The main highlight of the sculpture, as well as the very fact of long disputes and guesses, is her rounded tummy. It would seem that the sculpture was performed in the Renaissance style of women with rounded forms... But that was not it! One Lvov professor named Mars, who taught obstetrics and gynecology, saw the sculpture, began to assure that the Lviv Glory is pregnant. And even - determined the timing of her pregnancy: Slava has a 4-month-old tummy. Mr. Professor so zealously persuaded everyone in his conjecture that he decided to confirm the fact of the pregnancy of sculpture-Glory still with the sculptor himself. The latter sent Professor Mars to the model to see firsthand the real "Glory." As it turned out, the woman really had a child. Therefore, having calculated with mathematical accuracy the terms of the woman's pregnancy and the period when the sculpture was performed, the Lvov professor still proved the correctness of his statement - Slava, at the Opera House, is depicted pregnant.

Denominations in numerals are shown 4 times, in words - on top.

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